exam 2 BIOL 1333 - 002
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BIOL 1333 - 002
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by shal on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1333 - 002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Claudia P Marquez in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see DISCOVERING BIOLOGY: MOLECULES, CELLS AND DISEASE in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
91414 Chapter 4 Nutrition Metabolism Enzymes Driving Questions 1 What are the macronutrients and micronutrients provided by food 2 What are essential nutrients 3 What are enzymes and how do they work 4 What are the consequences of a diet lacking suf cient nutrients The Peanut Butter Project Doctor s effort to end malnutrition in Africa A nonpro t organization using the American pantry staple to end malnutrition in Africa V C y 33 39 aaaaaaaaaaaaa m 91414 What is malnutrition A medical condition resulting V from the lack of essential nutrients in the diet Often but not always associated with starvation unnumbered a p76 Biology fora Changing War11 Second Eamon GIANLulGl GUERUAAFPGetty images Malnutrition around the world Number one killer of children around the world More die each year than the number who die from AIDS tuberculosis and malaria combined Most deaths occur in subSaharan Africa Poverty is endemic Food is scarce most of the year While food is the most bask of human requirements for survival on average 1 in 8 people goes to bed hungry each night If Verylnm Mmaklylw Murmurhigh nigh ndemnulixhnd ammude undemnurished undum39mlixhed Veryhiall undemnulishnd Why does lack of food lead to malnutrition Food contains nutrients Nutrients The chemical building blocks our bodies need to live grow and repair themselves Provide energy Energy is the ability to do work Powers our activities Helps build complex muscles Macronutrients Nutrients that organisms must ingest in large amounts to maintain health Carbohydrates proteins lipids fats Foods contain mixtures of macronutrients A varied diet must include tr vegetables oils grains meat dairy products 91414 a The I quot 39 39 39 proteins and lipids commonly referred to as fats While most foods contain all of these one or two macronutrients predominate in each food type A well balanced diet is one 39 39 39 39 variety 0 quot that the body gets enough of each macronutrient to grow and remain healthy Foods rich in V Foods rich in Foods rich in carbohydrates proteins v Legumes Infographlc 4 2 Biology fora Changing World Second Edition 2014W H Freemanandr r 39 39 Jeffrey C 39 39 mzmmiillzt Food provides macronutrients Many foods contain all three types of macronutrients The proportion of each one varies in different foods Animal products contain more protein per gram than carbohydrates Most plant products contain mor than protein 39 e carbohydrates Macronutrients are large molecules that must be broken down by digestion Provide our cells with building blocks Cannot be used directly from diet Must be broken down into smaller units Use subunits as building blocks or energy Process is digestion Carbuhydrates Proteins a r Fats ll Nucleic acids Fauy asids and glycerol 0 o Thelour macromoleculesthat make up cells are carbohydrates proteinslipidsandnucleitacidsCellssynthesize ese m the subunits released bytlle digestion n food Cells use Ihesesubunllsaslhe building blockstoamlrlblethe l i Simplesngars Energystoragaaml quot I ellsu acemnlecules Aminoseids 39 Euymsand le Phnsp for membranes r 39 DNA and kill lnr storing and whom transmitting genetic instructions 91414 Chemical digestion the breakdown of large organic molecules to their components Food Molecules P Protein digesting o enzymes 0 0 0 Q 0 Protein Amino acids 0 lt3 0 O Polysaccharide Carl y quotate39 Q digesting enzymes 00 gtOlt3 Disaccharide Monosaccharides Nucleic acid Nucleotides N l39 39d uc elcacl digesting v enzymes k V I Fat Glycerol Fatty acids Fatdigesting 9 enzymes n i I ozolz Pearson Education Inc Protein Amino acids Macronutrients proteins Broken down into amino acids Use to assemble new proteins that have many different functions in the body Enzymes and structural proteins Macronutrients carbohydrates Broken down into simple sugars Used to build cell surface markers energy storage molecules 91414 Macronutrients fats Broken down into fatty acids and glycerol Used to build molecules that form cell membranes Fatty acids and glycerol V gt 39 39 39 Phospholipi for membranes Nucleic acids Nucleic acids are not macronutrients Provided in m amounts Broken down into individual nucleotides Used to build DNA and RNA Nutrients that must be obtained through diet 1 Thmonine Essential amino acids 39 Essential nutrients Cells cannot synthesize them 439 Methionine Essential amino acids Valine Leucine 20 amino acids used to build proteins Lysine Nine cannot be synthesized