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UMB / Biological Sciences Program / BSCI 201 / What are cartilaginous joints?

What are cartilaginous joints?

What are cartilaginous joints?

Description

School: University of Maryland
Department: Biological Sciences Program
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Meredith bohannon
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: anatomy, Physiology, and exam
Cost: 50
Name: Lecture Exam #2 COMPLETE Study Guide
Description: In the first study guide, I only did the first page. Here is the completed study guide.
Uploaded: 03/26/2016
16 Pages 155 Views 12 Unlocks
Reviews

Christa Mitchell III (Rating: )

Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.



Lecture Exam 2 Study Guide 3/26/16 11:16 AM


What are cartilaginous joints?



Bones

• Support, protection, movement, mineral and growth factor storage, blood cell  formation, fat storage, and hormone production

• Osteoblasts are bone building cells; they secrete unmineralized bone matrix called  osteoid

• Osteoclasts are bone breaking cells; they are huge, multinucleate cells that engage in  bone resorption

• Calcium Phosphate, Calcium Hydroxide, and Calcium Carbonate; First calcium  phosphate and calcium hydroxide combine to create hydroxyapatite. This further  combines with calcium carbonate and other ions to form mineral salt deposits that  harden into bones in a process called calcification

• Red bone marrow is found primarily in flat bones and is responsible for producing red  blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets


What are the 2 major muscles?



• Yellow bone marrow is located in the shaft of long bones and is responsible for  producing fat, cartilage, and bone

• Collagen fibers in the osteons run in different directions in adjacent rings which helps  bones withstand stress and resist twisting

• Collagen in the bone combines with minerals to form hydroxyapatite to form the  structure, flexibility, and strength of bones

• Osteocytes respond to mechanical stimuli and communicate the information to  osteoblasts and osteoclasts so bone remodeling can occur

• Hyaline Cartilage: joints, connecting ribs to sternum, larynx, nose tip

• Fibrocartilage: pubic symphasis, vertebral discs, menisci of knees

• Elastic Cartilage: external ears and epiglottis


What is tropomyosin?



• Ossification is the process of laying down new bone material by osteoblasts while  calcification is the mineralization and hardening of already existing bone tissue • Scenario 1: Embryonic Formation of Bony Skeleton - hyaline cartilage and fibrous  Don't forget about the age old question of How to use the classics of poetry?

membranes of fetal skeleton are replaced with bone tissue; comes from mesenchyme;  endochondral and intramembranous ossification

• Scenario 2: Postnatal Bone Growth – long bones grow by way of epiphyseal plate  growth; bones increase in thickness because of appositional growth; this process stops  after adolescence

• Scenario 3: Bone Remodeling – a small percentage of bone tissue is being replaced at  any time; new bone is stronger; process includes resorption and deposition • Scenario 4: Bone Repair – reactive, first reparative, second reparative, and remodeling  stages to fix broken and fractured bonesWe also discuss several other topics like What does hamilton's rule state?

• Endochondral Ossification: Bone collar forms around diaphysis of cartilage model;  central chondrites in diaphysis calcifies, then they go through apoptosis, resulting in  cavities; periosteal bus invades cavities forming spongy bone; diaphysis elongates and  the medullary cavity forms; epiphyses ossifies Don't forget about the age old question of What is hubris?

• Intramembranous Ossification: Mesenchymal cells cluster and become osteoblasts in  ossification centers; osteoid is secretes, then calcifies; osteoid is laid down around  blood vessels forming trabeculae; the lamellar bone replaces the woven bone

• Resorption: the process of minerals from bones being returned to the blood • Resorption Process: osteoclasts dig grooves in bones called resorption bays; secrete  enzymes and proteins that digest the matrix and increases acidity to break down the  calcium salts and the organic parts of the matrix; digested fluids are trancysoed an  released into the blood; osteoclasts apoptose We also discuss several other topics like What happen during cold war?

• Deposition: the process of new bone being laid down

• Bone Repair: Reactive stage – fracture hematoma; First reparative stage – fibrocartilaginous callus; Second reparative stage – bony callus; Remodeling stage – osteoclasts resorb last bits of fractured bone

• Zones of Growing Epiphyseal Plate: Resting Zone – cartilage on the epiphyseal side of  epiphyseal plate that is fairly inactive; Proliferation Zone – cartilage on diaphysis side of  epiphyseal plate whose cells rapidly divides and move upward causing lengthening;  Hypertrophic Zone – cartilage lacunae grow and erode causing the formation of  interconnecting spaces; Calcification Zone – Surrounding cartilage matrix calcifies and  chondrocytes die and deteriorate; Ossification Zone – the deterioration of chondrocytes  creates long spicules of calcified cartilage at epiphysis-diaphysis junction that are then  eroded and covered with new bone by osteoblasts. Afterwards, this new bone is  replaced with spongy bone until the medullary cavity enlarges and the spicules are  eroded Don't forget about the age old question of What are the factors that drive public opinion?

