Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide HY 104-320 Cindy Jones
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie Newman on Wednesday January 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HY 104-320 Cindy Jones at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Cindy Alyce Jon Jones in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 144 views.
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Date Created: 01/21/15
Allie Newman HY 104 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1520 Chapters 15 16 and 17 Freedmen39s Bureau 0 Distributed food to former slaves and poor whites Established schools 0 Made modest efforts to settle blacks on lands of their own 0 Transformation from dependency to independency idealistic views Black Codes 0 Laws enacted by state legislatures which authorized local of cials to apprehend unemployed blacks 0 Find them vagrancy as well as hire them out to private employers to satisfy the nes Some of the codes forbade blacks to own or lease farms or to accept any job other than plantation worker or domestic servant Struggle between system and breakaway from this system 13th Amendment Abolished slavery Formal mandateresolution that no one should be in slavery 14th Amendment 0 Recognized or extended full citizenship rights for African American males 15th Amendment 0 Extended the right to vote for African American males 0 more speci c than 14th Amendment Scalawags Comes from a description of a scrawny and useless type of horse found on the Scottish island of Scalloway The image refers to one who is worthless and immoral Derogatory or negative term that describes southerners who opposed secession 0 As a group they tended to live in remote areas with little or no slavery so therefore they did not support the institution Carpetbaggers o Northerners who moved south after the war 0 The image is of one who carried their belongings in a bag made of cheap material 0 As a group they wanted to be a part of a new south Booker T Washington 0 He believed that education was the blue print for blacks to improve themselves 0 He expressed his views at a speech in the state of Georgia which will become known as the Atlanta Compromise 1895 l blacks should not agitate or ght for equality with whites instead they should focus on self improvement 0 Through that self improvement then they will be of equal self worth to the whites counterparts will deem you as an equal Plessy v Ferguson 1896 Revolved around a Louisiana law requiring segregated seating on railroads Supreme Court ruled that Separate but Equal was acceptable jim Crow Laws 0 Network of state and local statutes that solidi ed a system of segregation throughout the south Ida B Wells 0 She was a journalist that published a series of articles that denounced the practice of lynching Image of the West long essay topic 1 Many Americans saw the west as the last frontier a A land awaiting settlement and civilization 2 Americans romanticized the west a It was a wilderness where individuals could experience true freedom 3 The west comforted and inspired those who dreamed of starting a new life or starting over quotConcentration Policyquot 0 Assigned all Native American tribes to their own de ned reservations Factors that Facilitated Westward Migration and Expansion long essay topic Settlers were attracted by gold and silver deposits They were attracted by grass pastures for cattle and sheep They were attracted by the plains and meadowlands of the mountains The transcontinental railroad and the construction of other railroad lines encouraged settlement 5 The land policies of the federal government encouraged settlement gtUUl 39 Homestead Act of 1862 o It allowed settlers to buy acres of land for a small fee if they lived on the land for 5 years and improved it along the way Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 0 Banned Chinese immigration into the United States for 10 years and prevented Chinese people already living in the country from becoming citizens The Dawes Act 1887 Contributed to the elimination of tribal ownership of land 0 It s goal was to remove Native Americans from their collective society and bring them into the overall society Mark Twain 0 Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn The characters rejected the constraints of organized society and they wanted to escape into a more natural world embrace nature Owen Wister39s The Virginian 1902 o This work romanticized the cowboy s freedom from constraint 0 The cowboy was in tune with nature Wister s character was decent courageous and compassionate 0 These were the virtues of the frontier Turner39s Vision of the Frontier long essay topic 1 Movingsettling westward re ects individualism nationalism and democracy 2 Opportunities to advance and thrive are kept alive by the promise of the frontier 3 The frontier experience makes Americans the distinctive people that they are Chapter 15 l Reconstruction Chapter 16 Western Chapter 17 l Industrialization Factors Explaining America39s Industrial Growth long essay topic An abundance of raw materials A large and growing labor supply A surge in technological innovation The emergence of a talented and often ruthless group of entrepreneurs A federal government eager to assist the growth of business An expanding domestic market for manufactured products supply and demand