Media Programming&Institutions COMM 222
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Burley Schuster MD
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Date Created: 10/30/15
The Hisfory and People in The Acfs DevelopmenTs GuTTenburg prinTing press and moveable Type Alexander Graham Bell Telegrap Samuel Morse morse code doTs and dashes 1851 Telegraph cable across English Channel 1866 Telegraph cable across ATlanTic Ocean effecTed poliTicsinTernaTional Trade news 1876 Alexander Graham Bell amp Telephone led To The developmenT of ATampT wireless could have ship To shore comm buT wire cable Too expensive InsTead James Clerk Maxwell predicTed ThaT radio waves pass Through Things 1888 Heinrich Hertz proved radio waves exisT proved Maxwell39s Theory Marconi and The Black Box Wireless Reginad Fessenden broadcasT one poinT To many senT firsT voice messages ouT To sea on ChrisTmas Through Telegrap Ernesf Alexanderson produced generaTor ThaT Fessenden came up wiTh 1906 Lee DeForesT audion TubeTriode used To broadcasT 1339 commercial Allowed radio signals To be amplified allowed long disTance phone service and radio To be heard Main Players ATampT GE WesTinghouse Firs law Radio Ac of 1912 anyone TransmiTTing radio signals needs a license Only have To apply canT be refused Has noThing To do wiTh broadcasTing only a law unTil 1927 10 YEAR TIME PERIOD EMERGENCE OF BROADCASTING END OF WW1 neTworks corporaTe conTrol commercial sponsorship arising BROADCASTING AS OPPOSED TO POINT TO POINT David Saranoff imporTanT in corporaTe hisTory received SOS signal from TiTanic in 1912 1916 music box memo suggesTed American Marconi company be Turned inTo household uTiliTy GOAL To make 1920 NAW gave up conTrol of The radio forced American Marconi Co To disappear American Marconi sells To GE who creaTed RCA Cross Licensing Phase 1 19191923 radio as a means of poinT To poinT comm GE and WesTinghouse manufacTure radios 9 WJZ radio group RCA sell receivers ATampT manufacTure and lease TransmiTTers conTrol landlines and phones 9 WEAF Telephone group RCA amp ATampT Radio group creaTed iTs own programming vs Telephone group common carrier Toll broadcasTing license agreemenT prohibiTs RCA from making radios since They already sell receivers Phase 2 ATampT keeps conTrol of Telephone and poinT To poinT 2 way wireless ATampT keeps conTrol of wire and wireless relays RCA will lease relays and neTworkIng39 ATampT sells WEAF Telephone group To RCA and will noT compeTe in manufacTure of radio seTs 1926 RCA creaTes NBC WJZ becomes NBC RED stays NBC WEAF becomes NBC BLUE later becomes ABC 1928 William Paley starts CBS and creates competition Second law Radio Act of 1927 congress to the rescue creates E federal radio commission allocates frequencies and ends chaos govt keeps control but not ownership guiding gov t standard public interest convenience or necessity RADIO AFTER 1927 INTERFERENCE ON THE AIRWAYS DIES DOWN MORE STABILITY OF BROADCASTING GOLDEN AGE OF RADIOquot People paying more attention to what the message was as opposed to the technology ability to hear voices COMMUNICATION ACT OF 1934 incorporates radio act of 1927 adds jurisdiction over interstate and foreign wire communication telephone creates FCC to replace FRC seven members MAIN COMPETITION WAGNER HATHELD BILL void all existing licenses allocate 25 of channels to non profit uses such as education religion labor etc 1934 bill passed nothing educational was on TV TYPES OF BROADCAST SYSTEMS 1 permissive govt plays little role in censoring TV content 2 paternalistic govt encourages programs to serve different groups of people in society uplifting shows that benefit the public 3 authoritarian tight govt control of media ECONOMIC BA SIS OF PROGRAM PRODUCTION who pays programming serves the purpose of who pays for it commercials license fees pay money for every TV you own has no commercials GENERAL TAX REVENUE ALWAYS THE ANSWER pluralism hybrid mixed systems Goals of general tax revenues license fees advertising Social control educationuplift culture profit GLOBAL TRENDS US public interest convenience or necessity UK to inform educate and entertain USSR politically clear purposeful profound prompt informative vivid and comprehensible Free flow new world information order other countries wanted quotas which limited how much the US programming they would take the US said NO we need free flow result other countries said we need new world order of information PARSIMONY PRINCIPLE program materials should be se sparingly Repeated as much as possible Shared as widely as possible Amos n39 Andy first RADIO series with characters raised tension about blackwhite relationships