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UNT / Biological Sciences / BIOL 2041 / What is chemical method of contraception?

What is chemical method of contraception?

What is chemical method of contraception?

Description

School: University of North Texas
Department: Biological Sciences
Course: Microbiology
Professor: Daniel kunz
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Microbiology and kunz
Cost: 25
Name: Microbiology test 3 week 1
Description: These are the notes for the third test. This is just for the first week, therefore it includes the notes from good friday.
Uploaded: 03/26/2016
14 Pages 96 Views 4 Unlocks
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Week 1 test 3


What is chemical method of contraception?



Microbiology

● Chemical methods

○ Disinfectants and antiseptics

■ Phenolics­ P

● Example

○ Lysol

● Biphenyls, hexachlorophene, triclosan (found in antibacterial soap)

○ Disrupt plasma membrane

○ Once there is a triclosan resistance

■ There is a resistance in ampicillin, tetracycline etc.

■ Triclosan is the third most found thing in

waterways.

■ It is hard to degrade Sweden has discontinue use.

● Instead use ethanol

■ Halogens ­ H

■ Alcohols ­ A

■ Strong oxidants­ O

■ Heavy metals ­HM

■ Quats­Q­detergent like


Does high resistance mean low current?



If you want to learn more check out What is the most abundant mineral in the body?

● Are an ammonium in with a Benzalkonium Chloride. This is sued

to clean dairy equipment

○ First table “ HM HM H A Q O

○ Third table

○ Fourth table

○ Resistance (high to low ) We also discuss several other topics like How do you find causal factors?

■ Prion

■ Endospore of bacteria

■ Mycobacteria

■ Cysts of Protozoa

■ Vegetative Protozoa


Is flucloxacillin a broad spectrum antibiotic?



■ Gram negative bacteria

■ Fungi

■ Virus with envelopes

■ Gram posits

■ Virus without envelopes

○ Drugs

■ 1928 If you want to learn more check out What is the formula for marginal utility?

● Fleming discovered penicillin We also discuss several other topics like What is flexation in shouder point?

■ 1940

● H. Florey and E. Chain performed first clinical trials ■ Table 20.1

● 20.2

■ Broad spectrum antibiotics

● Works on a lot of organisms

○ Example

■ Streptomycin

● Antibiotic

● Protein synthesis

■ Tetracycline

● Antibiotic

● Protein synthesis

■ Narrow spectrum antibiotics

● Works on some organisms

○ Example

■ Penicillin

● Antibiotic

● Works on gram positive bacteria in cell wall

● Many organisms are resistant to this

■ Ketoconazole

● Not antibiotics

● Fungi membrane disruptions

■ Acyclovir

● Not antibiotic

● Replication

■ Isoniazid

● Cell wall

● Not antibiotic

■ Antiviral drug

● Nucleoside and nucleotide analgesic

○ the virus can't tell the difference and it inhibits replication

● Applied and industrial Microbiology chapter 28

○ Packaging

■ Dairy products

● Most involved lactic acid bacteria

● Cheese

○ Hard cheese produced by lactic acid bacteria

If you want to learn more check out What are the two costs associated with inventory?

● Yogurt

○ Lactobacillus Acidophilus

■ Beverages

● Yeast fermentations

○ Saccharomyces cerevisiae

○ Saccharomyces carlsbergensis

■ some of the first brewery started by Carl Berg

● strain 1 v strain 2

○ same species just different at the

genetic level

○ this is responsible for the different

taste of each beer

○ Beer

○ Wine

■ Fermentable sugar

● sugars that can be anaerobically broken Don't forget about the age old question of What is latane and darley’s decision-making model of pro-social behavior?

down

■ Non­beverages

● Sauerkraut

○ Lactic Acid Bacteria

● Soy sauce

○ Aspergillus

● Olives

○ Lactic Acid Bacteria

■ Bread

● Yeast ­­> ethanol + CO2 

● sourdough rye

○ Lactic acid bacteria impart flavor

■ Cured meat

○ Lactic Acid Bacteria

■ aka LABs

■ Non spore forming

■ Gram positive rods

○ Industrial microbiology

■ Solvents

● Acetone

○ Clostridium

● Ethanol

○ Bacterial Fermentation

■ Food supplements

● Amino acids

○ phenylalanine +aspartate =Aspartame [Nutrasweet]

