NHM 201 Midterm
Popular in Nutrition 201 Midterm ( Chapters 1-9)
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ian Spath on Wednesday January 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NHM 201 at a university taught by Karin Pennington in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 809 views.
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Date Created: 01/21/15
Chapter 1 Nutrients Chemical substances in foods that are used by the body for growth and health Food Security access at all times to a suf cient supply of safe nutritious foods Food Insecurity Limited or uncertain availability of safe nutritious foods or the ability to acquire them in socially acceptable ways Calorie a unit of measure of the amount of energy supplied by food Also known as the kilocalorie kcal or the large Calorie Table 11 Principles of human nutrition Principle 1 Food is a basic need of humans Principle 2 Foods provide energy calories nutrients and other substances needed for growth and health Principle 3 Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells Principle 4 Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive levels of nutrient intake Principle 5 Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing uctuations in food intake Principle 6 Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states genetic factors or combinations of these causes Principle 7 Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others Principle 8 Poor nutrition can in uence the development of certain chronic diseases Principle 9 Adequacy variety and balance are key characteristics of a healthy diet Principle 10 There are no good or bad foods Dietary Supplements any product intended to supplement the diet including vitamin and mineral supplements proteins enzymes amino acids sh oils fatty acids hormones and hormone precursors and herbs and other plant extracts In the United States such products must be labeled Dietary Supplement Essential Nutrients Substances required for growth and health that cannot be produced or produced in sufficient amounts by the body They must be obtained from the diet All of the following nutrients are considered essential 39 Carbohydrates OCertain amino acids the essential amino acids histidine isoleucine leucine lysine methionine phenylalanine threonine tryptophan and valine oLinoleic acid and alphalinolenic acid essential fatty acids Table 12 the six categories of nutrients 1 Carbohydrates Chemical substances in foods that consist of a single sugar molecule or multiples of sugar molecules in various forms Sugar and fruit starchy vegetables and Whole grain products are good dietary sources 2 Proteins Chemical substances in foods that are made up of chains of amino acids Animal products and dried beans are examples of protein sources 3 Fats Lipids Components of food that are soluble in fat but not in water They are more properly referred to as lipids Most fats are composed of glycerol attached to three fatty acids Oil butter sausage and avocado are examples of rich sources of dietary fats 4 Vitamins Fourteen specific chemical substances that perform specific functions in the body Vitamins are present in many foods and are essential components of the diet Vegetables fruits and grains are good sources of vitamins 5 Minerals In the context of nutrition minerals consist of 15 elements found in foods that perform particular 2 functions in the body Milk dark leafy vegetables and meat are good sources of minerals 6 Water An essential component of the diet provided by food and uid Essential Amino Acids amino acids that cannot be synthesized in adequate amounts by humans and therefore must be obtained from the diet also called indispensable amino acids Nonessential Nutrients Nutrients required for growth and health that can be produced by the body from other components of the diet Requirements for Essential Nutrients oAge oBody size OGender OGenetic traits OGrowth oIllness oLifestyle habits eg smoking alcohol intake oMedication use oPregnancy and lactation ODietary Reference Intakes DRIs This is the general term used for the nutrient intake standards for healthy people ORecommended Dietary Allowances RDAs These are levels of essential nutrient intake judged to be adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy persons while decreasing the risk of certain chronic diseases 98 of healthy people OAdequate Intakes AIs These are tentative RDAs AIs are based on less conclusive scienti c information than are the RDAs 75 oEstimated Average Requirements EARS These are nutrient intake values that are estimated to meet the requirements of half the healthy individuals in a group The EARs are used to assess adequacy of intakes of population groups 97 of healthy people OTolerable Upper Intake Levels ULs These are upper limits of nutrient intake compatible with health The ULs do not re ect desired levels of intake Rather they represent total daily levels of nutrient intake from food fortified foods and supplements that should not be exceeded Almost 50 Carbohydrates 4 calories per gram used by the body mainly as a source of readily available energy Key recommendations 45 65 kcal from carbs lt 25 kcal from added sugar 25g dietary ber daily for adult women and 35 g dietary ber daily for adult men Food sources plant foods and milk animal source consist of the simple sugars monosaccharides and disaccharides complex carbohydrates the polysaccharides most dietary sources of ber and alcohol sugars Monosaccharides Glucose blood sugar and dextrose Fructose fruit sugar Galactose Disaccharides Sucrose glucose fructose or common table sugar Maltose glucose glucose or malt sugar Lactose glucose galactose or milk sugar Polysaccharides Starches the plant form of stored carbohydrate Glycogen the animal form of stored carbohydrate and ber insoluble and soluble Fiber 2 calories