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exam 1

by: shal
Claudia P Marquez

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About this Document

Claudia P Marquez
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by shal on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1333 - 002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Claudia P Marquez in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see DISCOVERING BIOLOGY: MOLECULES, CELLS AND DISEASE in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Chapter 1 Process of Science Scientific inquiry is used to ask and answer questions Copyright 2014 by W H Freeman and Company Java Report making sense of the latest buzz in health related news r Medicine Coffee Nerves Monday Mar lQB gt Subscriber content preview Subscribe now or Login Share Is there cancer in the cup 0 STUDY LINKS COFFEE USE TO PAN CREAS CANCER By memo M scrim50H 339 Pug 2WD Mata ii 198 Driving Questions How is the scienti c method used to test hypotheses What factors in uence the strength of scienti c studies and whether the results of any given study are applicable to a particular population 3 How can you evaluate the evidence in media reports of sden cstudms 4 How does the scienti c method apply in clinical trials designed to investigate important issues in human health 9215 i r C More than just facts that are memorized A method to answer questions A process of using observations and experiments to draw evidence based conclusions A way of knowing Drawing conclusions from the best evidence available at any one time can be refuted later How do scientists draw conclusions Reports in the news Co ee causes cancer Co ee prevents some diseases Ca eine can be poisonous Ca eine is good Ca eine is bad Ron Leishman 39 illustrationsOfcomquot44028O How do scientists draw conclusions Use best evidence available Ask Was the science performed properly Conclusion may be modi ed in the future Science is a never ending process 9215 Science is a process make an observation Often unreliable untested Anecdotal evidence Science is a process formulate a question Use observation to devise a 3 question Initial observations generate questions l 39 l Does co ee help improve mental performance Science is a process studying previous research Peer review review of an article by MEDIUM experts before publication quot ensures that the authors have appropriately designed and interpreted their study weeds out sloppy research Study peerL reviewed scienti c Eliterature 9215 Science is a process forming scienti c hypotheses Hypothesis quotCa einated H 1 3 co ee improves memory I Make 1 scienti c H 2 l ixif 1 hypotheses g I that are g 1 testableand E falsi able l quot3 39 i 1 H4 l 3 Science is a process forming scienti c hypotheses testable supported or rejected by carefully designed experiments or nonexperimental studies falsi able can be ruled I ve narrowed it to two hypotheses OUt by data it grew or we shrunk Science is a process forming scienti c hypotheses Not all explanations are scienti c hypotheses An explanation that cannot be tested or refuted falls outside the realm of scienti c explanation A hypothesis is never proven lf false it is rejected and no longer considered a possible answer to the original question If the data support the hypothesis it will be accepted until further testing and data show otherwise 9215 9215 Scientists form and test hypotheses and share their results We solve everyday problems by using hypotheses A common example would be the reasoning we use to answer the question Why doesn t a ashlight work Using deductive reasoning we realize that the problem is either 1 the bulb or 2 the batteries Further a hypothesis must be Testable falsi able In this example two hypotheses are tested Question 1m quot12 Fm Burnedout bulb I39l n Dead batteries Question Y1 0 Burnedout bulb II 3 1 if a Dead batteries Replacing batteries Replacing bulb will fix problem will fix problem Test prediction by Test prediction by replacing batteries replacing bulb Q Question Burnedout bulb quotquotquotto h e39s ls 9 Dead batteries Replacing batteries quot 39 39 a bulb i will fix problem will fix problem Test prediction by Test prediction by replacing batteries replacing bulb Test does not Test faISIers K hypothesis Revise fals39fy hYP theSIS hypothesis or Make addltlonal pose new one predictions and test them mzovz Pearson Eaucahoquot inc Science is a process experimentation Results Hypotheses can be support h th tested usmg 3quot esquot experimentation T Carry out 1 Analyze I make i i concluswns A controlled 3y experimental su orted n exper39ment 395 a r experiments data bypdzta carefully designed quot 7 test The results of an Results do not support