HNRS GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
HNRS GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 2003H
Popular in Course
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miss Jerald Mosciski on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2003H at University of Arkansas taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/232390/psyc-2003h-university-of-arkansas in Psychlogy at University of Arkansas.
Reviews for HNRS GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/30/15
Honors Psychology Final Review 1 De nition of Personality Personality enduring and characteristic patterns in behavior individual differences what makes people unique Enduring crosstemporal consistency see it years from now Characteristic crosssituational consistency in behavior see it in every situation 2 Freud39s Three Elements of Personality Id Ego Superego Conscious vs Unconscious Id there when we are born amp is governed by the pleasure principle Oral stage birth 18 months Ego evolves out of Id serves the Id amp is governed by the reality principle in uenced by experience Anal stage 18 months 3 yrs Superego an individuals moral stanceconscious in uenced by society Phallic stage 4 yrs 6 yrs Intrapsychic dynamic Id Ego Superego at war with each other 3 Defense Mechanisms Repression motivated forgetting Rationalization excuses Projection attribute own unacceptable feelings to others Ex gay people are attracted to me I m not attracted to them Reaction formation express opposite of true feelings Displacement diverting emotional feelings usually anger from their original source to a substitute taret a 3 quot w Identi cation bolstering selfesteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group 4 Stages of Psychosexual Development and Adult Personality Characteristics Associated with Each Stage Oral stage birth 18 months the mouth is the primary erogenous zone Oral type resulted by a signi cant fixation in the oral stage Cathexis Ifl can t really have it I ll imagine it with libido Symbolically reliving the oral stage 9 eat a lot talkative gregarious dependent drink a lot 9 obese smoking alcoholism substance abuse Anal sta e 18 months 3 yrs toilet training pride control C ch lil wi h 31 Phalli Phallic Boys castration anxiety resolution adoption of male sex role defense identi cation Phallic Girls penis envy blames mom resolution adopting of female sex role Both Oedipus con ict Phallic type Phallic men super stud 9 trying to convince themselves that they re the man terribly insecure Phallic women somebody like Madonna 9 control men Latency Stage 712 yrs psychologically calm NO adult personality type associated with Puberty and Adolescence 1217 yrs biological changes new surge of libido In adults become anxious 9 use defense mechanisms Genital stage become as concerned for others as you are for yourself true love Sincere and general concern for others 5 Libido Fixation lntrapsychic con ict Oedipus conflict Libido eros sexual energy psychic energy that seeks pleasure Fixation When we use libido to retain an extremely pleasant event or When we use libido to push a really bad event into unconscious Oedipus conflict sexually desire parent ofopposite sex amp rivalry with parent of same sex result of xation in phallic stage lntrapsychic con icts personality the ld Ego and Superego are at war with each other 6Free association Dream Analysis Manifest vs Latent content lnsight Catharsis ResistanceTransference Countertransference Role of insight nature of xation Free association a psychoanalytic technique in which clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur with as little censorship as possible tell me what you re thinking about Dream analysis a psychoanalytic technique in which the therapist interprets the s mbolic meanin ofthe client s dream39 tell me about our dreams Res largely unconsolous defensIve maneuvers a client uses to hinder the progress of therapy gets close to revealing root of problem and changes topic 9 analyst needs to nd a way to overcome resistance Transference ln therapy the phenomenon that occurs when clients start relating to their therapists in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives Positive transference I love analyst this is always how I wanted my mom to be 9 treat analyst like mom Negative transference analyst tells patient he is just an analyst not his mom 9 analyst is a quack I hate him Countertransference analyst s feelings for patient don t overcome their own problems and project them onto patient 7 Theories of Personality TraitsAllport Big Five Freudian psychodynamic theory how ld Ego and Superego get along with each other Libido xations oral stage anal stage phallic stage latency stage puberty and adolescence and genital stage adult personality types defense mechanisms Cognitivebehavioral approach application of learning theory to personality Types of learning operant classical and observational Used to explain behavioral differences Radical beh viorism Skinner if 3fquot 7139 Socialcognitive learning Bandura Different reinforcements change what we expect 9 reciprocal determinism Encoding expectancies How do I approach the world and what do get out of it Humanistic approaches stress