● Citric acid

○ Aspergillus

● Vitamins

○ B12

○ Riboflavin

● Enzymes

○ Amylases

○ Proteases

■ Breaks down proteins into amino acids

■ Bacillus

● Acts extracellularly

○ Results in zones of clearing when

placed on a plate

■ Aspergillus

● Antibiotics

● Biomedical products

○ Anticancer compounds

○ Anti­clotting factors

○ Vaccines

● Fermentations on the industrial size

○ fig 28.10

○ Uses steam for sterilization

○ Is constantly feeding liquids through

■ Chemostat

● We never have to stop this reaction

○ Primary fermentation

■ product is made in the Trophophase ○ secondary fermentation

■ this is common for any antibiotic

■ ● Product is made in the idiophase

○ Biotransformation

■ Use of microbes and enzymes in pharmaceuticals

to change an organism via a biological process to

makes sure it is stereospecific

○ Biotechnology

● Results of manipulation of microorganisms

○ Production of Rennin is found in young calf now we

genetically engineered

○ Production of insulin is found in horses now is genetically

engenered

● Environmental microbiology Chapter 27

○ Habitats

■ Microbial communities resulting in metabolic diversity

● Soil

○ The deeper in the soil we go the less organisms measured

■ Low surface organisms are chemolithotrophs

■ High surface organisms are chemoorganotrophs

○ Rhizosphere (mycorrhizal)

■ responsible for the growth of plants

● Water

● Air

○ Not conducive to microbial growth

○ Usually fungal spores

○ Environmental Balance

■ Microbial biogeochemical cycles

○ Microbial activities that contribute to environmental balance ■ Biodegradation

● fig 27.8

● 2,4 ­D

○ 2,4­Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

○ Degrades over time

○ How organisms make a living off of this chemical

■ 2,4­D, NH3, Sulfur, Phosphorus, Trace metals

● 2,4,5­T

○ 2,4,5­ trichlorophenoxyacetic acid

○ Doesn’t degrade

○ More recalcitrant

■ Harder to degrade

● How herbicides go away

■ Bioremediation

● Clean up a contaminated area

● Enhanced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer

■ Bioaugmentation

● Addition of microbes to degrade pollutant

■ Wastewater treatment

■ Solid waste composting

○ Water quality

■ Chemical contamination

● Organic materials (pesticides, agricultural runoff) and inorganic materials (mercury, excess nitrates, fluorides, led)

■ Leads to the transmission of infectious disease

■ Microbial contamination

● Coliforms, viruses and protozoa (cyst and cryptosporidium) ○ What is a coliform?:

■ Gram negative bacteria that arise from the

mammalian colon

■ If found in water there is a fecal contamination of

the water.

■ Is tested by the presence of E.coli

■ 1 colony per every 100 ml is a satisfactory test

■ 2­22 colonies per every 100 ml is unsatisfactory

■ Filtered and then smeared over EMB (differential/

selective material)

○ The carbon cycle

○ Nitrogen cycle

● Ammonification

○ Proteins go through a process of hydrolysis and become

ammonia 

● Nitrogen fixation

○ Takes nitrogen gas and makes it ammonia 

● Nitrification

○ Conversion of ammonia to a nitrite and takes the nitrite and

makes it nitrate 

● Denitrification

○ Takes a nitrate and makes it into nitrite. The nitrite is

converted to nitric oxide and finally into nitrogen gas 

○ Occurs when the soil becomes anaerobic

○ Caused by denitrifying bacteria

● Plants prefer nitrates

○ We till gardens and fields to increase the presence of

nitrates with the use of nitrobacter

○ Food pyramid

■ Primary producers (at the bottom aka the biggest part of the food

pyramid)

● Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms

● Need lots of these to feed small amounts of Quaternary

consumers

■ Secondary consumers

■ Tertiary consumer

■ Quaternary consumers

● Smallest part of food pyramid

● Example

● Genetics

○ Two hallmarks of biology:

■ energy transformation

■ Information flow

○ Chromosomes

■ Physical structures carrying hereditary information

○ Gene

■ DNA segment encoding a functional product (eg protein)

■ What genes are, how I for carried, how I for expressed, how genes replicated how genes transferred?

