Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide PSYC 2015
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Chapter 10 Sexual Development amp Behavior 1 Distinguish between the mullerian and wolffian ducts explain the steps involved in the development of male or female internal sexual organs and how this process is affected in Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome O The Wolffian system is the internal system that develops into seminal vesicles vas deferens and the prostate gland in males O The Mullerian system is the internal system that develops into a uterus fallopian tubes and the upper two thirds of the vagina in the absence of anti mullerian hormone O Male and female development of internal sexual organs I Until about the third month of development in humans both male and female fetuses possess a male Wolffian system and a female mullerian system I In males the wolffian system will develop into the seminal vesicles the vas deferens and the prostate In female the mullerian system will develop into the uterus the upper portion of the vagina and the fallopian tubes I During the third month the male s new testes begin to secrete two hormones testosterone and anti mullerian hormone Testosterone one of several types of male hormone or androgen promotes the development of the wolffian system Anti Mullerian hormone initiate the degeneration of the Mullerian system I In the female fetus no additional hormones are needed for development Unlike the testes the ovaries are not active during fetal development In the absence of any androgens or anti mullerian hormone the mullerian system will develop in the typical female direction Remnants of the wolffian system remain throughout a woman s life but are nonfunctional O This process is affected in Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome female born despite XY genotype I AIS individuals lack normal androgen receptors preventing the wolffian system from maturing However anti mullerian hormone still works so neither the male nor female internal organs develop The individual will have a shallow vagina with no uterus fallopian tubes and ovaries External appearance and gender identity remain female 2 Know the roles of GnRH FSH and estrogen in the menstrual cycle O GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to release Follicle Stimulating hormone FSH and Luteinizing hormone LH O FSH and LH have different effects I in females ovaries produce estradiol I controls menstrual cycle O On the first day of menstruation the anterior pituitary gland increases secretion of SH When this hormone circulates to the ovaries they respond by developing follicles O Once follicle begins to develop more rapidly than the others and it releases estrogens that inhibit the growth of competing follicles O Fraternal twins occur when more than one follicles mature O Estrogens from the follicle also provide feedback to the hypothalamus and pituitary gland which respond by increasing release of LH Increased LH levels initiate the release of the ovum or ovulation O Estradiol released by ovaries thickens the uterus 3 Explain how testosterone and estrogen may account for differences between male and female spatial and verbal abilities O In contrast to performance on spatial tasks verbal uency and manual dexterity in women appear to be correlated with higher levels of estrogens I Estrogens have a protective effect on memory in generaland verbal memory in particular Women have higher levels of estrogen naturally so they usually perform better in verbal abilities I male transexuals taking estrogen increases verbal uency but decrease performance on spatial tasks O Men have slight advantages over women in tasks involving spatial relations which appears early in childhood Research has found that this advantage over females in spatial relations is correlated to higher levels of testosterone I males low in testosterone during development are impaired in spatial ability I Testosterone can improve spatial functioning in older men O best scores on spatial abilite tests when testosterone levels are high and orst when estrogen levels are high Q best scores on verbal abilities and manual dexterity tests when estrogen levels are high 4 Describe how brain differences may explain why females tend to have superior verbal ability ie broca s wernicke s area corpus callosum O the Broca s speech production and Wernicke s areas comprehension tend to be larger in the female gt explaining their superior verbal ability I neurons are more densely packed and have longer dendrites than in males O In women both brain hemispheres process language almost equally vs men language is processed primarily by the left hemisphere O the corpus callosum is 20 larger in females allowing for greater integration between hemispheres 5 Understand how women use their olfactory sense to choose suitable mates in which to produce healthy children O women choose suitable mates based upon disease resistance and probable success of having healthy children O Genetic inbreeding sharing similar genes lowers disease resistance O Women prefer the odors of men who have a different MHC major histocompatibility complex genes involved in immune functioning O coples similar in MHC are less fertile Related IClicker Questions 1 Which of the following statements about klinefelter syndrome and turner syndrome is false E Turner Syndrome X0 genotype Klinefelter syndrome XXY genotype Klinefelter syndromeMales Turner syndrome Female Both syndromes are associated with normal intelligence Both genetic abnormalities occur on the 23rd pair of chromosomes False Only those with turner syndrome have fertility problems actually individuals with turner syndrome have abnormally developed ovaries