each person s uniqueness unique potential People strive for selfactualization Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Carl Roger s selftheo The organism 39 Totality ofyour experiences Unconscious ou don t have immediate access to it The self mi ltH 33 Real self what you answer to who am I ldeal self who do I want to be Real vs ideal self39 deree of conruence l 8 De nitions and criterIa of Abnormality Abnormality deviates from the norm Types Atypical statistical criteria Maladaptive doesn t interfere with a person s life Personally distressing are they things we don t like lrrational distorted beliefs delusions hallucinations Violation of socialmoral standards is it bothering other people What are the standards we are going to use What is socially acceptable 9 Psychological Disorders a Anxiety Disorders generalized anxiety PTSD phobias agoraphobia panic attacks OCD Generalized Anxiety feeling impending doom trouble with concentration can t pinpoint what is causing this disorder everything is distressing free oating anxiety Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD 911 Hurricane Katrina War in Iraq reaction to an event that involved an actual or threatened death or serious injury or threat to physical integrity of self or others 1 Reexperiencing intrusive thoughts ashbacks 2 Avoidance and numbing sense of estrangement and alienation 3 Hypervigilance and hyperarousal loss of impulse control Phobias intense and irrational fears of some potentially dangerous stimulus reaction disproportionate to danger the stimulus represents Agoraphobia fear of uncontrolled open space marketplace mall etc Panic attacks autonomic system 9 the heart and respiratory rate go crazy when an individual is in complete terror Obsessivecompulsive disorders obsessive repetitive thought compulsive repetitive behavior b Somatoform Disorders SomatizationDisorder Conversion disorders h it individual converting psychological problem to a physical problem Hypochondriasis extreme concern for oneself c Dissociative Disorders Amnesia motivated forgetting repression Fugue eeing their prior identity they don t know who they are and forget old life they forget the negative part of their old live Dissociative identity disorder multiple personalities NOT schizophrenia 3 faces of eve white black and Jane think of them all as completely different people Sybil 16 different people 14 women 2 men shift in and out of different personalities one good painter one good businessman etc 10 Models of Mental Illness DemonologicalSupernatural MedicalBiological Psychodynamic Behavioral Humanistic Demonological possessed by demons 9 exorcisms Medical biological factors diagnose 9 treatment 9 cure Help idea of diagnoses 9 come up with diagnostic categories lmplies what treatment should be Psychodynamic lntrapsychic con icts fixations Behavioral faulty learning Humanistic blockedincongruent actualization 11 Goals and com on fe tures of Psychotherapy l centered Biomedicaldrug therapy Cognitivebehavioral thera 13 BehavioralTherapies Counterconditionin lmplosive therapyFlooding 1 39 u u H 14 Humanistic approaches to therapy Clientcentered therapy Rogeriannondirective therapy therapists serve as guide to help you explore and lets it be your choice to do anything Give client unconditioned positive regard Empathetic understanding 1w Genuineness honestly with client Promote greater congruence reduce realideal discrepancy 15 Effectiveness of Psychothera Smith and Glass 16 Personality disorders 39r 17 DiathesisStress model Diathesis biology stress situation Diathesis vulnerability 18 Mood Affective Disorders Mood disorders loss ofemotional control Major depressive disorder 1520 of individuals will experience one in their lifetime Depressed mood for most ofthe day nearly every day diminished interest or pleasure in all activities weight loss loss of energy insomnia or hypersomnia feelings of worthlessness learned helplessness recurrent thoughts of death or suicide Dsythymic disorder Similar to depression but not as extreme Longerterm than depression can hold jobs but never happy with life Bipolar disorders previously manicdepression When their mood is in the manic state they are the furthest from depression and they have the sensation that they can do all ofthese things Their mood will level off for a while then plunge deep into depression Cyclothymia Similar to bipolar disorder but not as extreme 19 Klein Objectrelations theory Jung Analytical psychology Adler Individual psychology Revisions of Freud s Psychodynamic theory The neoFreudians Carl Jung Id broke with Freud because of what he believed was Freud s over emphasis on sexual motives Analytical psychology Collective unconscious 1 Personal 2 Collective all mankind Alfred Adler Id emphasized social interests desire to overcome sense of inferiority striving for superiority as if approach Individual psychology Ex I ll behave MI have the power Melanie Klein Ego object relations theory egobased pattern of relations with others started in childhood Ego more rational and important Realitybased get away from sexual aspects 20 IQ tests Binet Terman StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale Computing IQ MACA x 100Deviation IQ Francis