start of Syndication record and sell to others Philo Farnsworth created first electronic TV Sarnoff struggled to buy his patent NTSC national tv systems committee standard adding more lines increases resolution result 30 frames second 1941 525 lines POST WW2 1945 new camera tube called image orthicon needs less light 1946 ATampT lays intercity coaxial cable relay NY9 DC 1947 FCC reconfirms 1941 NTSC standard 1948 number of stations triples TV FREEZE of 1948 52 FCC didn39t want to have any new broadcast systems on the air from 194852 to avoid the problems they had with radio only 12 channels no new licenses stations for 4 years SIXTH report and order 1952 FCC assigned channels geographically added 70 UHF channels 1483 live TV until 1957 9 Ampex creates the video tape production moves from NY gt prime time color in 1956 half of all households have color TV by 1972 stereo sound 1984 hdtv plasmalcd screens amp transition to digital WHERE DO PROGRAMS COME FROM program sources 1network 2syndication off network other networks buy program and run repeats on their channels Seinfeld Friends Everybody Loves Raymond First run Oprah Judge Judy Wheel of Fortune 3local origination local news and talk Also isolated individual TV stations are connected into network affiliates and independent stations Fin syn financial interest and syndication rules producers and distributors need to be separate 1996 networks can produce and own their own shows WHO SELLS WHAT TO WHOM Networkstations ses audiences to advertisers advertisers buy audience we are the commodity program decisions based entirely on financial issues content and quality seen as neutral amp irrelevant programs product Programming strategies designed to control flow of audience 0 strip program put on air daily Monday Friday 0 checkerboard same show shown every other day gives variation shown Monday and Wednesday hammock 2 strong shows w high ratings surround a weak show 9 STRONG weak STRONG Best predictor of how many people watch shows is if they watch show before it o tentpole weak STRONG weak Increase ratings of 3quotd show if people watch strong middle show then theyll stay on same channel 0 stunting many specials last minute changes to throw other networks off balance block programming several of the same show back to back Ex 4 sitcoms in a row counter programming sharply different from competition ex show a romantic comedy to pull in audience not watching football game 0 Challenge programming put on same exact type of show 0 Repurposing running program on a different owned channel then where it comes from ex NBC shows same thing on MSNBC and ABC shows one of their shows on lifetime economical for networks bc they don39t have to create as many programsnetwork affiliates don39t like bc it decreases shows value 0 Bridging starting the show after the hour or half hour hot switching one program goes directly into other program to prevent people from changing channel ex no commercials in between toll broadcasting NBCRCAradio group ATampT telephone group what39s the relationship between programming 9 advertisers pay radio group a toll to use their broadcasting facilities phone booth STRUCTURE OF PROGRAMS Structural visual what camera is doing length of time camera stays on screen codes visual language closeups zooms fades all convey meanings Conceptual plot the way people places are shown character types stereotypes styles of behavior speech styles of spealking related to genre Framespackages TITLEdistinctive TIMINGprograms have to be run in multiples of 30 min 3 PART STRUCTURE programs have beginning middle end openings closings breaks hot switching punctuation high stylized familiar many titles consist of 2 people39s names Regis and Kelly cliches step by step Audience viewin atterns and low ABC Thursday night shows 8pm ugly Betty lead off show before good show pm greys anatomy good show 10pm big shots lead out show after good show where a show is positioned can be very critical all channels compete NBC My name is earl the office ER example of competition with ABC night39s shows tv shows are always trying to copy and combine other ideas of shows LOP APPOINTMENT VIEWING least objectionable programming tivo dvr easier to watch whenever you want to watch it by clock SELECTIVITY and INVOLVEMENT degree of involvement person closely involved or is tv on in the background used of different methods to attact audiences different from radio too inertia routines or habits Radio and music licensing pertains to parsimony principle music on radio can reuse and recycle more Than iv repefifion payola scandals and The 5039s spof buys pay To play cheaper To produce by purchasing