Histidine lsoleucine 1 Phenylalanine Tryptophan Beans and other legumes 91414 Complete foods Foods that contain all the nutrients necessary Readytouse food therapeutics RUTF The Peanut Butter Project RUTF Peanut butter fullfat milk sugar vegetable oil Malnutrition Results from chronic undereating especially up to age 2 years The child lacks nutrients necessary for the chemical reactions of growth and development All starts with digestion What is digestion Process of breaking down huge food molecules into smaller pieces so that our body can use them Series of chemical reactions to break the bonds that hold food molecules together Starts in our mouths and continues throughout the digestive system Pieces Small of food molecules Mechanical digestion cu Undigested Chemical Nutrient digestion molecules material hydrolysis enter body cells 0 Ingestion 9 Digestion 9Absorption 0 Elimination mm Pearson samequot l 91414 Metabolism All the chemical reactions occurring in the body Catabolic reactions break down larger structures into smaller ones bond breaking Anabolic reactions build new structures from smaller subunits bond building Requires the assistance of helper molecules called enzymes Cells require enzymes to break down and build up macromolecules Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions a Catabolic Reaction Bonds are broken Bond linking Substrates b t t simplesugars U bhdt susraes I th 29 car 0 y a e5 is broken N 0 T catabo lc reactions easier to break Muscle protein In quot quot392 2g Amino acid b Anabolic Reaction Bonds are created 3 quotd quotking substrates is formed Substrates 39 I eg amino acids Active site subunits are sedto build v proteins during Enzyme anabolic 39 reactions 7 7 7 W m 2The active site of the enzyme e 1 substrates bind to the changes shape which orients 3 The enzyme releases the quot l K quot 39 they can bind resulting products The enzyme to one another This facilitates enzyme is ready to Mquot M quotd quot bonding be used again lnfographic 44 Biology foraChanging World Second Edition 2014w H Freeman and Company lngested I i catbohydra gs ActllveSIte w I o w are digested by 39 V V I enEvm esHIririig I Enzyme i s L 3 L l l breaks 1 Substrates bind to changes shape stressing the and the resulting products are the active Site of a bond and thereby making it released from the enzyme The enzyme is ready to be used again Metabolism enzymes Enzyme protein that speeds up a chemical reaction Substrate molecule to which an enzyme binds and on which it acts Active site part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate a Catabolic Reaction Bonds are broken Substrates Bond linking Simple sugars eg carbohydrates substrates is broken N o ftw f catfay ac 39 l A reactions Enfw eiZJhe active site of the enzyme39 V 3 The substrate bond breaks 15ubstrates bind to changes shape stressing the and the resulting products are the active site of a bond and thereby making it released from the enzyme The s eciflc enz me easier to break enzyme is ready to be used again 91414 Metabolism enzymes Catalysis the process of speeding up the rate of a chemical reaction eg by enzymes Activation energy energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed The activation energy is the energy that must be put into a reaction in order to make it quotgoquot Enzymes reduce the activation energy in both anabolic and catabolic reactions making them occur more rapidly Enzyme lowers the e ner y achieved the energy makes it easier Reactants need an actlvation energy energy boost to initiate needed to initiate the reaction Enzyme the reaction 0 m a t g nce ea Iva ion in Actlvatlon a S o energy has been PAdivation Lowering the activation 5 Readant reaction proceeds 6 Readan 9quot 9y for more products to e 5 ago a complex SP quot quotE 539Y 5 eg a complex 3 arbOhYd39a el 393 ca rbohydrate E i3 o O O C 0 Q Prod uct Product eg simple sugars eg simple sugars Uncatalyzed reaction pathway Enzymecatalyzed reaction pathway lnfographlc 45 Biology lo a Changing World Second Edition I W H Metabolism micronutrients Organisms also need micronutrients nutrients including vitamins and minerals that organisms must ingest in small amounts to maintain health TABLE41 A SAMPLE OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN YOUR DIET MINERALS Inorganic elements not synthesized by the body PROBLEMS OF PROBLEMS OF MINERAL FUNCTION FOOD SOURCES DEFICIENCY Ex Ca5ium Bone and teeth formation Dairy products green Osteoporosis Kidney stones blood clotting vegetables legumes stunted growth Iron Components of hemoglobin In Green vegetables Anemia fatigue Constipatlon risk of red blood cells carries oxygen beef liver dizziness headaches type 2 diabetes throughout the body poor concentration Potassium Electrolyte balance muscle Frults vegetables Muscle weakness Muscle weakness contraction nerve function