Galton hereditary genius Measured intelligence in terms of sensory ability 9 more intelligence faster reaction time Nature vs nurture Intelligence testing first devised by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in 1905 Initial use remedial education selection measure for Paris schools Standardized assessment objectively test Created agebased tests mental age norm Lewis Terman developed Stanford Binet intelligence scale Cultural bias Intelligence quotient IQ mental agechronological age X 100 Normally distributed symmetrical standard deviation 16 points Average 100 genius gt 130 mental retardation lt 70 StanfordBinet intelligence scale Gold Standard 9 individual administration Not just one score but a score for each section Verbal reasoning vocabulary comprehension Quantitative reasoning quantitative tests number series Abstract visual reasoning paper folding copying Shortterm reasoning memory of sentences memory for digits digit span test Deviation IQ standard deviation score NOT mental agechronological age IQ individual differences Trait approach Big 5 Factor Theory OCEAN Traits adjective descriptors Costa ampMcKae Neo Personality Inventor Factor analysis 9 5 major factors emerge regularly across ages genders languages cultures etc 5 dimensions OCEAN more or less of some characteristic 21 Reliability and Validity Reliability consistency of measure Testretest reliability look for correlations Splithalf reliability look at internal reliability Validity ability of a test to measure what it claims to measure Just because a test is reliable does not mean it is valid Face validity does the test look like it measures what it claims to Content validity how well does the test sample the domain ofwhat it measures Criterionbased validity does the test map up with some independent criteria 1 Concurrent validity does this test have the same results as another test over the same material 2 Predictive validity do the test results predict future results Construct validity technical the idea of intelligence is a construct make sure test is measuringonly intelligence A test can never be more valid than it is reliable 22Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMIVTR Five Axes 23 Schizophrenia Disorders Subtypes Schizophrenia a breaksplit in the mind split mind not in touch with reality Cognitive disorder Defining symptoms Delusions hallucinations fail to test reality ifl move the world will end but don t test this theory incoherent thinking think all overthe map no parallel line between thoughts confused mentally disorganized loose associations thinking all over the map bizarre behaviorspeech patterns say words over and over that don t relate to each other but rhyme attened affect don t show normal emotional reactions subdued deterioration of adaptive behavior can t take care ofthemselves able to have a conversation with no one very easily Subtypes of schizophrenia Paranoid delusions of persecution someone is out to get me Delusions of reference delusion that everything is about me narcissistic Delusions of Gandeur think they have special powers Reactive type sudden onset of symptoms Disorganized process type individual develops disorder and it get worse with time Childlike existence don t grasp reality Catatonic catatonic stupo assume a posture and hold it for a long period of time for no apparent reason Catatonic excitement hyperactivity become a risk to themselves MANIA rare reactive type Undifferentiated may be diagnosed as mentally retardedhas a learning disability Process type if left alone will keep getting worse and worse Keep with family can take care of themselves 24 Delusion Hallucinations Delusion belief contrary to fact false beliefs that are maintained even though they are clearly out of touch with reality Hallucinations reported sensory experiences that don t exist sensory perceptions that occur in the absence ofa real external stimulus or gross distortions of perceptual input 25 The quotBig Fivequot personality traits OCEAN Openness to new experiences curious imaginative aesthetics Conscientiousness dependable organized disciplined Extraversion outgoing gregarious energetic friendly assertive Agreeableness trust generous warm kind Neuroticism negative emotionality unstable anxious depression 26 Maslow s Hierarchy of needs Selfactualization Hierarchy of needs Fundamental needs biological and safety needs Psychological needs belongingness and selfesteem needs Selfactualization Accepting of selfand others democratic values fairness for all people Autonomy and independent resist conformity don t have to follow rules unless they are the ones for me Creative think outside the box Spontaneous openness to experience Selfdeprecating not hurtful to others Problemcentered recognize problems of global warming and importance of going green Realistic 27 Objective testing Projective test Use of personality tests 28 Neurotransmitters and Psychological disorders 29 Difference between Psychologists and Psychiatrists 21 examples stories Who came up with IQ test MentalChronological X 100 19 know 3 people Know all of9 Take the example test 6 Id Ego Superego 4 but easy 3 a lot on defense mechanism
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'