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Popular in Crimminology
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Section 10 Developmental Theories From Delinquency to Crime to Desistance gtMost theories of crime are m Assume explanations are applicable across the lifespan gt But people changesocially biologically and psychologically lmply that delinquent behavior is selfperpetuating gtBut people ageout of delinquent behavior gtn contrast developmentalIifecourse theories focus on Onset Acceleration and Deceleration Seriousness Desistance agingout gtCosest we have to a goldstandard theory Tend to rely of longitudinal studies lj gtCan better identify causal mechanisms due to temporal ordering Theories are integrative to varying degrees in that they take into account social psychological and bio ogical factors Simultaneously Risk and Protective Factors for Serious Delinquency gtRisk Factor Something that increases the probability of offending These factors are dynamic they change over time It is typical for risk factors to cluster together gtProtective Factor Something that decreases the probability of offending Why do people ageout of crime gtAs people mature they tend to discount the future less ncreased ability to resist the quick fix ncreased levels of responsibility Personalities change with age Become aware of risks associated with crime Changes in human biologyphysiology Why do others persist gtAn interaction of various social psychological and biological factors An excess of risk factors compared to protective factors gtEarlyage onset associated with serious and persistent offending gtResearchers and public of cials most concerned with Chronic offenders Arrested more than fourfive times Nonviolent serious offenders Burglary serious larceny mv theft Violent offenders Murder kidnapping violent sexual assault robbery and aggravated assault Especially worried about those who are chronic serious AND violent offenders Main Approaches The three main developmental lifecourse theories include gtAgnew s Super Traits gtMoffit s Dual Pathway gtSampson and Laubs s AgeGraded Suner Traits Theory gtMain ar ument The two underlying traits of low selfcontrol and irritability are super tral s Encompass sensation seeking impulsivity inattentiveness and low empathy Likely to evoke negative responses from others which further perpetuate the risk Linked to evocative rGE gt rritability is analogous to what most psychologists refer to as negative emotionality gtFive domains containing possible crimegenerating factors Personality Family School Peers and Work Interact and feed back on one another across the lifespan gtHolds that personality sets people on a trajectory or pathway Conditions other social variables gtClaims it can explain gender racial and age differences Males more likely to inherent low selfcontrol and irritability due to evolutionary reasons Teen more irritable and impulsive because of biosocial changes African Americans or Latinos more likely to be poor and receive discriminatory treatment Increasmg Irritability Poverty may lead to a live for today attitude consistent with impulsiveness Limitations 1 Claims people don t age out rather the opportunity to commit crime decreases 2 Doesn t explain different pathways Dual Pathwav Developmental Theorv gtTe rrie Mof tt llain argumentDraws the distinction between adolescent limited AL offenders and lifecourse persnstent LCP offenders 85 o of offenders are AL The maturity gap may contribute to AL Maturit Gap The period during which youth have already encountered puberty but are not ye entering Into the workforce sz gout 15 are LCP offenders but may be responsible for more than 50 of all gtLCP offenders exhibit early signs and begin offending before puberty Have neuropsychological and temperamental deficits Negative emotionality inattentiveness low impulse control Other theorists call these traits Result of a combination of genetic and environmental effects Environmentalfactors single teenage mother lower SE8 abuseneglect and inconSIstent discrplme gtLCP offender behavior is ageconsistent Age 4 biting and hitting Age 10 truancy Age 16 selling drugs and stealing cars Age 22 rape and robbery Age 30 fraud and child abuse Underlyin disposition is the same at all a es but expression changes from new opportunities a different ponnts of developmen gtCrosssituationa behavior also consistent LCkRs lie at home steal from shops cheat at school fight in bars and embezzle at wor gtAL offenders have a different developmental history placing them on a prosocral trajectory Temporarily derailed by biosocial changes of adolescence Not burdened with neuropsychological problems Adequately socialized in childhood by competent parents Seen as normal or typical teenagers Offending tends to be a social phenomena played out in peer groups Sampson and Laub s AgeGraded Theory gtllain argument Environmental circumstances and human agency interact with various lifecourse events In a manner that explains deVIance gtEssentially a social control theory with its primary focus being on desistance rather than onset gtAs peo le build upsocia capital and encounter key turning points in their lives they are ikely to desnst leGraded Developmental Theorv A LifeCourse Perspective gtFirst two theories discuss traits that set individuals onto pathways gtSampson and Laub s don t believe people are quotlockedquot into developmental pathways by certain traits gtBasically a control theory extended into adulthood Focuses on importance of social bonds early in life Helps explain why crime does not occur or desistance from crime gt Social capitalquot helps us understand why people do notcommit crime Social capital The store of positive relationship with others gtSocial bonds are the source of social capital Built on the norms of reciprocity and trust We draw on these relationships for support Provides a powerful stake in conformity Most people not willing to jeopardize their social capital by committing crimes gt Turning pointsquot help explain desistance Important milestones in one s life that may set on a prosocial direction Graduating marriage military career children etc gtEmphasizes environmental circumstances