experiment either hypothesis support or rule out a hypothesis Science is a process experimentation Hypothesis quotCa einated co ee improves memory Relationship between Cups of Coffee AND Memory Retention Quantity of Retained Memories Time The experiment measure the e ects of co ee drinking on a group of participants 9215 Anatomy of an experiment Experimental group experiences the experimental intervention or manipulation Control group experiences no experimental intervention or manipulation Basis for comparison Placebo a fake treatment given to control groups to mimic the experience of experimental groups Independent variable variable or factor being deliberately changed in the experimental group Dependent variable measured result of an experiment analyzed in both the experimental and control groups I n l L I lIL r 4 r a r Anatomyof an experiment the independent variable Population of 40 men and women over age 65 Hypothesis Drinking caffeinated coffee prevents daily memory decline Random placement into equivalent groups with respect to age gender health activity level etc Independent variable the variable that is changed in a systematic way Dependent variable the variable that is measured in the experiment Results from data Evidencebased conclusion Placebo Treatment 12 oz decaffeinated coffee 30 minutes prior to test Test Treatment 12 oz caffeinated coffee 30 minutes prior to test Memory Test given morning and afternoon on different days Memory Test given morning and afternoon on different days Memory Test Scores Afternoon scores weteworse than morning scores Memory Test Scores Afternoon scores were the sameas morning scores lnlographic 13 Biology fora Changing World Second Edition 4 H affeinated coffee prevents memory decline in this population Science is a process drawing conclusions Con dence in the conclusions drawn from experimentation is increased by the repetition of the experiment by other scientists iii observations r a 39L 4 u teu allu In al generate questions reviewed publications J Make scientific hypotheses that are testable and Rigoroust test this hyputhesis with more experiments Resultssupporthypothesis 39 I I Studypeer as viewed quot quot gti Carry outcontrolled gtAnalvze experimental data Make mum alslilable r t experiments I i 7 tontiusions quot3 su orted 13 literature xii PF 7 L i a a hymn I m I at of Resultsdo not support hypothesis til36quot lnfographic 11 Biology foraChanging World Second Edition r I H r eman anti nl quotRI us mar 39 39 39 A A imaner 9215 Science is a process drawing conclusions Sample size is important number of experimental subjects or the number of times an experiment is repeated The larger the sample size the more likely the results will have statistical signi cance measure of con dence that the results obtained are real rather than due to random chance Sample size matters if i The more data collected in an experiment the more you can trust the conclusions Data from a few participants Data from dozens of participants Effect of Caffeine on Memory Effect of Caffeine on Memory 100 1 00 u 13 3 3 t o gt 80 gt 80 3 a a t t t a o o o 3 3 a E 60 E 60 v o a o o quot quot o E4o o E40 quot39 3 r 3 v 2 39 xv W 7 om r o o s 3 3 x 20 5 20 O a 39 39 39 O O o l l I o I l l 0 100 200 300 O 100 200 300 Intake of caffeine per day mg Intake of caffeine per day mg Conclusions drawn from these data might These data show a more convincing positive effect suggest that caffeine has only a slight of caffeine on memory a 45 average increase positive influence on memory a 15 because the observed effect is supported by more average increase but are not definitive data A statistical analysis would show that this because of the small sample size positive in uence is significant in other words it is not due to chance lnfographic1A Biology tom Changing Wold Second Edition mpany Science is a process publication Experimental results are published in peer reviewed journals Publish results in peer 1 reviewed publications 9215 Everyday theory vs scienti c theory In everyday life people use the word theory to refer to an idea that they would like to follow up In science a theory is a hypothesis that has never been disproved even after many years of rigorous testing Everyday theory Scientific theory An idea based on personal experience and Important hypothesis supported by thousands of knowledge scientific experiments g 1 Cell Theory All living things are made of cells f you carry an umbrella with you he freezer Is it won39t rain the safest place 0 keep valuables Theony of General Relativity You feel more Gravity in uences cheerful when time and space you wear bright clothing Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Populations of organisms change over time