P P FWN quotTaylorismquot 0 Many industrialists began embracing Taylor s principles 0 His principles would become known as quottaylorismquot This theory says Employers should divide tasks 0 This speeds up production and makes workers interchangeable o This decreases a managers dependence on a particular employee quotLimited Liabilityquot 0 This describes investors risking only the amount of their investments and they are not held liable for debts that the corporation accumulates beyond that point The Modern Cooperation Reinvented Itself Bv Taking on New Features and New Methods 1 Horizontal Integration a A number of rms engaged in the same enterprise merging into one 2 Vertical Integration a One company taking over all of the other companies that relies on it to function Social Darwinism 0 Only the strongest individuals survive and ourish in the marketplace Andrew Carnegie39s The gospel of Wealth 1901 0 He said that wealthy people should use their excess funds for the good of the community Louisa May Alcott39s Little Women 1869 0 Her characters refused to be de ned by traditional roles for women 0 Women could aspire to be more than just a wife and a mom Lester Ward39s Dynamic Sociology 1883 Society s best hope is an active government engaged in positive planning Edwards Bellamy39s Looking Backward 1888 0 About a young man who falls into a hypnotic sleep in 1887 and awakens in 2000 o In the year 2000 the world is free from poverty and social vices The Knights of Labor 0 This group represented business and professional people women factory workers domestic servants and homemakers 0 They fought for an 8 hour work day and the abolition of child labor AFL American Federation of Labor 0 A rival group to the Knights of Labor Tended to represent craft or skilled laborers Horatio Alger Considered to be the model of the 39rags to riches success story 0 He was originally a minister in a small town in Massachusetts social mobility How you can come from nothing and become something the American Dream idea Chapters 18 19 20 Chapter 18 Urban America 0 The growth and in uence of cities was the most profound change that occurred in the late 19th centurv essav tonic 5 H 3 factors to eXDIain this growth of urban areas 0 To be urban means that there are 2500 people or more living in that speci c area 0 1 Americans were leaving declining agricultural regions and moving to cities 0 2 During the 1800 s black men and women left the rural south to escape poverty debt violence and oppression o 3 Immigrants from abroad contributed to the population growth within the cities They migrated from Canada Latin America China Japan and Europe Particularly Germany and Scandinavia Tenements 0 Many urban knights found themselves living in tenements o The word originally referred to a multifamily rental building 0 By the late 19th century it was a term that described slum living 0 Windowless rooms little to no plumbing or eating Jacob Riis o A Danish immigrant and a new york newspaper photographer Produced his book How the Other HafLives 1890 o It contained descriptions and pictures of tenement life National Consumers League NCL o The NCL was an organization that represented the interests of women as consumers As a group it s main goal was to force retailers and manufacturers to improve wages and working conditions 0 The group encouraged women to buy products that carried their label 0 The label indicated that the product was made under fair working conditions Pragmatism The spread of this doctrine is credited towards William James a Harvard psychologist Modern society should not rely on ideals or moral principles but rather what can only be tested or proven war between the head and the heart Theodore Dreiser39s Sister Carrie 1900 o This book focused on the plight of single women living in the city 0 The story s main character Carrie took an exhausting low paying job in a Chicago shoe factory 0 She eventually drifted into a life in which she was exploited by predatory men Chapter 19 lmperialism o 4 viewpoints to explain this imperialistic impulse essay topic 6 o Imperialism American exertingestablishing herself as a force outside of it geographical boundaries 0 1 The experience of subjugating or controlling Indian tribes established a precedent for controlling dependent people in other areas 0 2 The fear that natural resources within America would dwindle encouraged businessmen to look for new resources abroad 0 3 Bitter disputes among various social groups encouraged the adoption of an aggressive and stronger foreign policy as a way to forget about our internal problems 0 4 Scholars and others found philosophical justi cation for expansion within the theories of Darwin According to these theories stronger nations needed to dominate weaker ones The belief that our ways of doing things are better the best way 0 Introduce our ways onto them because they are weaker and need our help Alfred Thayer Mahan39s The In uence of Sea Power upon History 1890 0 He is the spokesperson for imperialism He was a captain and later an admiral in the US Navy 0 His 1890 book stated that nations with dominance on the seas are the greatest nations in history 0 With this a great nation should acquire colonies o The acquisition of colonies requires that you position military bases to defend and protect your interest Imperialism In Cuba America built