individual choice and human agency One is not doomed by their past nor are they locked into a career of delinquency Limitations 1 Little emphasis on risk factors other than bonding strength that send people on dl ferent trajectories 2 Trait theorists would say that deviance or criminality is merely shifts Underlying trait still present impulsivity low self control Evaluation of Developmental Theories gtDevelopmental theories are unique because They are dynamic in nature They help us understand the process of desistance Most of them are based on longitudinal data which are particularly useful in Assessing causeeffect relationships ldentifying factors thatlead to the onset persistence or desistance of crime in particular IndIVIduals over time They generally integrate the contributions of social psychological and biological research on crime Policv and Prevention gtDevelo mental theories support a broad array of strategies consistent with those su gested by other pe pectIves gtParticularly supportive offamil based nurturant interventions particularly when they take place earyin the Ife course gt The NurseFamily Partnership 4OO atrisk mothers three control and experimental groups REVIEW THE POWERPOINT TO SEE THE APPLICABLE GRAPHS Section 11 Violent Crimes Violence in Historv gtHistory of humankind is a violent one 14 century London Murder rate of 44 per 100000 1292 1392 in Nuremberg Germany Murder rate fluctuated between 20 and 65 per 100000 Only 47 for same city in 1984 t a39l39he high rates of violence in medieval times may have been attributable The habit of bearing arms Heavy alcohol consumption The absence of effective medical treatment for wounds The lack of a trusted system of justice Murder gtThe FBI de nes murder as The willful nonnegligent killings of one human being by another gtThe US murder rate in 2012 was 47 per 100000 Almost half the 1980 rate of 102 gtSome individual cities have higher murder rates than medieval Europe Detroit Michigan 546 per 100000 New Orleans Louisiana 532 per 100000 St Louis Missouri 355 per 100000 Murder in the United States Murder is most common among offenders andvictims between 18 and 24 years 0 age gtMales are far more likely to commit murder than females 89 Femalefemale homicide is extremely rare accounting for only 25 of murders When females kill males it is typically a spouse exspouse or boyfriend in a self defense Situation Mann 1990 Th f ff d rs ar39ed am n ack 5160 h39te 4450 incudes mosteglzilscgagicosea1n otherlraces I 0 WI I O gtMost murders are intraracial and intrasexual Murder around the World gtMurder rates vary across the globe gtPolitically stable and wealthy democracies tend to have lower murder rates gtCountries with high murder rates tend to be thirdworld developing or experiencing rapid somal and economic changes Five Categories of Murder in the United States 1 Aggravated 1St Degree Murder The intentional unlawful killing of one human by another with premeditation and deliberation This is the only kind of murder for which offenders can be executed in states with the death penalty 2 Felony Murder Does not require an intention to kill It requires an intention to commit some other felony such as robbery during which the Victim ends up getting killed 3 Voluntary Manslaughter 2nd Degree Murder Intentional killing without premeditation and deliberation This might include Murder with the mistaken belief that it was required for self defense Murder in response to provocation that caused the suspect s state of emotional arousal to impede his or her rational faCIlities 4 Involuntary Manslaughter An unintentional killing resultin from a reckless act in which the offender ggnsncgiJously disregarded t e risk of heir actions to the lives of others as With drunk IVI 5 Negligent Manslaughter t tausing a death through some negligent act that carries a substantial risk of death 0 o ers This crime involves failure to do something that shouldhave been done such as failing to fix an unsafe vehicle or comply With safety regulations Rape gtWas called forcible rape until 2012 The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will Definition includes attempts but excludes statutory rape gtNew FBI de nition The penetration no matter how slight of the vagina or anus with any body art or 0tert0r oral penetration by a sex organ of another person Without the consen of the Vi i Includes either gender Whether victim or perpetrator Includes instances of incapability of giving consent situations both temporary and permanent Rates have fallen significantly over last 40 years gtggrpsegsof males are typically classi ed as either assault or other sex gtAccording to the 2012 UCR 83425 rapes were reported in 2011 Rate of 268 down 374 since peak year of 1992 Poor young unmarried nonwhite females are disproportionately likely to be Victimized Poor young unmarried nonwhite males are disproportionately likely to be perpetrators gtStatistics from 20 years of victimization surveys indicate that About half of all rapes are committed by someone known to the Victim The offender is armed in about 20 of all cases tStranger rapists are more likely to be armed 29 than those known to the Vic im In cases where Victims fight their attackers or yell or scream more reported that it helped the Situation rather than made it worse Slightly more than half of victims report the assault to the police gtlt is difficult to compare statistics internationally as nations have such different reporting practices and definitions of rape Theories of Rape gtThe feminist theory of rape asserts that rape is learned and motivated by power rather than sexual deSIre they View all men as capable of rape gtSocial learninIg theorists agree with the assum tions of feminists but view rapists as psychological y unhealthy not as normal men gtTherapists tend to agree that all men are capable of it but see rape as sexualy motivated gtEvoutionary psychologists also contend that rape is sexually motivated but that it is a maladaptive consequence of a generally adaptive behaVior males seeking as many sexual partners as possmle Rape Victimization gtRegardess of the reasons why people rape victims experience longterm consequences gtProduces feelings of