radio programming Hot clock formaf wheel fop 40 play sequence ex news commercials oldies commercials Top 40s commercials every hour music free for radio sfafions ASCAP 1914 musicians union NAB 1923 Trade organizafion To deal wifh ASCAP on an indusfry wide basis BMI 1940 compete wifh ASCAP STA IIONS PAY BLANKET LICENSE FEE gives righfs To play anyfhing one fee To ASCAP one fee To BMI CONCENTRAUON OF OWNERSHIP AND DIVERSITY IN PROGRAMMING fewer companies geHing hifs music industry geHing more concenfrafed specific when ownership becomes more concentrafed diversify goes down DAVID LYNCH MULLOHAND DRIVE arficle his drive To start new show on ABC programs become developed and nefwork sfudios are afraid fo fry new things Sources of economic support for media systems commercials license fees general tax revenues always the answer Types of financial arrangements in different systems and countries 0 Permissive govt plays little role in censoring TV content 0 Paternalisticgovt encourages programs to serve different groups of people in society uplifting shows that benefit the public 0 Authoritariantight govt control of media commercialform of advertising in which goods are promoted through the tv license fees pay money for every tv you own tax revenues subscriptions Economic structure of media system Structuralvisual what camera is doing length of time camera stays on screen Codes visual language closeups zooms fades all convey meaning Global distribution of programming 0 US public interest convenience or necessity 0 UK to inform educate and entertain o USSR politically clear purposeful prompt informative vivid amp comprehensible Cultural imperialism spreading knowledge Legal requirements of broadcast license holders must have a license cant be refused Implications of the public interestquot standard every decision is based on the public interest 0 FCC treats it as a compromise balance bw competing interests 0 System runs on private profit but serves public interest 0 Private profit wins when there39s a conflict bw public and private 0 Best way to serve public have a lot of competition 0 CONVENIENCE OR NECESSITY guiding gov39t standard EVOLUTION OF REGULATION FROM 1927 RADIO ACT gt 1934 COMM ACT gt 1996 TELECOM ACT Radio act of 1927 congress creates FRCallocates frequencies and ends chaos govt keeps control but no ownership govt standard public interest convenience or necessity 1934 Telecomm Act addsjurisdiction over interstate and foreign wire communication telephone creates FCC to replace FRC Wagner Hanield Bill voids all exisTing licenses allocaTes 25 of channels To non profiT uses such as educaTion religion labor eTc 1934 bill passed gt NOTHING educaTional on Tv 1996 Telecomm AcT I FCC rules and regulaTions Tv freeze Didn39T give ouT any new licenses or sTaTions for 4 years so ThaT They would avoid problems They had wiTh radio only 12 channels SixTh reporT and order FCC assigned channels geographically added 70 channels live TV Ampex creaTes video Tape prime Time colorsTereo sound I FCC commissioners I Self reguIaTion FCC chair Richard Wiley family viewing congress says They have To do a reporT on how FCC will reduce violence and obsceniTies on TV no inappropriaTe programs before 9PM CBS made family viewing hour from 89PM formal policy of TV neTworks I Public service obligaTions ascerTainmenT ciTizen group deTermines local problems in communiTy amp produces programs To Take care of iT noT much emphasis puT on equal employmenT opporTuniTies I Violence Indecency hildren39s educaTional reguiremenTs no inappropriaTe programs before 9 warnings on air and in lisTings CBS made family viewing hour I NeTwork sTandards and pracTices PTAR FCC ThoughT ThaT broadcasT neTwork had monopoly of prime Time gtResulT 78 PM was Taken away from neTworks and filled w enTerTainmenT I FCC enforcemenTs and fines EnforcemenT bureau enforces Telecomm acT AdjudicaTion seTTles dispuTes If license holder isn39T doing a good job Their license can be Taken away I Parsimony principle program maTeriaIs should be used sparingly repeaTed as much as possible shared as widely as possible I Programming assumpTions I STraTegies Terms I SyndicaTion recording and selling To oThers FirsT run firsT Time a show is on The air 0 Off neTwork a rerun of a program InTernaTional syndicaTion same language counTries share programs wiTh each oTher Mexico and UK syndicaTe give programs To local TVs in The US NeTwork affiliaTe relaTions o AffiliaTe is a group ThaT broadcasTs someThing eiTher radio or TV 0 NeTwork is way To share info beTween Two sysTems 9 an affiliaTe carries The broadcasTs of a neTwork buT is NOT owned by Them IndependenT sTaTion sTaTus