leading to infertility Klinefelter experience reduced fertility 2 Which of the following statements regarding prenatal development is false True Until the sixth week after conception male and female fetuses have identical primordial gonads The presence of the sex determining region of teh Y chromosome causes the gonads to develop into testes Until the third month of development fetuses have both wolffian and mullerian systems women continue to have wolffian system but it is nonfunctional False Testosterone and anti mullerian hormone promote the development of the wolffian system estrogen is required for female development of the mullerian system in the absence of any androgens or anti mullerian hormone the mullerian system will develop in the typical female direction 3 In terms of prenatal development which is the default sex Female without exposure to male hormones all babies would be born with outwardly female physical appearance and female behavior 4 Which of the following hormones is secreted by the testes t0 masculinize the external genitalia Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH 5 Which best describes androgen insensitivity Syndrome Neither male nor female internal organs develop fully 6 Which areas of the brain regulate seX hormones Hypothalamus and pituitary gland I think 7 Which of the following statements is true regarding the effects of testosterone on female behavior improves performance on spatial tasks Chapter 11 Sleep and Waking 1 Understand when the suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN is active day or night and how we know it is the master internal clock short vs long period hamsters Q The SCN is located above the optic chiasm in the hypothalamus and is only active during the day Q We know it is the master internal clock because SCN is heavily influenced by light entrain quickly 0 short vs long period hamsters when tissue from a hamster with a long period of awakening is put into a hamster who usually has a short period the short period hamster stays up about the same time the long period hamster would and vice versa 2 Understand the model of circadian rhythms in fruit ies ie PER TIM and CLOCK O At dawn the lowest levels of per and tim activate Clock which triggers production of per and tim Around noon levels of per and tim rise Then higher levels of per and tim inhibit CLock resulting in decreased production of per and tim Then highest levels of per and time are in between dusk and midnight and new production ceases Around midnight per and tim disintegrate and levels start dropping 3 Explain the role of melatonin and cortisol in sleep wakefulness and seasonal affective disorder 0 Serotonin plays an important role in sleep because the body uses it to synthesize melatonin melatonin is produced at night and plays a fundamental role in regulating the body s biological clock i Melatonin governs the entire sleepwake cycle whereas serotonin is involved more specifically in wakefulness in triggering sleep and in REM sleep 0 In the case of Seasonal affective disorder i the reduced level of sunlight disrupts the body s internal clock which lets you know when you should sleep or be awake this disruption in circadian rhythm may lead to feelings of depression ii reduced sunlight can cause a drop in serotonin levels that may tigger depression because of serotonin s role in affecting mood iii disruptions in melatonin release due to uneven patterns of daily light the change in season can disrupt the balance of the natural hormone melatonin which plays a role in sleep patterns and moods 4 Distinguish between REM vs NREM sleep Know how the proportion of time spent in each changes over the human lifespan 0 sleep consists of alternating periods of REM RapidEye Movement and NREM Non Rem sleep 0 REM gt REM usually occurs 90 minutes after sleep onset the first period usually lasts about 10 minutes with each recurring REM stage lengthening and the final may last up to an hour i Paradoxical sleep ii sympathetic activity iii muscles are paralyzed iv vivid dreaming V 5 periods of REM O NREM i during the deep stages of NREM sleep the body repairs and regenerates issues builds bone and muscle and appears to strengthen the immune system Q As you get older you sleep more lightly and get less deep sleep aging is also associated with shorter time spans of sleep though the amount of sleep needed doesn t appear to diminish with age 5 Be familiar with the order of the stages of sleep during a typical sleep episode Stages 1 2 3 4 and REM O NREM Stage 1 i alpha waves stae between sleep and wekfulness muscles are active and teh eeyes are slowly opening and closing moderately O NREM Stage 2 i theta activity is observed and sleepers become gradually harder to awaken the alpha waves of the previous stage are interrupted by abrupt activity called sleep sindles and k complexes 0 NREM Stage 3 4 i the deep sleep stages with stage 4 being more intense than stage 3 Slow wave or delta sleep 0 REM stage 5 i sleeper enters rapid eye movement where most muscles are paralyzed REM sleep is turned on by ACH secretion is inhibited by neurons that secrete serotonin ii paradoxical sleep Related Iclicker Questions 1 Which of the following is a zeitgeber for humans Body temperature light physical activity and feedingall 2 Which of the following statements about the suprachiasmatic nucleus is false true Responsible for maintaining circadian rhythms the SCN is significantly in uenced by the presence of light Retinal ganglion cells carry messages into the SCN from the optic nerve The SCN is not dependent on input from other structures to maintain rhythm False Active druing the day for diurnal animals and at night for nocturnal animals The SCN is only active during the day 3 Which of the