adapting to their environment Infographic 15 Biology fora Changing World Second Edition 4 H l Irinht h n ml G LasleyVIREO FLPADavid HoskingagefotostockJ Side effects of caffeine Despite potential bene ts as a memoryenhancer the caffeine in coffee has some powerful side effects MIXIIIIIIIII lellmende 39 39 39 rvln d Adult Dose Is 400 mgday Visua Nervous System Seeing ashes Irritability Anxiety Ears o Restlessness Starbucks Grande Ringing E Confusinn Caffe Latte 1601 15039quot 94 Skin quot Dall39lum Decaffeinated Headadie coffee Coffee I d 8 oz 6 mg 0 7 39 ma Insomnia sensitivity 7 3 01 47 quot399 5 9 to touch L v r Snapple Tea 15 oz 42 mg 26 or palquot Monster Respiratory Energy Drillquot 1 1 16 39 9 1039quot Rapid 39 Red Bull 846 oz so mg 15 breathing r Full Throttle I Sfpf39 iv quot Gastric c 39G 39 39 39Abdominal pain Realich Dehydration yomi ing urination FEVer possibly with blood Science is a process nding patterns Some questions cannot be tested through controlled experiments rill Erin Through careful observations or comparisons of phenomena in nature scientists canm f 1 patterns and help 39 I answer questions Epidemiology is the study of patterns of disease in populations 9215 Science is a process nding patterns Is there a relationship between co ee drinking and the incidence of Parkinson disease Science is a process nding patterns Observing patterns can show a consistent relationship or link between variables Correlation Consistent relationship between two variables Correlation between two variables does not prove that one variable causes the other 9 correlation is NOT causation Correlation does not equal causation 39 While the data shown below show a convincing correlation between reduced caffeine intake and an increased risk of Parkinson disease it is impossible to state that less coffee causes Parkinson disease Other factors that were not tested or controlled for could be causing the reduced risk So does drinking coffee cause 35 Coffee akey may Less coffee Parkinson disease Nondrinkers correlates with 30 48 higher incidence Perhapsbut there are many possible 1215 of Parkinson explanations of the data g 20 24 rrr disease Drinking coffee reduces the risk of developing I 2395 28 39 Parkinson disease u g J39f 39 People who are at risk for developing 20 P In 39 1 39 I u E I IIJr Drinking coffee masks the symptoms of 39g 15 l Parkinson disease thereby reducing the rate 2 More coffee of diagnosis of Parkinson disease in coffee a 10 correlates with COHSFmers lower incidence Parkinson IS a complex disease so there may 0 5 V r of Parkinson be other influential environmental or 39 disease behavioral factors that are not controlled for in this experiment 0 I I I I I l The results may be specific to Japanese 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 American men and not translate well to the Coffee intake ozday general population lnfographic 17 Biology foraChanging World Second Edition 9 2014w H Freeman and Company 9215 10 Science is a process nding patterns Co ee drinkers had a lower incidence of Parkinson disease But Correlation is not causation Could be affected by many factors eg age sex diet genetics exposure to bacteria amp environmental factors drinking smoking exercise etc Science as a process drawing conclusions Exercise caution when evaluating epidemiology results Hard to control for complexity of a disease Small sample sizes 39 N 10 39 N 1000 39 N 10000 9215 Science is a process Use a known correlation to design a controlled experimental study Conduct a randomized clinical trial Controlled medical experiment in which randomly chosen subjects used in control and experimental groups to test an independent variable 11 Randomized clinical trial Experimental group drinks caffeinated coffee Control group drinks decaf Follow both groups for a number of years to see which one has the higher incidence of disease From the lab to the media lost in translation Data are often very complex and the public often receives them as isolated media headlines 1 39 quot I 39 39 R quot 39 39 39 I 39 39 hiltthnnnhlir receives them as isolated media headlines Data from sdenli t studies pr a large amount of information No lnfographic 1 5 Biology foraChanging World Second Edition 2014 W H Freeman and Company PhotmTony WestAlamy Summary Science is an ongoing process in which scientists conduct carefully designed studies to answer questions or test hypotheses Scienti c hypotheses are tested in controlled experiments or in observational studies the results of which can support or rule out a hypothesis Scienti c hypotheses can be supported by data but cannot be proved absolutely as future studies may provide new ndings 9215 12


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