broadcasT someThing on Their own quotindiesquot Program clearance DeficiT financing Financial inTeresT Si syndicaTion rules FACTORS THAT DONOT AFFECT PROGRAMMING 0 Audience viewing paTTerns o STrucTure SeparaTion convergence of producTion and disTribuTion differences across counTries are diminishing bc of Technological geographical convergence BroadcasTinTerneT convergence The colliding of The inTerneT and broadcasTing meThods Audience fragmenTaTion division of audiences due To The wide specTrum of media ouTleTs Audience flow how many people are waTching a cerTain sTaTion aT a cerTain Time BroadcasTing one poinT To many poinTs NarrowcasTing spreading of info To a narrow audience noT The public ImplicaTions of new Tech for TargeT markeTing Ki adverTising ScaTTer markeTs ads lefTover noT invaluable Though UpfronT markeTs in spring 6070 ads for The following fall Reciprocal influences of Tech amp insTiTuTional policies Technologies don39T develop on Their own Their consTrained by insTiTuTions insTiTuTions deTermine when how Tech is used Tech creaTes and changes insTiTuTions insTiTuTions shape and consTrain Tech 0 Relationships bw FCC amp Congress comm IndusTries amp Tech ExecuTive m appoinTs commissioners no more Than 3 from one parTy judicial courT decides if decisions should be appealed legislaTive rule making license renewal is only parT where FCC can demonsTraTe some power License renewed every 3 years if licensee serves public inTeresT convenience or necessiTy aT renewal Time parTy of inTeresT can challenge licensee wiTh peTiTion To deny parTy wiTh license usually wins public has no say only compeTing broadcasTer can file someThing RaTings used To decide faTe of program DeTermines how much sTaTions charge for adverTising Onlyprogram performance ThaT neTwork cares abouT RNTVHH shares based on households using Tv HUT NHUT FORMULA 5 Audience measuremenT o DMAS designaTed markeT area Where majoriTy of radioTv viewing occurs 0 MeTers provide info abouT whaT sTaTion Tv is on for how long when whaT shows 0 Diaries people geT paid To keep Track of whenwhere They waTch Tv or lisTen To The radio EffecTs of diaries noT accuraTe 0 People meTers push buTTons cards elecTronic IDs signals when for how long people are waTching TV for 0 PPM porTable people meTer Replaces diaries Whenever you are near a radio iT will send in a signal To keep Track of whaT sTaTion you are lisTening To I BroadcasT and cable raTings o Tonnage how many people are waTching 0 Demographics who They are Agesex o ShifTs in cable regulaTions 0 Cable and saTelliTes o ShifTs To fiber and digiTal o Niche services MSOs and verTical inTegraTion 0 Technical aspecTs of radioTv broadcasTing recepTion o ResoluTion o VBI blacker Than black name of signal when ampliTude on screen is higher Than black O O O 0 00000000000 0 O CaThodes Wave frequencies as frequency increases wavelengTh geTs shorTer Long wavelengTh low frequency shorT wave high frequency Always Travel aT The same speed Channel bandwidThs sizes carrier freq sideband channel ModulaTion process of puTTing inTelligence on a carrier wave 0 1ampliTudal AM Freq is consTanT amp is modulaTed o 2frequency FM AmpliTude is consTanT freq is modulaTed o 3pulse code modulaTion requires less power I Less inTerference PropagaTion way waves are generaTed o 1 skywaves can Travel long disTances I ShorT waveHFbounce back all The Time I AMbounce back only aT nighT 2 direcT wavesbounce sTraighT off anTennae Don39T require much energy To generaTe Follows line of sighT of horizon 3ground waveswaves Travel along curve of earTh Used for AM radio Travels along ground Carrier waves no informaTion inTelligence SpecTrum demands and behaviors DevelopmenT in DTV HDTV DAB DAT DigiTal compression Telephone cable convergence New delivery sysTems ImplicaTions for programming CurrenT evenTs Commercial raTings InTerneT disTribuTion 7070 rule FCC can regulaTe cable when cable available To 70 HH when 70 of Those subscribe A la carTe cable pricing unbundling programs WriTers sTrike is a sTrike for The wriTers To geT more money or benefiTs Advertising Terms and Practices conduct research buy media time CPM cost per Thousand amount of viewers1000 gt that cost Ex90000 viewers cost 180 so 9000010009O gt 18090 2 Local spot advertisements for local places like the Pub National spot group of stations held aside for certain ads to be shown on Network ads showing ad for tv show on its own station Clipping cut 30 sec away from program to have more time to advertise products Per inquiry ads not sold in stores special mail in offer Stations receive part of the profit Cooperative ads local dealer and national manufacturer share the cost