• Parathyroid hormone increase blood calcium by stimulating osteoclasts on a negative  feedback loop. Calcitonin decreases blood calcium by shutting down osteoclasts. • Estrogen maintains good balance between resorption and deposition within the bones;  testosterone kicks in during puberty and contributes to long bone growth; vitamin D  aids in the absorption of calcium from food

• Wolf’s Law states that bones grow or remodel in response to demands placed on them;  the demand is generally mechanical stress; osteocytes are the specific cells in bones  that respond to mechanical stress and in turn communicate to osteoblasts and  osteoclasts to direct remodeling

• Osteoporosis is caused by the lack of balance between resorption and deposition that is  usually controlled by estrogen; treatments include calcium, vitamin D supplements,  weight bearing exercise, hormone replacement therapy, and calcitonin ; Exercise helps  because mechanical stress stimulates bone remodeling and strengthening, so using the  bones can help build where there has been tissue loss We also discuss several other topics like What is gender inequality?

Joints

• Fibrous Joints, Cartilaginous Joints, Synovial Joints; Synarthrosis, amphithrosis,  diarthrosis  

• Fibrous Joints - Sutures: in the skull; Syndesmoses: between the tibia and fibula at distal  tibiofibular joint and special case in teeth; Interosseous Membrane: connective tissue  between tibia and fibula

• Cartilaginous Joints - Synchondrosis: epiphyseal growth plate; Symphases: anterior  surface of hip bones

• Types of Synovial Joints: plane – intercarpal joints, hinge – elbow joints, pivot – proximal radioulnar joints, condylar – knuckle joints, saddle – carpometacarpal joints of  thumbs, ball and socket – hip joints

• The shape of the articular surface, the number and location of ligaments, and the muscle  tone of supporting tendons as they cross joints are the three factors that affect the  stability of joints

• Angular Movements: flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction,  circumduction, rotation

• Osteoarthristis is caused by general wear and tear damage to the joints; rheumatoid  arthritis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease whose cause is unknown;  Gouty arthritis is caused by the deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues,  followed by inflammation  

Muscles

• Skeletal – voluntary and striated; Cardiac – involuntary and striated; Smooth;  involuntary and not striated

• Muscle; Fascicle; Muscle Fiber; Myofibril

• Sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic Reticulum, Sarcoplasm

• The two major filaments are myosin and actin

• Myosin has many tiny heads that have actin binding sites and ATP binding sites; Actin is  a twisted chain of subunits

• Tropomyosin is the long protein that blocks all of the active sites on actin and troponin  has a subunit that when bounds to calcium moves topomyosin out of the way of the  active sites on actin, allowing myosin to bind

• To explain this, I like to watch Crash Course Episode #21: Muscle Cells on YouTube • A motor unit is a neuron and all the muscle fibers it is connected to. If there is a strong  enough stimulus, more than one of these motor units will be “recruited” to contract  starting with smaller motor units and working up to bigger ones as the concentration  increases in a phenomenon called the size principle.

• If stimuli are spaced far apart, there is a partial relaxation between each one in the  muscle. But because the muscle does not have enough time to completely relax, the  subsequent contraction builds upon the last contraction, creating a greater contraction  than the first stimulus did. This is called wave summation and it is the result of  incomplete tetany. If the stimuli are in high frequency, the muscle will reach its  maximum tension and will remain there. This constant state of contraction is called  complete tetany.  

• When a stimulus is sub-threshold, there will be no response from the muscle. If it  reaches threshold, the first observable contraction will occur. And if it reaches  maximum threshold, the muscle will give forth its maximum muscle tension

• Direct Phosphorylation with Creatine Kinase – energy comes from creatine phosphate  and ADP, oxygen is not used, duration is 15 seconds; Anaerobic Glycolysis – energy  source is glucose, oxygen is not used, duration is 30-40 seconds; Aerobic Respiration:  energy sources are glucose, pyruvic acid, fatty acids, and amino acids, oxygen is  required, duration is hours

• Short Duration, High Intensity – stored ATP, the direct phosphorylation, then anaerobic  glycolysis; Long Duration, Low Intensity – all aerobic respiration that uses stored  glycogen, then blood glucose, then pyruvic acid, then fatty acids; Long Duration, High  Intensity – direct phosphorylation, anaerobic glycolysis, aerobic respiration, back to  anaerobic respiration until the anaerobic threshold is met

