Geography 107 Midterm
Geography 107 Midterm 160
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Irizarry on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 160 at San Francisco State University taught by Leora Nanus in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Science in Geology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
reoional deoqraphv branch of geography that combines elements of physical amp human geography to reveal how natural social economic political amp cultural phenomenon come together to produce distinctive geographic settings study of regions regions are fluid sometimes arbitrary and subjective reqionalization the act of dividing the world into regions the geographers classification of individual places or area units equivalent of scientific classification Location a position or point in physical space that something occupies on the Earth s surface measurable amp consistent o absolute location designated using specific pairing of latitude amp longitude 0 relative location the location of place or area in a relationship to another place globalization process involving the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic environmental political and cultural change Scale multiple ways cartographic scalerefers to depicted size of a feature on a map relative to its actual size in the world 0 analysis scale refers to the size of a geographic unit which some problem is analyzed 0 phenomenon scale size at which human or physical earth structures or processes exist regardless of how they are studied or represented 0 global gt regional gt local gt personal Place location infused w meaning geopolitical framework 1 longitude amp latitude are ways of expressing absolute location geopolitics the impacts of geography on politics State an independent sovereign political unit w recognized boundaries by other states functions of state supplier of public goods regulator of domestic economy social engineer gt getting the population to do things jury dutypay taxes arbiter of disputes within territory judocracy vehicle for sovereignty sovereignty the quality of having supreme independent authority over a territory Westphalia to maintain order so countries can t just invade and take over other countries Nation a group of people sharing a common cultural historical or political identity NationState where nation amp state coincide Diaspora one nation spread across multiple states Nationalism the identification of an ethnic identity wa state during industrialization it is recognized as a necessary for a strong nationstate cultural nationalism form of nationalism in which the nation is defined by shared cultural aspects like language tradition history The Hutu and Tutsis reading ilearn discussed the reasons why there was so much tension between the two tribes the difficulties of being a nation state the Berlin Conference outside countries split up Africa into 50 sections without any say from the people living on the land those countries would claim individual sections cultural nationalism is shown through a common language between the tribes and that the Hutu s have been on the land longer Germany gained Rwanda mistreated the people thought Tutsis were better due to whiter skin while majority of pop was Hutu this opened more opportunities for the Tutsis like getting an education and getting food while Hutu suffered Functions of Borders and Boundaries 0 give political space ontology giving meaning to a statepolitical space need to know where it starts amp ends inclusionary vs exclusionary who is included amp who is visitor formal vs informal low permeability vs high permeability 0 natural vs human made Gerrymandering manipulate the boundaries of an electoral constituency so as to favor one party or class Frontier a border between two countries a region that forms the margins of a settled or developed territory Exclaves a portion of a country separated from the main land legally attached Enclaves A distinct territorial cultural or social unit enclosed within or common characteristics in one areaterritory conjucture the coming together at a particular point in time of othenNise separate historical developments and processes Features of Capitalism A a specific way of organizing production B private ownership of the means of the production a idea of class emerges Labor sold as commodity exchange happens in open market competitive relationship among producers ultimate goal in producing is to make profit profit is surplus to be reinvested Capital usually thought of as money expands value in society fixedsunk costs El value in motionmoney never stops one person to the next El relationships w amp between places The Circuit of Capital initial investment of which can be borrowed in means of production amp labor reinvestment surplus invest in goods factory labor production distributionsellmake reinvest old division of labor labor in core factories labor in periphery manually vs machinerfarming GDTHT39UQ Comparative Advantaqe the ability of a party individual country company to produce a good at a lower cost than another party in the most efficient things to consider 1 accessibility in core and periphery 2 spatial integration between amp with regions European Expansion root of capitalist world system Industrial Revolution results in decline of artisans guilds journeymen merchant capitalism earliest phase of capitalism as an economy and social system small scale product agricultural specialties textiles craft trading in markets profit in trading process Industrialized capitalism accumulation of vast amounts of through investments in machinery began in England in late 18th century new technologies steam engines cotton textile iron working more labor raw material energy new techniques assembly line factories requires more initial investment new sources of power coal hydro petroleum profit generation in production process division of labor emerges between Euro industrial production sell goods amp Non Euro areas become raw material source Great Britain and France lead in