roads schools and hospitals 0 Congress would pass the Platt Amendment 0 All justi ed philosophically by Darwinism stronger nation dominates the weaker The Platt Amendment 1901 I Cuba 0 The amendment barred stopped Cuba from making treaties with other nations 0 It also gave the US the right to intervene in matters of protecting Cuba s independence 0 The amendment also required Cuba to allow American naval stations on its territory The jones Act 1917 Puerto Rico 0 The island of Puerto Rico was seen as a supply depot for sugar 0 The Jones Act passed by Congress declared Puerto Rico to be part of US territory 0 In addition all Puerto Ricans were American citizens Military forces also established themselves on this island as well 0 Four transformational chanqes that occurred due to imperialism essav tonic 7 o 1 The numbers within the regular army needed to increase 0 2 Federal army standards were established for the national guard This insured that volunteer regiments were trained and equipped the same as the regular army 0 3 A system of of cer training schools had to be created 0 4 A joint chiefs of staff was established to act as military advisors to the secretary of war 0 The previously mentioned four points changes ensured that America would become a modern military system that would t the pro le of an imperialistic na on Chapter 20 Progressivism Progressivism An outlook that emphasizes the need to create order and justice within a chaotic world 0 An optimistic vision Progressives believed that society was capable of improving and that growth and advancement were part of the nation s destiny 0 Growth and progress could not continue to occur recklessly Progressives were de nitely idealistic dreamers romantics o Believed what was good in people 0 Progressive reformers debated on the roles of women racial equality labor rights rights of laborers the impact of immigration on society and cultural diversity 0 Try to take an honest look on these issues and what was going on progress and problems and offering solutions for these exposed problems Antimonopoly A reform principle adopted by many progressives This principle focused on the fear of concentrated power The solution is to limit and disperse authority and wealth Concentrated power brought corruption and failure Muckrakers They were journalists who directed the public s attention towards social economic and political injustice 0 They were committed to exposing scandal and corruption Settlement Houses 0 They were located in immigrant neighborhoods 0 They were staffed by educated middle class reformers These houses provided the following services 0 English language classes 0 Neighborhood health clinics 0 After school programs 0 Instruction in personal hygiene and infant care 0 The most noted settlement house was Jane Addams39 Hull House in Chicago NAWSA National Woman Suffrage Association 0 The largest movement within the progressive era was the ght to give women the right to vote 0 Also called the Suffrage Movement 0 The NAWSA as an organization employed the following strategy 0 Reformers embraced the concept of the separate spear 0 They argued that the separate spear of quotmom wife and homemakerquot gave women the ability to become sensitive to society s problems and this sensitivity illustrated the fact that women were deemed worthy to participate in the political process 0 Women gained a signi cant victory with the passage of the 19th amendment 19th Amendment 0 Gave women the right to vote WEB DuBois A Harvard trained sociologist and historian He believed that blacks should not be content with training from just agricultural schools 0 He felt that talented blacks should strive for a University education 0 DuBois along with white progressives would form the NAACP NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 0 This organization worked for equal rights challenged segregation and opposed lynching 18th Amendment Temperant s Movement encouraged people to be more sober be more responsible 0 Progressive reformers began calling for the complete prohibition of the sale and manufacturing of alcohol 0 The 18th amendment would become law and therefore prohibit the sale and manufacture of alcohol 0 Trying to work for the good of society exposing what is wrong within society look out for mankind Upton Sinclair39s Thejungle 1906 o This book featured appalling descriptions of conditions in the meat packing industry o This expose would cause the passage of the Meat Inspection Act Pure Food and Drug Act amp The Meat Inspection Act 0 The Meat Inspection Act helped to eliminate diseases transmitted in impure meat 0 The Pure Food and Drug Act restricted the sale of dangerous or ineffective medicine Exam Notes 0 50 multiple choice questions 0 Circle your answer on the exam 0 Each question is 1 point each for a total of 50 points 0 Arrive early and begin early if you wish 0 7 choices of long essay choose one just 1 essay to write abouton 0 Essay worth 50 points 0 Bring essay packet pick up from SGA office in the Ferguson Center Orjust bring paper and a penpencil 0 Essay lntro paragraph Body paragraphs roughly 3 Conclusion paragraph 0 You may bring in an outline note card or piece of paper Short bullet points to help with essay Not full sentences Rough ideas and thoughts to help prepare for essay
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