following does NOT characterize REM sleep True Vivid dreams parasympathetic activity muscles are paralyzed Infants spend more overall time sleeping in REM than adults False Adults spend more time in REM as sleep progresses in a given night adults actually spend 80 of sleep in NREM 4 which part of the brain is not associated with wakefulness and Vigilance Raphe Nuclei sleep mood and appetite Chapter 12 Learning and Memory 1 Differentiate between Habituation vs Sensitization understand findings from study on imagined consumption of food 0 Habituation occurs when an organism reduces its response to unchanging harmless stimuli 0 Example sound of your air conditioner or furnace turning on or off yet you really don t hear the machine while it s running 0 Sensitization occurs when repeated exposure to a strong stimulus increases response to other environmental stimuli 0 Example following major disasters such as earthquakes people often experience exaggerated responses to movement light and noise 0 Increasing overall level of responsiveness as a result of detecting one type of harmful stimulus makes us able to react more quickly to other sources of potential harm even if the precise stimulus that signals danger changes 2 Understand the mechanism of habituation and sensitization in Aplysia at the level of the neuron ie sensorymotor neuron neurotransmitter release ion channel 3 term 0 About it The sea slug Aplysia californica has a gill used to breathe on the dorsal surface The gill can be covered by a structure known as the mantle shelf At one end of the mantle shelf is the siphon tube to release waste and seawater Touching the siphon produces a protective response known as gill withdrawal re ex gill is retracted This re ex eventually habituates if you touch it repeatedly re ex will diminish Q Habituation in Aplysia californica Aplysia have neural nets instead of brains Inside these neural nets ganglia cell bodies serve as major processing centers The siphon has 24 touch receptors whose cell bodies are in the animal s abdominal ganglion In the abdominal ganglion the touch receptors form synapses with excitatory and inhibitory interneurons as well as with the six motor neurons serving the gill Why 0 Kandel Repeated touching of siphon produces Changes at synapses between sensory neurons of siphon and motor neurons that serve gill muscles reduced size of excitatory postsynaptic potentials diminished activity between motor neurons and gill muscles weak withdrawal re ex 0 Also reduced activity at synapse between sensory and motor neurons in habituation was direct result of the release of less neurotransmitter repeated stimulation less available NT in presynaptic sensory neuron short term habituation lasting from minutes to hours 0 Sensitization in Aplysia californica Stimulus in uences more than one neural pathway 0 Shocking tail a stimulates sensory neurons a form excitatory synapses with group of interneurons a form synapses with sensory neurons serving the siphon O Synapses between sensory neurons and interneurons are axo axonic axon from interneuron forms a facilitating synapse at axon terminal of the sensory neuron interneuron releases serotonin at axo axonic synapses 0 Basically Q If you shock the animal s tail and then spray the siphon enhanced gill withdrawal response results 0 Interneurons release serotonin which binds to receptors on the sensory neuron axon terminals 0 K Channels Close action potentials that reach the terminal last longer and greater in ux of Ca in the sensory neuron terminal 0 More neurotransmitter released by sensory neuron Distinguish between types of memory storage sensory short term long Q AtkinsonShiffrin model of memory Information is processed in sequence of steps E 39 i i i mamaw J l Ehm erm memiryr Lmngz Hmu meman 1 K a n I a 7 Lazrge ap mty n Em lF5g Ital 3 Uni mfmd 39 Lasts uptu 1 m 7 7 capacriy capacity a sauunds Lasts up it 15 15 g Lasts i l il y secunds O Sensory memory initial stage in memory formation large amounts of data can be held for very short periods 0 From this initial set of data we select information for further processing and move it to the next stage of memory 0 Shortterm memory working memory intermediate memory store in which limited amounts of data can be held for a limited amount of time without further processing such information is permanently lost 0 contains all data we are currently thinking about 0 very limited capacity 0 temporary nature information lost very rapidly 15 18 seconds or even just 2 seconds 0 Information is sorted into temporary storage areas or buffers auditory visual combined managed by central executive process 0 Longterm memory memory store in which apparently unlimited amounts of data can be held for an unlimited amount of time 0 final destination for information storage 0 few if any limitations on capacity or duration Distinguish between Declarative vs Nondeclarative memory 0 Two types of longterm memory explicit declarative and implicit nondeclarative Q Declarative explicit explicit memory for semantic and episodic information that can easily be verbalized or declared O typically recalled consciously or explicitly O Semantic memory type of declarative explicit memory for facts and verbal information I contains basic knowledge of facts and language O Episodic memory type of declarative explicit memory for personal experience I episodes of your life 0 Nondeclarative implicit O Procedural memory type of implicit memory for performing learned skills and tasks I information about motor skills and procedures I difficult to verbally describe but easy to perform or demonstrate I typically recalled unconsciously or implicitly O Associative learning classical conditioning Pavlov operant conditioning I Classical