• Force of Contraction: number and size of muscle fibers recruited, frequency of stimulus,  degree of stretch; Speed and Duration of Contraction: big load decreases both, small  load increases both, few muscle fibers recruited decreases both, more muscle fiber  recruited increases both

• The optimal range for stretch in skeletal muscle is 80 to 120% while smooth muscle is  50 to 150%

• Slow Oxidative – contract slow and fatigue resistant, slow ATP  hydrolysis by myosin,  they have more myoglobin resulting in a higher storage of oxygen; Fast Oxidative –

contract slow and moderately fatigue resistant, fast ATP hydrolysis by myosin, lots of  myoglobin, can be some anaerobic ATP production; Fast Glycolytic – fast contraction  and easily fatigued, fast ATP hydrolysis by myosin, anaerobic glycolysis

• In aerobic exercise, fast glycolytic fibers are converted into fast oxidative fibers because  there is a prolonged need for oxygen. Fast oxidative fibers produce quickly produce  oxygen and can do so for a longer period of time. In resistance exercise, fast oxidative  fibers are converted to fast glycolytic fibers because they can provide fast contraction  and are good for fast movements.  

• Power levers use a small amount of effort to move a large load a small distance and  have a mechanical advantage. Speed levers use a large amount of effort to move a small  load and have a mechanical disadvantage.  

• The lever type most prevalent in the body is the third class lever. The advantage is that  there is relatively little shortening of the muscle in this lever, but the muscles must be  very strong

• Smooth muscle in innervated through varicosities, round swellings on nerve fibers that  release neurotransmitters into a diffuse junction

• Calcium for contraction comes from the extracellular matrix and the sarcoplasmic  reticulum

• Contractions spread through gap junctions between the smooth muscle cells • The calcium responsive protein is called calmodulin

• Action potential; influx of calcium ions; calcium binds to calmodulin which is now  activated; calmodulin activates myosin light chain kinase; myosin light chain kinase  phosphorylates myosin with two phosphates by hydrolyzing ATP; green light for cross  bridge cycling

• Smooth muscle can adapt to a length change and still be able to conduct a contraction,  and will easily return to it original shape and muscle tone

• Hormones or local chemicals can also regulate contractions by controlling the calcium  ion levels. This is specific to an organ’s needs and functions

• During development of smooth muscle, myoblasts fuse, giving smooth muscle cells their  multinucleate characteristic

• Skeletal muscles will not divide after they have been made, they only repair with the  help of satellite cells. Cardiac muscle has some (limited) reparative ability, but most of  its injuries are replaced with scar tissue, which has lower contractility. Smooth muscle,  on the other hand, regenerates well

3/26/16 11:16 AM

3/26/16 11:16 AM

Lecture Exam 2 Study Guide 3/26/16 11:16 AM

Bones

• Support, protection, movement, mineral and growth factor storage, blood cell  formation, fat storage, and hormone production

• Osteoblasts are bone building cells; they secrete unmineralized bone matrix called  osteoid

• Osteoclasts are bone breaking cells; they are huge, multinucleate cells that engage in  bone resorption

• Calcium Phosphate, Calcium Hydroxide, and Calcium Carbonate; First calcium  phosphate and calcium hydroxide combine to create hydroxyapatite. This further  combines with calcium carbonate and other ions to form mineral salt deposits that  harden into bones in a process called calcification

• Red bone marrow is found primarily in flat bones and is responsible for producing red  blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

• Yellow bone marrow is located in the shaft of long bones and is responsible for  producing fat, cartilage, and bone

• Collagen fibers in the osteons run in different directions in adjacent rings which helps  bones withstand stress and resist twisting

• Collagen in the bone combines with minerals to form hydroxyapatite to form the  structure, flexibility, and strength of bones

• Osteocytes respond to mechanical stimuli and communicate the information to  osteoblasts and osteoclasts so bone remodeling can occur

• Hyaline Cartilage: joints, connecting ribs to sternum, larynx, nose tip

• Fibrocartilage: pubic symphasis, vertebral discs, menisci of knees

• Elastic Cartilage: external ears and epiglottis

• Ossification is the process of laying down new bone material by osteoblasts while  calcification is the mineralization and hardening of already existing bone tissue • Scenario 1: Embryonic Formation of Bony Skeleton - hyaline cartilage and fibrous  

membranes of fetal skeleton are replaced with bone tissue; comes from mesenchyme;  endochondral and intramembranous ossification

• Scenario 2: Postnatal Bone Growth – long bones grow by way of epiphyseal plate  growth; bones increase in thickness because of appositional growth; this process stops  after adolescence