per gram keeps GI tract strong and healthy Alcohol 7 calories per gram chemical structure similar to glucose Glycemic Index a measure of the extent to Which blood glucose levels are raised by consumption of an amount of food that contains 50 grams of carbohydrate compared to 50 grams of glucose A portion of White bread containing 50 grams of carbohydrate is sometimes used for comparison Insulin Resistance a condition in Which cell membranes have a reduced sensitivity to insulin so that more insulin than normal is required to transport a given amount of glucose into cells Type 2 Diabetes a disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to the body s inability to use insulin normally to produce enough insulin or both Protein 4 calories per gram builds and maintains tissues Key Recommendation 103 5 kcal from protein Food sources meats beans legumes milk and milk products Amino Acids The building blocks of protein Unlike carbohydrates and fats amino acids contain nitrogen Nine essential Nonessential AA can be manufactured from other AA High quality protein foods animal products soy beans complementary proteins rice and beans Fats Lipids 9 calories per gram Functions energy component of cell membranes and carries fatsoluble vitamins Recommendations for fats 203 5 of kcal from total fat Als for the essential fatty acids The AIs for the essential fatty acid linoleic acid are set at 17 grams a day for men and 12 grams for women Kwashiorkor a severe form of proteinenergy malnutrition in young children It is characterized by swelling fatty liver susceptibility to infection profound apathy and poor appetite the cause of kwashiorkor is unclear Fatty Acids the fatsoluble components of fats in foods Glycerol a component of fats that is soluble in water It is converted to glucose in the body Essential Fatty Acids components of fat that are a required part of the diet ie linoleic and alphalinolenic acids Both contain unsaturated fatty acids Linoleic Omega6 family Vegetable oils meats and human milk 510 of kcal Alphalinolenic acid Omega3 family Darkgreen vegetables vegetable oils flaxseed Derivatives of this EFA is EPA and DHA Fish 2 or more meals per week 06 12 ofkcal Triglycerides 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol Prostaglandins a group of physiologically active substances derived from the essential fatty acids they are present in many tissues and perform such functions as the constriction or dilation of blood vessels and stimulation of smooth muscles and the uterus Thromboxanes Biologically active substances produced in platelets that increase platelet aggregation and therefore promote blood clotting constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure Prostacyclins Biologically active substances produced by blood vessel walls that inhibit platelet aggregation and therefore blood clotting dilate blood vessels and reduce blood pressure Saturated Fats Fats in which adjacent carbons in the fatty acid component are linked by single bonds only e g C C C C Unsaturated Fats Fats in which adjacent carbons in one or more fatty acids are linked by one or more double bonds eg C CC CC Monounsaturated Fats Fats in which only one pair of adjacent carbons in one or more of its fatty acids is linked by a double bond e g C CC C Polyunsaturated Fats Fats in which more than one pair of adjacent carbons in one or more of its fatty acids are linked by two or more double bonds e g C CC CC Trans Fat a type of unsaturated fat present in hydrogenated oils margarine shortenings pastries and some cooking oils that increase the risk of heart disease Fats containing fatty acids in the trans versus the more common cis form are generally referred to as trans fat Cholesterol a fatsoluble colorless liquid primarily found in animals products Vitamins chemical substances in foods that perform speci c functions in the body Fourteen have been discovered so far WaterSoluble Vitamins Bcomplex vitamins Thiamin B 1 Ribo avin B2 Niacin B3 Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B 12 Biotin Pantothenic acid Choline Vitamin C ascorbic acid FatSoluble Vitamins Vitamin A retinol betacarotene Vitamin D 125 dihydroxycholecalciferol Vitamin E alphatocopherol Vitamin K Coenzymes Chemical substances that activate enzymes Metabolism The chemical changes that take place in the body The conversion of glucose to energy or body fat is an example of a metabolic process Antioxidants Chemical substances that prevent or repair damage to cells caused by exposure to oxidizing agents such as oxygen ozone and smoke and to other oxidizing agents normally produced in the body Many different antioxidants are found in foods some are made by the body Phytochemicals phyto plants Chemical substances in plants some of Which affect body processes in humans that may benefit health Minerals Calcium Fluoride Chromium Phosphorus Iodine Molybdenum Magnesium Selenium Sodium Iron Copper Potassium Zinc Manganese and Chloride Water Adults are approximately 607 0 water by weight Recommendation Females 11 cups from food and and uids and Males 1516 cups from food and uids Homeostasis Constancy of the internal environment The balance of uids nutrients gases temperature and other conditions needed to ensure ongoing proper functioning of cells and therefore all parts of the body Malnutrition poor nutrition resulting from an excess or lack of calories or nutrients Primary Malnutrition Malnutrition that results directly from inadequate or excessive dietary intake of energy or nutrients Secondary Malnutrition Malnutrition that results from a condition e g disease surgical procedure medication use rather than primarily from dietary intake Nutrigenomics The study of nutrient gene interactions and the effects of these interactions on health Also called nutritional genomics
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