neurological heart failure disturbances sodium Electrolyte balance muscle Salt bread milk Muscle cramps reduced High blood pressure appetite neurological distu rbances contractlon nerve function Table 41 part 1 Biology fora Changing World Second Edition 9 2014W H Freeman and annan Vitamins act as coenzymes Micronutrients Minerals act as cofactors inorganic micronutrients required to activate an enzyme zinc copper iron small organic molecules required to activate enzymes 91414 Micronutrients Minerals inorganic elements required by organisms for normal growth reproduction and tissue maintenance For example calcium iron potassium zinc Vitamins organic molecules required in small amounts for normal growth reproduction and tissue maintenance Play structural and functional roles in the body 9 Minerals are micronutrients nutrients that are essential for health but required in far smaller amounts than macronutrients Some vitamins and minerals are structural elements U Q The minerals calcium and A f39 phosphorusareimportant 39 9 for building strong teeth and bones V tamin A also known as retinol is important for eye photoreceptors for vision and for maintaining the health and growth of skin J n u u mmnale uuuuuuu mu sun In Vitamin Bg or folic acid is an important coenzyme for an enzyme involved in DNA Substrate synthesis egq a nucleotide precursor its Cofactor eg vitamin Ba 39 IV ZCUVE enzyme Ac wafed enzyme can Enzyme activity leads to DNA 0 hm 39ts SUbStrate39 synthesis which is essential for cell division and inheritance lnfographic 46 Biology foraChanging World Second Edition an and C p The Peanut Butter Project u Wm r 2011 nnumbered 1 pm 1m 17 Changmg wgm Second Edltmn JonWarrenWovid ann 91414 The Peanut Butter Project Studies show that significantly more children recover when treated at home with peanut butter based RUTF compared to a cornsoy flour diet or their regular diet supplemented with a small amount of the RUTF supplement 95 of the 69 children home recovere 78 of the 96 children who received a RUTF supplement in addition totheir regular i covered Children reaching full catchup growth 00 78 ofthe 117 children who received the cornsoy our diet recovered 391 Statistically slgn f39cant R 39 39 Food lo Weight In 1 00 g of powdered mineral vitamin mix Fullfat milk powder 30 Vitamins Inera s Sugar 28 A 57 mg 31 315 mg c133 mg Potassium 35 9 Vegetable oil 15 D 1 mg a 11 15mg 59113 mg Magnesium 1537 mg Peanut butter 25 E 125 g 361375 mg 531332 mg Iron 704 mg Mineral vitamin mix 16 111130 mg 311110mg as 194 mg Zinc 711 mg H 41 mg Copper Iniographic 47 Biology fora Changing World Second Edition 2014 w H Freeman and Company A balanced diet includes all the nutrients needed for full health Whole Grains s r Fruits and Vegetables High in complex High in complex carbohydrates carbohydrates vitamins and 1 quot 39 Vitamins and minerals 39 I Meat Fish and Beans Dairy High in proteins fats vitamins and minerals High in proteins fats v vitamins and minerals Refined Sugars and Fats High in carbohydrates and fats lnfographic 48 Rinnnv fmn mnninn WnrM nrnnri Friilinn 1O Summary Food is a source of nutrients Nutrients provide the chemicals required to build and maintain cells and tissues and furnish cells with the energy needed to function Nutrients required in large amounts are called macronutrients nutrients required in smaller amounts are called micronutrients Enzymes are proteins that accelerate the rate of chemical reactions by binding speci cally to substrates and reducing the activation energy necessary for a reaction to occur Enzymes mediate both bondbreaking catabolic and bond building anabolic reactions Many enzymes require small helper chemicals known as cofactors to function Micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins are important coenzymes 91414 11 92314 Chapter 5 Energy Flow and Phoosynt Chapter 5 a Brain 0 gyf nging WalldSeond Edition Pastel GoelghelukPlioo Reseamheis lnc Copyrlght 2014 by W H Freeman alld Company Driving Questions 1 What are the photosynthetic organisms on the planet and why are they so important 2 What are the different types of energy and what transformations of energy do organisms carry out 3 How do plants and algae convert the energy in sunlight into energyrich organic molecules and why can t humans do this 4 How do algal biofuels compare to other fuels in terms of costs benefits and sustainability Using algae to make fuel Algae are best known for the green red or brown hues Also have ability to capture energy of sunlight and convert it into usable forms of energy Much is in the form of oils ideally suited to making fuel Fossil fuels are limited The gasoline used to power cars begins as oil formed deep in the ground over millions of years The United States depends heavily on oil recovered from other countries for its fuel supply a 3 267 110 0 3 in billions of barrels 