conditioning neural stimulus acquires ability to signal occurrence of second biologically significant event stimuli act as signals that predict occurrence of other events I Conditioned presence of learning unconditioned innate or unlearned factors 0 Conditioned stimulus CS environmental event whose significance is learned ticking metronome O Unconditioned stimulus UCS innate meaning to the organism food 0 Conditioned response CR behaviors that must be learned such as salivation in response to ticking metronome only as a result of experience 0 Unconditioned response UCR appear without prior experience with a stimulus such as salivation in response to presence of food in mouth O Learning has occurred because development of conditioned responses behavioral changes have occurred Q Will now respond to UCS and stimuli that reliably predict its arrival O Nonassociative learning habituation sensitization O Habituation type of learning in which response to repeated harmless stimulus becomes progressively weaker O Sensitization repeated exposure to strong stimulus increases response to other environmental stimuli 5 Explain the case of HM How did the removal of his temporal lobes affect his declarative vs nondeclarative memory 0 To control life threatening seizures HM underwent surgery that removed the hippocampus amygdala and part of the association corteX from both temporal lobes O He remembered most of the information he had acquired prior to surgery but had profound antero grade amnesia O unable to transfer new information about people places events and numbers from short term to long term memory O did not affect all types of memory equally O short term memory able to engage in conversation as long as no big gaps between statements O performed well on non declarative procedural memory tasks draw star while looking at star and his hand in the memory but he would deny ever having performed the task O Damage to medial temporal lobes in HM affects eXplicit but not implicit memories O does not affect already stored long term memories but affects transfer of new information from short term to long term 6 Distinguish between the types of long term memory semantic episodic procedural associative nonassociative See 4 7 Understand how the case of Clive Wearing is similar to HM Which parts of his memory were affected and which were still intact Provide examples ie remembering conversations with his wife vs skills as a musician O cive suffered from a chronic anterograde and retrograde amnesia which resulted from a herpes virus that attacked his nervous system he lacks the ability to form new memories and also can t recall aspects of his past memories 0 damage to his hippocampus an area required to transfer memories from short term to long term memory he is unable to form lasting new memories His memory only lasts 7 30 seconds 0 His love for his wife whom he married prior to his illness is undiminished He greets her with joy every time he sees her either believing he has not seen her in years or that they have never met before even though she may have just left the room to fetch a glass of water When he goes out dining with his wife he can remember the name of the food eg chicken however he cannot link it with taste as he has forgotten 0 Despite having retrograde as well as anteroorade amnesia and thus only a momenttomoment consciousness Wearing still recalls how to play the piano and conduct a choir all this despite having no recollection of having received a musical education This is because his procedural memorv was not damaged by the virus As soon as the music stops however Wearing forgets that he has just played and starts shaking spasmodically These jerkings are physical signs of an inability to control his emotions stemming from the damage to his inferior frontal lobe 0 similar to HM case both were able to perform well on non declarative procedural memory tasks like the piano but wouldn t rememberdifference is HM did not have any problem recalling already stored longterm memroies whereas Clive did 8 Understand how AMPA and NMDA Glutamate receptors are involved in LTP and how this may be a good model to explain how we learn 0 LTP longterm potentiation O LTP is a longlasting enhacnement in signal transmission between two neurons that results from stimulating them synchronously it is one of several phenomenal underlying synaptic plasticity the ability of chemical synapses to change their strength As memories are thought to be encoded by modification of synaptic strength LTP is widely considered one of the major cellular mechanisms that underlies learning and memory I In response to a rabid series of shocks to presynaptic cells in the Hippocampus postsynaptic potentials increase Q There are two types of glutamate receptors I NMDA and AMPA O NMDA receptors are normally blocked by magnesium ions O the cell needs to be sufficiently depolarized to release the magnesium ions block I the first few pulses of stimulation cause glutamate to be released I glutamate activates AMPA receptors I Na enters partially depolarizing the postsynaptic cell 9 Explain how we know the hippocampus is involved in declarative memory hint case of HM Study on London taxi drivers 0 we know the Hippocampus is involved in declarative memory because in the case of HM and Clive He was unable to transfer information from short term to long term memory 0 Damage to his hippocampus which is an area required to transfer memories from short term to long term 0 Since the case states that he was able to recall HOW to do certain tasks his nondeclarative memory was not affected just his declarative we can presume the Hippocampus is involved with declarative memory as this was what was lost with the damage of his hippocampus 0 Study on London