• Scenario 3: Bone Remodeling – a small percentage of bone tissue is being replaced at  any time; new bone is stronger; process includes resorption and deposition • Scenario 4: Bone Repair – reactive, first reparative, second reparative, and remodeling  stages to fix broken and fractured bones

• Endochondral Ossification: Bone collar forms around diaphysis of cartilage model;  central chondrites in diaphysis calcifies, then they go through apoptosis, resulting in  cavities; periosteal bus invades cavities forming spongy bone; diaphysis elongates and  the medullary cavity forms; epiphyses ossifies

• Intramembranous Ossification: Mesenchymal cells cluster and become osteoblasts in  ossification centers; osteoid is secretes, then calcifies; osteoid is laid down around  blood vessels forming trabeculae; the lamellar bone replaces the woven bone

• Resorption: the process of minerals from bones being returned to the blood • Resorption Process: osteoclasts dig grooves in bones called resorption bays; secrete  enzymes and proteins that digest the matrix and increases acidity to break down the  calcium salts and the organic parts of the matrix; digested fluids are trancysoed an  released into the blood; osteoclasts apoptose

• Deposition: the process of new bone being laid down

• Bone Repair: Reactive stage – fracture hematoma; First reparative stage – fibrocartilaginous callus; Second reparative stage – bony callus; Remodeling stage – osteoclasts resorb last bits of fractured bone

• Zones of Growing Epiphyseal Plate: Resting Zone – cartilage on the epiphyseal side of  epiphyseal plate that is fairly inactive; Proliferation Zone – cartilage on diaphysis side of  epiphyseal plate whose cells rapidly divides and move upward causing lengthening;  Hypertrophic Zone – cartilage lacunae grow and erode causing the formation of  interconnecting spaces; Calcification Zone – Surrounding cartilage matrix calcifies and  chondrocytes die and deteriorate; Ossification Zone – the deterioration of chondrocytes  creates long spicules of calcified cartilage at epiphysis-diaphysis junction that are then  eroded and covered with new bone by osteoblasts. Afterwards, this new bone is  replaced with spongy bone until the medullary cavity enlarges and the spicules are  eroded

• Parathyroid hormone increase blood calcium by stimulating osteoclasts on a negative  feedback loop. Calcitonin decreases blood calcium by shutting down osteoclasts. • Estrogen maintains good balance between resorption and deposition within the bones;  testosterone kicks in during puberty and contributes to long bone growth; vitamin D  aids in the absorption of calcium from food

• Wolf’s Law states that bones grow or remodel in response to demands placed on them;  the demand is generally mechanical stress; osteocytes are the specific cells in bones  that respond to mechanical stress and in turn communicate to osteoblasts and  osteoclasts to direct remodeling

• Osteoporosis is caused by the lack of balance between resorption and deposition that is  usually controlled by estrogen; treatments include calcium, vitamin D supplements,  weight bearing exercise, hormone replacement therapy, and calcitonin ; Exercise helps  because mechanical stress stimulates bone remodeling and strengthening, so using the  bones can help build where there has been tissue loss

Joints

• Fibrous Joints, Cartilaginous Joints, Synovial Joints; Synarthrosis, amphithrosis,  diarthrosis  

• Fibrous Joints - Sutures: in the skull; Syndesmoses: between the tibia and fibula at distal  tibiofibular joint and special case in teeth; Interosseous Membrane: connective tissue  between tibia and fibula

• Cartilaginous Joints - Synchondrosis: epiphyseal growth plate; Symphases: anterior  surface of hip bones

• Types of Synovial Joints: plane – intercarpal joints, hinge – elbow joints, pivot – proximal radioulnar joints, condylar – knuckle joints, saddle – carpometacarpal joints of  thumbs, ball and socket – hip joints

• The shape of the articular surface, the number and location of ligaments, and the muscle  tone of supporting tendons as they cross joints are the three factors that affect the  stability of joints

• Angular Movements: flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction,  circumduction, rotation

• Osteoarthristis is caused by general wear and tear damage to the joints; rheumatoid  arthritis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease whose cause is unknown;  Gouty arthritis is caused by the deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues,  followed by inflammation  

Muscles

• Skeletal – voluntary and striated; Cardiac – involuntary and striated; Smooth;  involuntary and not striated

• Muscle; Fascicle; Muscle Fiber; Myofibril

• Sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic Reticulum, Sarcoplasm

• The two major filaments are myosin and actin

• Myosin has many tiny heads that have actin binding sites and ATP binding sites; Actin is  a twisted chain of subunits

• Tropomyosin is the long protein that blocks all of the active sites on actin and troponin  has a subunit that when bounds to calcium moves topomyosin out of the way of the  active sites on actin, allowing myosin to bind

• To explain this, I like to watch Crash Course Episode #21: Muscle Cells on YouTube • A motor unit is a neuron and all the muscle fibers it is connected to. If there is a strong  enough stimulus, more than one of these motor units will be “recruited” to contract  starting with smaller motor units and working up to bigger ones as the concentration  increases in a phenomenon called the size principle.