0 lnfographic 51 BialogyforaChanging World Second Edition 2014W Hi Freeman and Company 92314 US energy consumption The United States is the largest consumer of fossil fuels Fossil fuels are considered nonrenewable because they take millions of years to create by natural processes As we continue to deplete fossil fuels new energy sources are being developed that reduce our demand on petroleum and other fossil fuels Petroleum 36 4 Renewable Nuclear v 7 Energy Electric 9 Power r 8 7 39 21o x nuh 0 NJ coal 20 Biofuels 27 Natural Gas Biomass waste I 25 A and Wood 35 Source EIA Renewable Energy Consumption and Electricity r 1 Preliminary 2007 Statistics Table 1 US Energy Consumption quotyd roele tr39c by Energy Source 2003 2007 May 2008 lnfographic 52 Biofuels 0 Renewable fuels made from living organisms In 2012 more than 150 companies were dedicated to making fuel from algae Energy basics 0 To power nearly everything in life we need Energy capacity to do work includes processes such as building complex molecules and moving substances in and out of the cells 0 Powers every activity we perfom 0 Without a source of energy all life on Earth would stop 92314 Energy basics 0 Energy cannot be created must be obtained from an outside source 0 Humans and other animals obtain energy by ea ngfood 0 Chemical energy potential energy stored in bonds of biological molecules break bonds to release ored energy to do work ix 92314 Energy basics 0 Algae and plants get energy from sun 0 Trap energy and store it in molecules Biofuel produces high in chemical energy Photosynthetic protists Cyanobacteria a I V f Algae can use sunlight carbon dioxide and nutrients to produce a high volt of oil readily used to produce biofuel in addition to carbohydrates and pro that can be useful as additional energy sources Sunlight Nutrients i L 14 an Harvest algae Cell Wall Biomass Proteins on Lipids y m H k w t e Burned for Animalfeed Fermented for Biodiesel electricity and ethanol 5 ea Burned for Organic fertilizer electricity lnfographic 53 Biology om hnnn39nn Wnllrl 39 39 Conservation of Energy 0 Energy cannot be created or destroyed 0 Energy only changes form 0 Law of thermodynamics IF ENERGY CAN39T BE CREATED DEST YEll WHERE Ill Ill BUME FROM Conservation of Energy Potential energy stored energy in the chemical bonds Ready for use 333 Energy is not When chemical bonds are broken crgggedisgeggr W A 9 stored energy is released cmig R j Kinetic energy the energy of motion or movement 533 Potential energy is converted to chemical energy kinetic energy Example muscle contraction V Heat the kinetic energy generated by random movement of molecules or atoms 92314 9 Energy in the universe is neither created nor destroyed but is converted from one form to another Stored potential energy for example can be converted to kinetic energy as the cyclist below illustrates Chemical energy is converted into kinetic heat energy that is lost from the body Kinetic energy in wheel movement Potential chemical energy in food molecules Chemical energy is converted into the kinetic energy of muscle and leg movement 1 A cyclist takes in stored 2 Digestion breaks the chemical 3 Kinetic energy in the muscles potential chemical bonds and releases energy is converted into kinetic energy energy in the form of which is used to contract of wheel movement The bike an energy bar muscles and generate heat moves forward lnfographic 54 Biology fora Changing World Second Edition ZOl4W H Freeman and C mpcuy u u 105 left Energy transformation is not ef cient As energy is converted from one form to another some ofthe available energy is not fully converted to the next form Instead some energy is converted into heat that escapes into the environment and some energy is not converted at all Unconverted fuel Heat energy Heat energy Heat energy energy removed kinetic escapes kinetic escapes kinetic escapes in exhaust Fuel Is Fuel Combustion Pis ons Fife Tires Roll Energy in Car ls lquot 39 fquot 39 3 quot39 a quotf quot vf Depleted converted to heat heatEd air quotml pistons is More chemical l39 39 quot l w 39 quot quot converted to energy is required w w vf r 039 PISlon tire movement rolling movement lnfographic 55 Capturing energy photosynthesis Photosynthesis 0 Process by which plants and other autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to make energy rich molecules 0 Uses carbon dioxide and water Sunlight Carbon dioxide Water a Oxygen Glucose 92314 Capturing energy photosynthesis The ultimate source of energy is the sun Autotrophs capture and transform the energy of sunlight by photosynthesis Heterotrophs obtain energy by eating other organisms Q llETEB IIIil lI wml mnmegnncralomcl Most autotrophs are organisms that carry out photosynthesis a process that converts light energy into chemical energy There are three basic types of autotrophs Plants Algae Sme bacteria