Taxi Drivers I brains cans showed that the taxi drivers had a larger Hippocampus compared with other people this is the part of the brain associated with navigation in birds and animals their hippocampus grew larger as they spent more time on the job I MRI scans of 16 drivers showed that the posterior part of the hippocampus known to be involved in navigation was larger than in males of a similar age gt the difference was greater for cabbies who had been driving for the longest time 40 yrs vs just started I The hippocampus has changed the structure to accommodate their huge amount of navigation experience they have to retain Chapter 14 Emotion Reward Aggression and Stress Distinguish between J amesLange and CannonBard Theories of Emotion O J amesLange Theory of Emotion theory of emotion in which a person s physical state provides cues for the identification of an emotional state O sequence of events results in an emotional experience O awareness of physical state leads to identifying a subjective feeling O physical states related to each type of feeling sad happy are highly distinct from one another and we are capable of correctly labeling these distinct physical states as separate feelings 0 Example Young single men who visited Capilano Canyon Bridge O Attractive female researcher interviewed half the participants in the middle of the bridge and the other half on a solid wooden bridge not nearly as frightening O Swaying bridge men made up stories during their interview that were more sexual in content than men crossing safe bridge O four times more likely to phone the researcher later on more likely to be attracted to female than walking on safe bridge O difficult for men to distinguish between emotions of fear and sexual arousal O CannonBard Theory of Emotion theory of emotion in which the simultaneous activation of physical responses and recognition of subjective feelings occur independently O physical response to subjective feeling simultaneously and independently 0 Example As you are reading your textbook and a bear walks into your room 0 Reaction according to J amesLange theory O Sight of bear would immediately set off physical responses that brain would then interpret as fear 0 Reaction according to CannonBard theory O Sight of bear immediately and simultaneously trigger and independent subjective feeling of fear and physiological fight or ight O CNS has ability to produce an emotion directly without needing feedback from PNS 2 Be familiar with the 4 biological correlates of emotion autonomic nervous system amygdala cingulate cortex cerebral cortex Autonomic nervous system controls activities of organs and glands participates in general arousal associated with emotional states sympathetic division fight or ight response parasympathetic division resting activities food digestion body tissue repair answers to hypothalamus either by nucleus of solitary tract in medulla that receives input from hypothalamus and participates in control of ANS During different emotional states some measures of autonomic function produce different patterns heart rate finger temperature skin conductance muscle activity Amygdala three clusters of nuclei processes include emotion reward motivation learning memory and attention Receives information from the neocortex especially sensory cortex from cingulate cortex and hippocampus then projects to other areas of the brain including the frontal and temporal lobes of the cortex olfactory bulb and cortex basal ganglia hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens Supports the identification and expression of emotion If damaged emotional consequences difficulty perceiving negative emotions particularly fear expressed by others Cingulate cortex gateway between amygdala other limbic structures and frontal lobes of cerebral cortex anterior cingulate cortex ACC target of number of pathways communicating information about physical pain T his level of brain processing results in emotional quality of pain May also participate in processing of social pain negative feelings associated with being socially excluded by others 3 Distinguish between how the Right vs Left Hemispheres process emotions differently We can distinguish between the contributions of the two cerebral hemispheres to emotion Left hemisphere activity positive emotions Right hemisphere activity negative emotions Participants viewing positive emotional stimuli showed increased activation in the left hemisphere prefrontal corteX whereas viewing negative stimuli was correlated with increased activation of the right hemisphere prefrontal corteX Left hemisphere damage often quite depressed especially if damage is in left frontal lobe Right hemisphere damage cheerful happiness 4 Know the structures of the limbic system amygdala hypothalamus cingulate corteX hippocampus O vaothalamus part of the limbic system which is a group of forebrain structures that has the hypothalamus the amygdala and the hippocampus these are involved in motivation and the hippocampus these are involved in motivation emotiona learning and memory i Hippocampus required for the formation of long term memories an implicated in maintenance of cognitive maps for navigation ii Amygdala involved in signaling the corteX of motivationally significant stimuli such as those related to reward and fear in addition to social functions such as mating the amygdala also stimulates the hippocampus to remember many details surrounding the situation as well iii cingulate cortex 5 Understand sham rage and how removal of the corteX results in increased aggression Sham rage violent reaction to normally innocuous stimuli following removal of the cerebral cortices Role of cortices inhibit action of hypothalamus and other subcortical structures