• If stimuli are spaced far apart, there is a partial relaxation between each one in the  muscle. But because the muscle does not have enough time to completely relax, the  subsequent contraction builds upon the last contraction, creating a greater contraction  than the first stimulus did. This is called wave summation and it is the result of  incomplete tetany. If the stimuli are in high frequency, the muscle will reach its  maximum tension and will remain there. This constant state of contraction is called  complete tetany.  

• When a stimulus is sub-threshold, there will be no response from the muscle. If it  reaches threshold, the first observable contraction will occur. And if it reaches  maximum threshold, the muscle will give forth its maximum muscle tension

• Direct Phosphorylation with Creatine Kinase – energy comes from creatine phosphate  and ADP, oxygen is not used, duration is 15 seconds; Anaerobic Glycolysis – energy  source is glucose, oxygen is not used, duration is 30-40 seconds; Aerobic Respiration:  energy sources are glucose, pyruvic acid, fatty acids, and amino acids, oxygen is  required, duration is hours

• Short Duration, High Intensity – stored ATP, the direct phosphorylation, then anaerobic  glycolysis; Long Duration, Low Intensity – all aerobic respiration that uses stored  glycogen, then blood glucose, then pyruvic acid, then fatty acids; Long Duration, High  Intensity – direct phosphorylation, anaerobic glycolysis, aerobic respiration, back to  anaerobic respiration until the anaerobic threshold is met

• Force of Contraction: number and size of muscle fibers recruited, frequency of stimulus,  degree of stretch; Speed and Duration of Contraction: big load decreases both, small  load increases both, few muscle fibers recruited decreases both, more muscle fiber  recruited increases both

• The optimal range for stretch in skeletal muscle is 80 to 120% while smooth muscle is  50 to 150%

• Slow Oxidative – contract slow and fatigue resistant, slow ATP  hydrolysis by myosin,  they have more myoglobin resulting in a higher storage of oxygen; Fast Oxidative –

contract slow and moderately fatigue resistant, fast ATP hydrolysis by myosin, lots of  myoglobin, can be some anaerobic ATP production; Fast Glycolytic – fast contraction  and easily fatigued, fast ATP hydrolysis by myosin, anaerobic glycolysis

• In aerobic exercise, fast glycolytic fibers are converted into fast oxidative fibers because  there is a prolonged need for oxygen. Fast oxidative fibers produce quickly produce  oxygen and can do so for a longer period of time. In resistance exercise, fast oxidative  fibers are converted to fast glycolytic fibers because they can provide fast contraction  and are good for fast movements.  

• Power levers use a small amount of effort to move a large load a small distance and  have a mechanical advantage. Speed levers use a large amount of effort to move a small  load and have a mechanical disadvantage.  

• The lever type most prevalent in the body is the third class lever. The advantage is that  there is relatively little shortening of the muscle in this lever, but the muscles must be  very strong

• Smooth muscle in innervated through varicosities, round swellings on nerve fibers that  release neurotransmitters into a diffuse junction

• Calcium for contraction comes from the extracellular matrix and the sarcoplasmic  reticulum

• Contractions spread through gap junctions between the smooth muscle cells • The calcium responsive protein is called calmodulin

• Action potential; influx of calcium ions; calcium binds to calmodulin which is now  activated; calmodulin activates myosin light chain kinase; myosin light chain kinase  phosphorylates myosin with two phosphates by hydrolyzing ATP; green light for cross  bridge cycling

• Smooth muscle can adapt to a length change and still be able to conduct a contraction,  and will easily return to it original shape and muscle tone

• Hormones or local chemicals can also regulate contractions by controlling the calcium  ion levels. This is specific to an organ’s needs and functions

• During development of smooth muscle, myoblasts fuse, giving smooth muscle cells their  multinucleate characteristic

• Skeletal muscles will not divide after they have been made, they only repair with the  help of satellite cells. Cardiac muscle has some (limited) reparative ability, but most of  its injuries are replaced with scar tissue, which has lower contractility. Smooth muscle,  on the other hand, regenerates well

3/26/16 11:16 AM

3/26/16 11:16 AM

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