○ Central dogma

■ DNA ­­transcription­­­>mRNA­­­Translation­­­> protein

○ Transcription

■ DNA­­>RNA

● 5’­­­>3’

● Thymine become uracil

● Sense strand or coding strand

○ What the RNA polymerase will bind to

● Transcriptional start site

○ Synthesizing small segments of the chromosome ( known

as genes)

○ The gene unit will start +1

○ Promoter is ­35TTGACA and the ­10 TATA this is

recognized by a sigma factor binded to the RNA

polymerase

● Sigma factors can vary under enviromental

conditions

■ Note that if it is (­) it is consider upstream from the

+1

○ Transcription bubble

■ Where DNA unwinds

○ Terminator

■ Where transcription ends

■ Stem and loop (that is G­C rich) formation causes

RNA polymer to pause and fall off

■ Four or more uracil indicate that the polymer to fall

off

■ Sometimes a protein known as RHO factor protein

● Known as a RHO dependent termination

● Found in eukaryotes

○ Denaturation

■ When two strands of the DNA no longer touch

■ G­C bonds are harder to break due to its hydrogen

bonding

○ In prokaryotes transcription is equal to that of translation

■ Ribosomes bind and makes mRNA into a proteins

○ Translation

■ Initiation

● Has a start codon with a formal group (fmet)

○ In the p side of the ribosome

○ Amino acids come in on the A side and translates to the p

side

● Energy source GTP

● Initiation factors

■ Elongation factors

● peptidyl transferase

● Peptide bond transformation

■ Termination

● Stop codon

○ Replication

■ DNA­­­>DNA

● When making another DNA strand use DNA polymerase going from the 5’ to 3’ direction with use of a template strand

○ Where the double helix is open is known as the

replication fork

○ There is always a lagging and leading strand

■ The leading strand i​s constantly moving in one

piece

■ The lagging strand (discontinuous strand) ​is

moving in pieces known as Okazaki fragments

■ In the end there is 2 copies for every strand of DNA

made

■ You need a free 3’ OH group to attach a

phosphate group to form the pyrophosphate group

○ Replication is semiconservative

■ One strand is new the other strand already existed

○ Replication occurs bi­directionally​around the

chromosome

■ There is two replication forks around the loop of the

chromosome

○ Takes 10min for E.coli to duplicate but 40 min for DNA

replication. This is speed up with multiple replication forks

○ Hybridization

■ When a new DNA is bonded

● When making another RNA strand use RNA polymerase

○ RNA

■ Single stranded

■ Contains AUGC

■ There is NO​thymine

■ Has two OH groups one on the 3’ and one on the 2’

● There is NO ​presence of this second OH group at the 2’ carbon on DNA

■ Tree types

● mRNA

○ Messenger RNA

○ Anti codons

■ The counterpart of the amino acid sequence

● rRNA

○ Ribosomal RNA

● tRNA

○ In a crucifix formation

○ 20 amino acids =20 tRNA

○ Sequence for proteins via the use of amino acids

■ Prokaryotes have 16S RNA

■ Eukaryotes have 18S RNA

○ Genotype

■ Genetic makeup

○ Phenotype

■ Protein make up

○ Nucleotide

■ Phosphate + sugar base

○ Nucleoside

■ Sugar+ base

○ Purine

■ Adenine

■ Guanine

○ Pyrimidines

■ Thymine

■ Cytosine

■ Uracil

○ Codons

■ Made up of three bases

● Stop codons

○ UAA

○ UAG

○ UGA

■ These won't code for any amino acids

● Start codon

○ AUG.....methionine

● Degenerate codons

○ Has multiple codes for one amino acid

○ DNA

■ Antiparallel

● 5’ and 3’ ends are always opposite

■ Complementary base pairing

● A​pples on tr​ees

● Gas​in ca​rs

■ Double helix

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