eg Cyanobacteria Usable Energy Some of the chemical energy Light energy Chemical energy is converted into a form that is V 39 sunlight glucose sugar available to power cellular functions V Stored Energy photosynthesis Some of the chemical energy is stored as potential energy in molecules like oil V rin h n h i r h m r Cell Structures Fuht g p 0ts thes sault t 0p sco e t Someofthechemical energy lg energy In 0 c emlca energy is used as building blocks for cell structures lnfographic 5 6 Biology foraChang ng World Second Edition 9 2014W H r Capturing energy photosynthesis Photosynthesis can be summarized as Sunlight Water Carbon Dioxide 9 Oxygen Glucose Baslc Photosynthesis carbon dioxide 0 cooc o 39 a a0 quot Mata 90 000 o 92314 Capturing energy photosynthesis Chloroplast Inner and outer membranes Granum ylakoid x Thylakoid space Stroma 2m2 Pearson Education inc Sunlight energy e I S t h e Tl slun emilts a szedrun of radiantEenehrgy W K trave s to t e eart In waves ac wave e n e t h e cirries agiszrethe packhet of ezergy called a otan ac oton as a c aracteristic e I m a g n c navelength a energy spectrum of radiation Light energy is made of particles called photons or packets of light energy color isibl gli ht velenglt nrn Most wavelengths are 39 absorbed by the leaf Green wavelengths reflect off the leaf is Photons of different mama wavelengths contain different amounts of energy lnfographi 5 Biology Iomthanging World Second Edition D 201 A W H The portion of the spectrum between 400 and 750 nanometers is called visible light When a light photon hits the eye we perceive its wavelength of visible light as a particular Photosynthesis a closer look 0 Chlorophyll is a pigment present in the green parts of plants It absorbs photons of light energy 0 Main pigment involved in 92314 photosynthe5ls l 1 LightquotPhoto Reactions l Chlorophyll pigments within internal chloroplast membranes absorb photons Chlorophyll electrons e become excited and enter a series of reactions 3 1 L a l u I a P i I are s 77 m 7 7 7 77 WaterlHZO Water ss l td r n thel39 ht react onsS l t ater 39 I I39pllulg39 lg I pl w lost by excited chlorophyll molecules S u m v I g A W H10 alfmmthemm Water split oxygen byproduct Photons of light are absorbed by chlorophyll Chemicale 6 Light light re reactions quot 31h Sun Internal chloroplast membranes containing chlorophyll Electrons in the chlorophyll atoms become quotexcitedquot 02 EXCIted electrons help Oxygen 0 Wmquot generate an energycarrying This gas is a byproduct of water splitting I I k d duringthelightreactions mo ecu e nown as a enOSlne W53 trIphosphate ATP ay for a Changing World Second Edition 4WH Freemanand mvaquotv ATP IS used to make sugar 2 Carbon quotSynthesisquot Reactions S u m m a ry Energy from the breakdown of ATP is used in the carbon reactions to fix carbon dioxide into organic sugar molecules a form of Photosynthesis captures glared chemical energy carbon dIOXIde gas from the Carbonmocho a r 39 C0z gas enters plant cells from the atmosphere The carbon atoms are 0 Incorporates carbon atoms incorporated intoorganicsugar molecules Into sugar o 02 Carbon xation mam ConverSIon of Inorganic r Chloroplast emicalenergyfrorn 7 U 739 light reactions Carbon 39 reactions organic molecule Plants use sugar they make as food amp building blocks Used by autotrophs and heterotrophs Glucose C5H 206 0 Main way carbon enters the m 39 produmfl gm gIObal energy Chain contains thechemicalenergyconverted from sunlight and the fixed carbon from atmospheric 0 TABLE51 HOW GREEN ARE BIOFUELS Biofuels are getting a lot of media attention as potential alternatives to fossnl fuels but not all biofuels are alike in terms of their environmental energy and landuse impacts Compared to conventional crop plants algae have some of the lowest environmental costs per similar quantity of oil produced Greenhouse Gas Water Use Fertilizer Pesticides Energy Usequot Oil Yield per Acre Emissionsquot gals kgofcolpluuukzuym 39 39 i J 39 mi Conservation Biology 22602 609 Carbon fixation is ultimately the way carbon enters the global food and energy chain Scientists are searching ways to decrease the amount of 002 in the atmosphere Summary All living organisms require energy to live and grow The ultimate source of energy on Earth is the sun 0 Energy is neither created nor destroyed but converted from one form to another Kinetic energy is the energy of motion and includes heat energy and light energy Potential energy is stored energy and includes chemical energy Photosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions that captures the energy of sunlight and converts it to chemical energy in the form of sugar and other energyrich molecules Photosynthetic organisms are known as autotrophs Animals do not photosynthesize they are known as heterotrophs 92314
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