Double billing sneaky illegal Local station and dealer rip off manufacturer Make goods on networks promise adjustments bc they took up your time so they give you additional time for free Reduces scatter market Up front market in spring 6070 ads for the following fall Inventory total ad time available to sell Scatter market ads leftover not invaluable though Network adjacencies local stations sell local advertising for more Clutter Limits Roles of AD AGENICES supervisedesign campaigns produce the ads pay the media represent sponsors to media work for advertiser not the media Traditionally 15 commission National sales reps non network groups of stations Syndicators Distributorsrecord and sell to others First run first time a show is on the air Off network Barter syndication commercials included with program for free EXstation might get program for free but 4 min of ads is already taken by syndicator 0 BAR broadcast advertising reports solves problems for advertisers and agencies used to have to keep log showing that shows were on ConfirMEDIA Media Watch monitors and verifies that ads are on when they39re supposed to be VEIL video encoded invisible light Codes embedded in every commercial saying time channel it should be on o RAB radio advertising bureau Help radio stations sell Themselves to advertisers o TvB TV advertising bureau Help TV stations market Themselves to advertisers o CAB cable advertising bureau o IAB interactive advertising bureau 0 Ratings percent of TVHH watching a program used to decide fate of programs Determines how much stations charge for advertising Only program performance that networks care about RNTVHH Arbitron radio neilsen tv 0 Sampling issues 0 DMAs designated market area Standard term for a market where majority of TVradio viewing occurs Largest DMA39s daily 0 Meters provides info about what station TV is on for how long when what shows 0 Diaries people get paid to keep track of whenwhere they watch tv or listen to radio Effects of diaries not accuratewatch moreless 0 People meters push buttons cards electronic IDs signals whenfor how long people are watching TV for 0 Passive measurement 0 PPMs portable people meter Replaces diaries Whenever you are near a radio it will send in a signal that it picks up to keep track of stations you are listening to 0 Network audience erosion 0 Shares based on HUT households using tv SNHUT o Cumes for radio audience per week 0 Sweeps 4 times a year data is collected everywhere 0 TVHH tv households 0 HUT households using tv the sum of the ratings 0 Sample error 65 chance that true meaning is in 1 sample error 95 chance that true meaning is in 2 sample errors error increased by low response rate assumes perfect sample wo missing data rarely happens takes large increase in sample size 0 Response rate 0 Tonnage how many are watching demographics who are they Agesex 0 Commercial ratings 0 Weighting the larger the weight the more problematic if group 10 of pop but 8 of sample weight by 125 8 x 125 10 if group10 of pop but 1 of sample weight by 10 1 X1010 o minorities Hypoing Cable Impact of techvcrsdvdsremote change ratings Dvd for videolibrary rentals DVR for time shifting Internet measurement issues Reciprocal Relationship bw comm Institutions amp tech technologies don39t develop on their own they39re constrained by institutions Institutions determine whenhow tech is used tech creates and changes institutions institutians shape and constrains tech Power Roles authorities confer licenses administerenforce the law patrons investsubsidize media managers executives administrators internal decision makers auxilaries provide services and raw materials experts specialists technicians consultants externa orgs watchdogs pressure groups pubHc Media programming is an organized social activity never one individual Producers seects the stories hires cast writers directors liason bw production co and network has authority for final cut and editing supervises major aspects of production THREE TYPES 1 film makers college grads who work their way up in a studio Have LEAST conflict w network 2 writer producers more from journalism program than media Script 3 writers who have message to get across BECOME PRODUCERS TO GAIN MORE CONTROL OF THEIR STORY CONTENT old line producers had a lot of experience success Ideas turned into pilots writer and old line producers have more conflict w network bc they want more of their own ideas used and less network control over them Affiliate group that broadcasts something either radio or tv Independents broadcast something on their own quotindiesquot Studios place where filming takes place CompensaTion Clearance Fin syn