Introduction to Philosophy
Introduction to Philosophy PHIL 1000
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kenton Grimes on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 1000 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by David Barnett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/232160/phil-1000-university-of-colorado-at-boulder in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Introduction to Philosophy Study Questions for Final Exam On the exam date you will be given 80 multiplechoice questions closely related to the following questions In addition there will be ten truefalse questions aimed at assessing your grasp of the readings on Mind and Personal Identity You will not be allowed books or notes And you ought not cheat 1 What are validity and soundness Provide an example if possible of an argument that is valid but not sound Provide an example if possible of an argument that is sound but not valid 2 What is Singer s challenge Be prepared to identify standard attempts to meet the challenge and say how Singer might respond What is the distinction between a hypothetical and a categorical imperative Be prepared to identify an example of each What is moral relativism Give two problems with it What is a skeptical argument Give an example What is the distinction between apriori and aposteriori propositions Give an example of each Brie y discuss Locke s distinction between secondary and primary qualities Give examples of each What is the causalrepresentational theory of perception Is it consistent with Berkeley s proposed solution to Descartes skepticism Explain What is inductive reasoning What are some examples of it What is Hume s worry about it What is the general form of a cosmological argument Give a cosmological argument starting with the premise that the universe began with a big bang Give three objections to this argument What is the ontological argument for God Assess its soundness What does it mean to say that something is technologically nomologically metaphysically or epistemically possible Present the evidential problem of evil as an argument against the existence of God Brie y describe the four typical responses to the argument on behalf of the theist be sure to say which premise they challenge In terms of dollars what is the expected utility of paying x for y chance of winning 2 What does Pascal argue is the expected utility of believing in God Present Pascal s wager in the form of an argument What is the major problem with this argument What are Descartes two main theses regarding the nature of conscious beings Is there something it is like to be a carrot Is the answer to this question knowable a priori Is there something it is like to be a class of students Is the answer to this question knowable a priori What is the difference between a composite and a simple object Does it follow from the hypothesis that we are simple things that physicalism is false Explain Intuitively it s impossible for a pair of people to itself experience pain One might hypothesize that this is due the number or nature ie type of the parts of the pair How might one argue against this hypothesis 21 What is meant by the claim that the mind is relational What is the logical form of the following argument Give a different argument with the same form Is it a valid form What form did Descartes think the following argument had t KD WNC MJB W ND I D ID ID ID ID I D I WNC MJB W D N O N N l I am certain that I exist 2 I am not certain that my body exists 3 Therefore I a my body N W What is the logical form of the following argument Give a different argument with the same form Is it a valid form Is the argument sound 1 I am something such that I am certain of it that it exists 2 My body is not something such that I am certain of it that it exists 3 Therefore I a my body 24 MN mm M 1 WM 00 Evaluate the following argumentiby de nition a zombie is a physical duplicate of a human that has no conscious experience Zombies are conceivable What is conceivable is possible Therefore zombies are possible If zombies are possible then dualism is correct Therefore dualism is correct 5wa What are three general considerations in favor of physicalism Be ready to identify a naive behaviorist proposal for analyzing sadness ie X is sad iff Be ready to identify counterexamples to such an analys1s What is identity theory What is the main problem with it Whatis functionalism Explain Jackson s Mary argument against physicalism What is teletransportation Is the person in the EXit Module of a teletransporter the same person who entered the Entry Module according to i the physicalcontinuity theory of personal identity ii the psychologicalcontinuity theory iii the Cartesian soul theory Introduction to Philosophy Topics for Exam 1 On the exam date you will be given 40 multiplechoice questions 2 points each closely related to the following questions In addition there will be ten truefalse questions 2 points each aimed at assessing your grasp of the main points of the readings You will not be allowed books or notes And you ought not cheat 1 Name and de ne the three main areas of philosophy What is Plato s method of philosophical analysis and what is it good for 3 What are validity and soundness Provide an example if possible of an argument that is valid but not sound Provide an example if possible of an argument that is sound but not valid Equot 4 How would Peter Singer argue that we moderately welloff people ought to donate money to UNICEF or OXF AM Brie y assess the validity and soundness of this argument 5 Case 1 You receive an envelope and a request for 50 from UNICEF If you send the money it is likely that 30 impoverished children will be spared disease suffering and death Like most relatively welloff Americans you toss the envelope in the trash Case 2 You are driving in a rural area in your new VW Bug You come across an injured young woman She was once a medical student and is knowledgeable about her injury She tells you in honesty that while trespassing she cut her leg badly on some barbed wire and that her leg will need to be amputated unless you drive her to the nearest hospital You realize that her bloody leg will cause about 480 of damage to your leather seats You wish her good luck and drive off without her How would most Americans react to your behavior in each case What might be the source of these reactions What method should we use to determine whether the reactions are justi ed 6 What are metaethics theoretical ethics and practical ethics What is the distinction between a hypothetical and a categorical imperative 7 What are consequentialism and deontology What distinguishes the various forms of consequentialism Name and describe the forms of consequentialism and deontology that we discussed in class In class we considered an example in which a loner wandered into a hospital just as ve innocent victims of an auto accident arrived The doctors had the opportunity to save the ve victims at the expense of the loner We then considered an example in which you had the opportunity by switching the track of an oncoming train to save ve innocent people at the expense of one What are the intended purposes of these examples 9 What is a moral agent and what is a moral subject What is the distinction between would and should or ought We considered several proposals for analyzing rightness eg x is right iff most members of our society believe that x is right For each such analysis be prepared to identify counterexamples to the necessity claim the claim that the condition on the righthand side of the de nition is necessary for x to be right and to the sufficiency claim the claim that the condition on the righthand side is su iciem for x to be right How does Singer argue that it is wrong to assign unequal value to the interests of animals based on species membership What is Singer s challenge In class we considered several attempts to meet the challenge and we employed a certain method to evaluate each attempt What is the method and how did we apply it Identify and evaluate the general moral principle to which the following line of argument implicitly appeals It is natural for humans to eat meat Therefore eating meat is morally acceptable What is moral relativism I like scary movies long walks on the beach barefoot tofu icecream and Jagermeister My friend doesn t like any of these things Does this show that what is right and wrong is relative to a person or group of people Explain Explain the three objections to moral relativism that we discussed in class Explain the freewill dilemma What is compatibilism in the debate over freewill D H oc D O D I D I W N 4 D ID I C UI D D D i DDOQ
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