Electrically stimulate hypothalamus of cat behaviors seen of sham rage are duplicated hiss arch back spit Stop stimulation rage stops cat curls up and sleeps John Flynn duplicated rage attack with stimulation to medial hypothalamus elicit hunting behavior attack and kill rats in cages when lateral hypothalamus was stimulated Abnormalities of hypothalamic function have been observed in antisocial violent people 6 Know the steps of the HPA aXis beginning with the amygdala responding to threat and ending with cortisol inhibiting further release of CRH via the hippocampus Understand how the amygdala and hippocampus exert opposite effects on the hypothalamus turning on vs turning off the HPA axis Chapter 5 and Chapter 15 Alzheimer s Disease and Brain Injury 1 Be familiar with the neural correlates of Alzheimer s neurofibrillary tangles amyloid plaques and the role of the Tau protein a Neurofibrillary tangles are the result of the detachment of the Tau protein in the brain Tau holds microtubules in place which maintain the neuron s structure Amyloid plaques occur when amyloid collects in patches on axons Amyloid contributes to the detachment of Tau 2 Describe the brain changes in Alzheimer s a In Alzheimer s Gyri which are the actual matter of the brain are reduced in size IN addition sulci and ventricles are enlarged There is also damage to the cortex hippocampus and amygdala which may cause LanguageProblem solving Memory and emotional changes 3 Know how acetylcholine and glutamate are involved in Alzheimer s and how drugs can help reverse these effects a Since loss of basal forebrain produced acetylcholine causes dementiaAlzheimer s and the enzyme acetylcholinesterase normally breaks down ACh an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and drugs that block the NMDA Glutamate receptor because dying neurons release glutamate and excess glutamate stimulates NMDA receptors which causes a calcium in ux which then causes excitotoxicity can help reverse the effects 4 Know what causes chronic traumatic encephalopathy and how this condition is similar to Alzheimer s disease tau neurofibrillary tangles a Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is caused by a lot of micro concussions taken in high impact sports like boxing and football A lot of neurofibrillary tangles are found in the brain such as in the case of Reggie Flemming He was an aggressive hockey player who played in the NHL for 13 years and recently died of progressive dementia The impacts degrade the Tau protein which causes microtubules to become tangled Chapter 8 pp 248249 Parkinson s Disease 1 Understand the role of dopamine and the different brain regions involved in Parkinson s Disease substantia nigra basal ganglia O The basal Ganglia participate in voluntary movements O in the case of parkinson sDopaminergic DA regions of the substantia nigra begin to degenerate this affects DA activity in the basal ganglia O the brain area affects DA activity in the basal ganglia which is important for movement i results in difficulty in all movements muscle tremors and frozen facial expressions 2 Explain the role of dopamine and acetylcholine in maintaining balance for fine motor control and how this balance is upset in Parkinson s Disease 0 Acetylcholine gas pedal that stimulates movement 0 Dopamine the brake pedal that inhibits movement 0 in parkinson s disease fine muscle control is regulated by neurons that produce ACH and Dopamine i balance is upset not enough inhibition ii Acetylcholine neurons become overactive 1 due to substantia nigra inability to provide inhibition via dopamine 2 increased psychotic behavior hallucinations delusions 3 Understand how L Dopa is helpful yet also limited in its ability to treat Parkinson s O helps neurons in the substantia nigra synthesize more dopamine O effectiveness is limited i as numbers of substantia nigra neurons decreases ii increased psychotic behavior hallucinations delusions 4 Know three possible causes of Parkinson s disease 0 Exposure to environmental toxins i consuming well water ii insecticides herbicides in home gardens or farms 0 head trauma i leading to loss of consciousness were 11X more likely to develop parkinson s ii professional boxers O correlation with coffee consumption i men who didn t drink coffee were 5X more likely to develop parkinson s than heavy coffee drinkers Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders 1 Describe the brain changes associated with schizophrenia ventricles hippocampal cells hypofrontality a Schizophrenia is associated with enlarged ventricles The ventricles are merely uid filled spaces in these cases The hippocampal cells are smaller than in some schizitphrenics Hypofrontality describes lowered activity in the frontal lobe and is also associated with schizophrenics depamine activity co alatad with psyc at one emfng and P kinsonslTardive on the other a caused excess dopaming activity in the brain Dopamine agonists like amphetamine and cocaine Cause hallucinations and pammid deluSiOHS Similar to the Fugitive of schizohrenia opamine antagnists are useful in treating especially the positive Symptoms of schizophrenia bquot Increased or textreme Dopamine activity is associated while too little results in motor disturbaan and 1616 aCitiVity39l Len term amilpsycm c tmatmem 01311 result in Tardive Dyskinesiat Charame zed involuntary movements especially in the face and tongue The cause of this side effect is unknown Understand L Dopa and Cocaine affect dopamine levels in the opposite direction typical antipsyehotics a Schizophrenia is excess aetiVity in the brain Depamine agonists like Ledopa amphetamine and cocaine cause hallucinations and paranoid delusions similar to the positive of schizophrenia Dopamine antaenists