industrialization Nationalism is stronger songs and flags generated to acquire loyaltysupport of working class a system of pursuit of an empire process of accumulation amp acquisition of land resources labor and profits 0 goal the creation of colonies politically submissive and economically profitable to their European metropolis o ideology certain people amp territories require domination assistance civilization Cause of imperialism A Search for new material to sell european goods B raw materials C for cheap and profitable labor and lands D for goods for consumption to grow economy Justification other parts of the world need saving civilize the uncivilized military and commercial needs great power status requires colonialism diplomatic competition between European powers Social imperialism attempt to use imperial expansion to diminish domestic discontent the wow of travel White man39s burden get rid of the sicknesssavage thankless job do all this work and not thanked you need to do it to help others Effects of Imperialism families were broken up race thinking thinking about the world in terms of race 1800 european on 35 of world 1878 67 1914 85 economic effects for colonial areas competition between european nations led to WI Colonialism taking over territories and claiming it as theirs an extension of the main land rapid process colonization slow takes time WWII set the stage 1 politically economically militarily exhausted European powers 2 concessions during wartime offering benefits if you join service 3 Indigenous Administrators natives take over admin positions Main causes desire of independence european distraction winternal affairs rebuildinglack of food resentment against discrimination feed up w poor treatment Limits of Decolonization social hierarchy corruption western dominance economic dependence extracting resources from other parts of the world weak infrastructure gt public health paved roads education no basic institutions so can t move fonvard tribal allegiances The Cold War and Africa politics capitalist block vs communist block socialism as a response to inequality other problems population growth limited capital for local people dependence turning to institutions taking out loans weapon escalating ethnic tension patterns global historical environmental factors near water moderate temp flatfertile land natural resources cultural historic factors colonization historicalreligious place transportation routes CBR crude birth rate child births per 1000 per year in a country Factors of CBR 0 need for agricultural labor need for social security education of women available birth control religiontradition economic structure 0 health care sanitation infrastructure CDRcrude death rate total of deaths per 1000 per year in a country Factors of CDR 0 Health care 0 epidemics Ex HIV plague war 0 infant mortality rate 0 political structure RNl rate natural increase CBR CDR if positive pop is increasion if negative pop declining TFR total fertility rate measure of average of children a woman will have throughout childbearing years 1549 Infant mortality rate reflects annual of deaths of infants less than 1 yr old compared to total of live births for same year if babies are dying then ppl will keep trying to have another kid increasing CBR double timing measure of how long it will take the population of an area to grow twice its current size population pyramid give a sense of age amp gender structure in a population in a country dependency ratio number of dependents old amp young that 100 persons in productive years must support old dependents 65 young 014 when country s pop is relatively young CBR is higher and CDR is low RNI high if old then everything is opposite Demooraphic Transition Model each country passes through stages as country develops economically each stage reveals different relationships between birth deaths natural increase stages of economic development derived from experience of western countries core Stage 1 pre 1750 agrarian society BR amp DR are high minimal pop growth Stage 2 17501850early industry right before imperialism DR declines amp BR still high still some pop growth Stage 3 18501950 late industry DR declines but slows down BR declines pop growth slows Stage 4 1950 present post industrial BR amp DR are low minimal pop growth industrialization leads to pop shift most core countries are here most periphery are at stages 2 amp3 Demographic trap it s bottom heavy not enough of the productive population to support the country and families not enough ppl to provide resources for population DR s have fallen wadvances in medi care BR s have not fallen to match death rates Incomplete industrialization amp urbanization persistent mortality rate RNI high rates in periphery low in core RNI does not take into account migration voluntarv mioration push cause people to leave like war unemployment poverty or pull factors to move somewhere else opportunity employment climate reason for choosing destination family members gov policiesactive encouragement infomedia ads forced migration no choice but to move ex Trail of Tears Atlantic Slave Trade Trends global migration rural to urban periphery to core Demographic trap in rural areas King Lepold s Ghost King Lepold takes over the area now known as Congo he basically abuses his European power extracting the resources for personal profit while telling europe he is doing a good deed for the people there Cruel and horrible treatment to the Congolese hands out off if not making quota of rubber enslaved the people to work for him build railways harvest resources if not then you d die Takes natural resources like ivory uranium rubber and took art Sells land to Belgium treatment does not change half the population during the reign of Lepold is killed demonstrating the result of imperialism outside powers exploiting the land for profit created a legacy to take advantage of the Congo let the world know how vulnerable it really was set up a pattern that justifies future rulers actions
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