financial inTeresT and syndicaTion rules producers and disTribuTors need To be separaTe Repurposing running program on a differenT owned channel Then where iT comes from ex NBC shows same Thing on MSNBC and ABC shows one of Their shows on lifeTime economical for neTworks bc They don39T have To creaTe as many programsneTwork affiliaTes don39T like bc iT decreases shows value Commerce clause ScarciTy There is only so much channel space so noT everyone who wanTs To broadcasT can Public inTeresT NewTon Minow wanTed To know whaT iT was Every decision is based on The public inTeresT FCC TreaTs iT as a compromise balance bw compeTing inTeresTs sysTem runs on privaTe profiT BUT serves The public inTeresT PrivaTe profiT wins when There39s a conflicT bw public and privaTe BesT way To serve public have a loT of compeTiTion convenience or necessiTy PICON guiding govT sTandard Fairness DocTrine FOR ISSUES shows how gov39T TreaTs broadcasTing compared To oTher media if someone offers a conTroversial view The opposing Team musT be given reasonable opporTuniTiesquot To reply some indirecT effecTs mainTains sTaTus quo Through indusTry pressure limiTs ownership gives deTails of neTwork raised eyebrowquot ThreaT chilling effecT reduces conTroversy by giving Time To opposing views SecTion 315 FOR CANDIDATES no regulaTions deals w candidaTes running for office gives equal opporTuniTies To any oTher legally qualified candidaTe broadcasTer cannoT censor message if They don39T like opposing candidaTe PROBLEM gt every Time a candidaTe appears oThers demand equal Time 1996 Telecomm acT goal is To allow compeTiTion To occur Si anyone can enTer The communicaTion business MarkeTplace philosophy TV called ToasTer w picTuresquot Marc Fowler came up wiTh idea ThaT Tv is an appliance like a ToasTer Ki we shouldn39T regulaTe iT any differenle Than oTher appliances PTAR FCC ThoughT broadcasT neTwork had monopoly of prime Time 7 8PM was Taken away from neTworks Ki filled wiTh enTerTainmenT 0 Children39s educational programming requirements no inappropriate programs before 9PM warnings on air and in listings CBS made family viewing hour formal policy of TV networks 0 Digital broadcasting o Ascertainment citizen group determines local problems in community amp produces programs to take care of it o EEO requirements equal employment opportunities not much emphasis put on it o Antitrust and mergers 0 FCC FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES executive pres appoints commissioners no more than 3 from one party J39udicial court decides if decisions should be appealed legislative rule making 0 License renewals only part where FCC can demonstrate some power license renewed every 3 yrs if licensee serves public interest convenience and necessity currently 8 year for radio and TV at renewal time party in interestquot gt can file petition to denychallenging licensee party with license usually wins only group that can file anything is competing broadcaster public has NO say RENEWAL HEARINGS 1964 case church against TV station WLBT blamed guilty of racial discrimination and too many commercials shows that public interest groups have the right to have a voice Complaints 1 consumer and gov39t affairs bureau complaints about public education come from parents tv council 2 enforcement bureau enforces telecomm act 3 media bureau regulates licenses broadcast station adjudication settles disputes acts on petition to deny if they39re not doing a good job license can be taken away Rule making legislating Hearings dropped or report and order or policy statement Raised eyebrow FCC makes indirect general statement as a threat so that something gets changed Jawboning illegal direct explicit pressure is put on networks to do something PASTORE HEARINGS 1972 Eisenhower sTarTs NaTional Commission on The Causes and PrevenTion of Violence Eisenhower Commission PasTore asks surgeon general To underTake new research on reducing The violence M S generals sTudies 23 new original sTudies done All meThods show posiTive link bw Tv violence and aggressive behavior 7 of 12 members affiliaTed wiTh neTworks NIVH forms Surgeon Generals ScienTific Advisory CommiTTee on TV and Social Behavior conclusion preliminary and TenTaTive indicaTion of relaTion bw viewing violence on TV Si aggressive behaviorBS BUT press said ThaT TV violence was unharmful To youTh Self regulaTion FCC chair Richard Wiley famin viewing congress says ThaT They have To do reporT on how FCC will reduce violence and obsceniTies on TV no inappropriaTe programs before 9PM CBS made family viewing hour from 89PM formal policy of TV neTworks
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