are useful treating especially the positive of schizophrenia Typical antipsyChotics like dopamine antagonists phenothiazines lower dopamine levels Distinguish betWeen the Dopamine hypothesis Glutmate theoryquot and evidence supports each cocaineamphetamine PCP and Typical Atypical Antipsychotics a Depamine Schizophrenia caused excess dopamine activity in the brain Dopamine agonists like Ldopa amphetamine cocaine hallucinations and paranoid delusions to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia Typical antipsychoticzs like dopamine antagonists phenethiazines lower dopamine levels blockin the D2 dopamine receptor 13 Glutamate theory Schizophrenia is caused reduced glutamate activity There are fewer glutamate receptors in the brains of patients PCP blocks glutamate receptors produces schizophreniclike symptoms Also glutamte plays an important role in the hippocampus and frontal lobe brain reiens abnormalities in schiZOphrenia 07001117 struCture hippocampus and axis activity may play a role in depres sion and practice petentially impmVe depression a The may play a role in depression disrupting the feedback loop from the stress response The body responds to a stressor by first receiving sensory information about the perceived threat It then sends this infhnnation to the amydala then the amygdala this information to the hypothalamus The hypothalamus then releases causes the Anterior pituitary to release then causes the adrenal lands to release eortisol The body then prepares fer the fiht or flight response and the hippoC ampus recetor sites for cortisol act to inhibit excessive release b In anxiety for mood disorders the hippocampusquot receptor does not the eXcessiive release of cause chronic and other mood disorders as well as damaging the hippocampus itself sleep patterns Stage 1 and 2 sleep are altered depression and how this may affect sleep quality a In depression sleep is as as stage one and stage two sleept These are staes of sleep that are easier to awakened and are more active stages in sleep In particular the system active during sleep meaning less rest and recuperationxfor other sleep and decreasing the quity of sleep 7 Distinguish between and Ketamine neurotransmitter involved agonist er antagonist possible these as treatments for depression a are antidepressants that block serotonin rteuptake the There a long time lag between treatment d a reduction of not everyone resonds to there a large laeebo effect also increase the risk of suicide in children and adolescents Ketamine a potent aonist than drug works on the prefrontal cortex and at high doses produces psychotic symptoms It can be an alternate for depression Understand omega 3quot fatty acids are believed to protect against bipolar disorder a mega 3 fatty acids are believed to protect against bipolar disorder because bipolar disorder prevalence rates are the countries where rarely consumed and lowest countries where is a staple lithium is believed to treat bipolar disorder a Lithium a simple metal found in the natural environment levels out mood uctuations of bipolar disorder enhancing reuptake of norepinephrine High levels of norepinephrine might produce manic episodes so levels could stabilize However there are and unpleasant side effects benzodiazepines and antipsyehotics can also treat bipolar l Explain the possible environmental causes of autism diet oranophosphates a characterized severe disruption of children s ability to sooial bonds and language Excess peptides from gluten wheat and casein Dairy as well as organophosphate pesticides which deactivates acetylcholinesterate and mercury are definitely possible environmental causes of autism b County by county rates of autism in Texas and California are correlated with industrial mercury emissions Mercury suppresses thyroid hormone levels in the mother IN animal models 3 days of maternal thyroid suppression lead to changes in the brains of offspring similar to those found in autism Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders 1 Describe the brain changes associated with schizophrenia ventricles hippocampal cells hypofrontality 1 1 Enlarged ventricles Even while comparing MRIs of identical twins there are distinctive enlargement of the ventricles for the twin that suffers schizophrenia 2 Hippocampal cells In schizophrenic individuals the organization of hippocampal cells will appear more chaotic compared to neatly aligned ones from healthy individuals 3 Hypofrontality In individuals with schizophrenia frontal lobe activity seems to be significantly reduced compared to healthy identical twins 4 Schizophrenia is also associated with greater losses of their grey matter during asolescence Understand how dopamine activity is correlated with psychosis at one extreme and Parkinson sTardive Dyskinesia on the other 1 1 The higher the doses of dopamine present in the brain of an individual the more likely it is for them to develop psychosis Administered drugs such as Levodopa Ldopa or selfadministered ie methamphetamines cocaine will also lead to psychosis if chronically left untreated or unbalanced In this case is hard to distinguish between a schizophrenic and someone who has chronically abused simulant drugs 2 The lower the doses of dopamine present in the brain of an individual the more likely it is for them to develop motor disturbances and relief from psychotic symptoms if any The disorder related to this is Parkinson s disease The drugs that are related to this are the dopamine antagonists such as the phenothiazines When exposed to longterm treatment with antipsychotics tardive dyskinesia may occur in the form of a chronic disorder Understand how LDopa Methamphetmaines and Cocaine affect dopamine levels in the opposite direction as typical antipsychotics 1 Typical antipsychotic medication act primarily by blocking the D2 dopamine receptor and reduce psychotic symptoms that result from either schizophrenia or stimulant abuse 2 Distinguish between the Dopamine hypothesis vs Glutamate theory and what evidence supports each cocaineamphetamine vs PCP and Typical vs Atypical Antipsychotics 1 The Dopamine hypothesis is supported by evidence that dopamine agonists such as cocaine and amphetamines react better to typical antipsychotic medication that blocks the dopamine D2 receptors 2 The Dopamine hypothesis is in comparison too simplistic 3 While the treatment with typical antipsychotic medications is effective it only works for about 14 of all patients with schizophrenia For this reason it is necessary to work with atypical antipsychotic medication which acts upon other neurotransmitters 4 The Glutamate theory suggests that because of the usual interaction between glutamate and dopamine an imbalance in glutamate will in turn result in the same reaction psychosis behavior as a dopamine imbalance 5 Patients with schizophrenia have shown a reduced number of glutamate receptors Glutamate has important roles in areas of the brain hippocampus and frontal lobe that have been tied to structural abnormalities in brains of schizophrenic individuals 6 Support for the glutamate theory is found in the use of phencyclidine PCP that causes schizophreniclike symptoms and that is found to stimulate the dopamine release and block the NMDA glutamate receptors However support for the dopamine hypothesis is also found in the treatment where the psychosis provoked by PCP responds favorably to dopamine antagonists 3 Understand how brain structure hippocampus and HPA axis activity may play a role in depression and how mindfulness practice may potentially improve depression 1 Reduced volumes in the hippocampus and the orbitofrontal cortex have been observed in patients suffering from MDD as well as a reduction in the left frontal lobe activity and thus increased right frontal lobe activity 2 The HPA axis activity is believed to be interrupted by anxiety or depression when the feedback loop is not properly completed cortisol being secreted then physical changes such as the body preparing for fightorflight and the normal identification of cortisol that inhibits the system 3 Exercise in conjunction with medication and cognitivebehavioral therapy might potentially improve depression by providing the same relief as antidepressants and have an effective combination to forming longlasting effects 4 Explain how sleep patterns REM Stage 1 and 2 sleep are altered in depression and how this may affect sleep quality 1 In an individual with depression it will be more likely for them to enter REM sleep after approximately 45 min of sleep rather than 90 min that occur in a normal person 2 Also stages 1 and 2 of NonREM sleep are more prominent in depressed individuals meaning that it is easier for them to be awakened however they do not get as much deep sleep 3 It has been shown that waking up during the REM stages of sleep significantly reduces depression 4 Sleep quality is reduced when individuals wake up before being able to enter deep NonREM sleep 5 Distinguish between SSRls and Ketamine neurotransmitter involved agonist or antagonist and possible side effects with these drugs as treatments for depression 1 Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSRls increase the number of serotonin that is surrounding the synapses 2 When there isn t enough serotonin the most aggressive and violent suicides are committed 3 Problems with SSRIs i Long lag time between treatment and reduction of symptoms ii Not everyone responds to SSRIs and there is a large placebo effect iii SSRIs increase risk of suicide in children and adolescents L 2 Understand why omega 3 fatty acids are believed to protect against bipolar disorder 1 Seafood that contains omega 3 fatty acids are believed to be responsible for a trend reduction of lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorders because it has been repeatedly found that countries such as Iceland where fish is consumed a lot have had less cases than countries like Germany for example that rarely consumed fish 3 Understand how lithium is believed to treat bipolar disorder 1 It is believed that lithium levels out the mood fluctuations 2 Lithium is believed to promote neurogenesis 3 Lithium also decreases norepinephrine activities which in turn decreases the probability of mania episodes and symptoms by promoting norepinephrine reuptake 4 It is believed that even though Lithium does not directly increase the levels of serotonin it does get involved with second messengers and enzymes 4 Explain the possible environmental causes of autism diet organophosphates mercury 1 Genes i Concordance rate among identical twins is at least 90 ii Genes involved in regulation of brain development iii Wide range of behaviors are implicated no single gene iv People with autism are more likely to have relatives who are engineers and scientists rather than artists and poets v systematic thinker vs emotion and empathetic 1 Environment i Rates of autism increased 273 in California from 1987 to 1998 1 Diet excess peptides from gluten wheat and casein dairy 2 Organophosphate pesticides inactivate acetylcholinesterase 3 Mercury exposure i Trace amounts of mercury found in vaccines not supponed ii Countybycounty rates of autism in Texas and California are correlated with industrial mercury emissions iii Mercury suppresses thyroid hormone levels in the mother 1 In animal models 3 days of maternal thyroid suppression led to changes in the brains of offspring similar to those found in autism
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