guilt depression selfblame lowered selfesteem shock and anger Can sometimes translate into rape trauma syndrome Similar to posttraumatic stress syndrome gtMay also negativel change victims perceptions of other people from sources of support to sources of reat Robbery gtThe UCR de nes robbery as The taking or attempted taking of anything of value from the care custody or control of a person or persons by force or threat 0 force or Violence andor putting the Victim in fear gtThe rate of robbery in 2012 was 1137 per 100000 down almost 57 from the peak rate of 263 in 1992 Most robbers were under the age of 25 601 and male 89 556 were black 43 white and 14 were other races In 2012 average dollar amount per reported robbery was 1153 Banks having the highest average at 4704 per offense Among robberies for which weapon information is available Strongarm tactics were used in 423 Firearms in 41 3 Knives and cutting instruments in 78 gtThis crime is risky due to the potential for victim resistance and the penalties attached to the crime R bber 39 the erfe tcr39me fort ose with ressi a d con tant n ed For ast to fged achedonistic Iiffestyle ancFVEho enrigy the rush that le crime a ords them gtRltbbery setting provides ideal opportunity to construct an essential toughness and ma eness gtWith the exception of rape robbery is the most male of all crimes Females seldom rob males without an accomplice One strategy is to appear sexually available to a male victim through prostitution or otherWIse and en rob him once he is alone Domestic Violence gtDomestic violence encompasses a variety of crimes and refers to any abusive act that occurs Within a domestic setting gtFamily violence is the most prevalent form in United States today Most of that is intimate partner violence Overwhelmingly committed by males against females When females commit they are more likely to use a weapon to equalize the size and strength difference between the sexes Just over onethird of all murders of females in the US are committed by intimate partners gtASSaUts re rimaril drivenb sexual ro rietariness39eaous and suspICIono in delity y y p D J y gtThe single most important cause of domestic violence including homicide is male jealousy and suspICIon of Infidelity aglllggt often committed by what have been called competitively disadvantaged CD CD males have low mate value because they have less to offer in terms of resources or prospects of acquiring them Lacllting alternative means of controlling their partner s behavior CD males may turn to Violently coerCive tactics to intimidate Gun Violence In the United States gtln 2011 guns us din 677 of murders 413 of robberies and 212 of aggravated assau ts US has the highest gun ownership rate in the world at 888 per 100 people But the hi hest rates of firearm murjders arehin Honduras El Salvador and Jamaica coun ries which rank 88 92 and 74 respectively in terms of gun owners ip US ranks 28th in terms of its firearms murder rate l gtAn assessment of public opinion and gun policy noted that it is the combination of mental illness and the availability of guns that is the real problem gtAmericans do not favor a ban on gun ownership just more sensible laws l gtLott 2010 provides extensive statistical evidence that violent crime rates go down when states pass concealed carry laws Theories of Violence gtOur understandin of more common types of violence can bene t from multip e perspectiv S39 Sociologists look at the overall social structure or the norms of subcultures Psychologists look at personality features situations or developmental expenences Geneticists may look at a mix of genetic and environmental factors Neuroscientists focus on questions of brain structure and neurotransmitters 3They have found that consistent exposure to violence a pears to shape neuronal Circwtry in a manner expressed through impulswe behaVIor iehoff 2003 f tElvolutionary theorists will look at why humans have a propensity for violence in the irs p ace The hold that violence appears linked to reproductive success in nearly all speCIes ue to Its role in attaining status and dominance gtSubculture ofViolence A subculture in which the norms values and attitudes of its members legitimize the use of Violence to resolve conflicts gtHonor Subcultures Communities in which young men are hypersensitive to insult rushing to defend their reputation in dominance contests Mazur amp Booth 1998 362 gtViolence can be understood as adaBtive when one considers the importance of dominance in protecting one sstatus efore there wasorganized law enforcement or in areas where law enforcement is ineffective In maintaining personal security Where le itimate opportunities are low it may be a rational response to compete for the status an resources necessary for personal safety and reproductive success t Still understanding explanations of violence is not the same as morally condoning Violence and Inequality gtlt isfrequently noted that impulsivity and discounting the future are maladaptive behaVIors gtBut Wilson and Daly 1997 suggest discounting the future maybe a rational response to information that Indicates an uncertain or low probability of surVIVIng to reap delayed benefits for example and reckless risk taking can be optimal when the expected profits from safer courses of action are negligible Tested their assumption withhomicide income inequality and life expectancy data from the 77 neighborhoods in Chicago for the years 1988 through 1995 Hypothesized that neighborhoods with lowest income levels and shortest life expectanCIes excluding homICIdes would have highest homICIde rates Life expectancy effects of homicide mortality statistically removed ran 543 years in the oorest neighborhood to774 years in the wealthiest and t attending homICI e rates ranged from 13 in the wealthiest to 156 per 10000 poorest a huge 120fold difference ed from e inthe 3n O StickUp Street Culture and Offender Motivation Jacobs and Wright 1999 gtExpores decisionmaking processes of activ armed robbers in real life settings and Circumstances usmg qualitative ata gtHow andwh these offenders move from an unmotivated state to one in which they are determine to commit robbery gtHypothesjzed that while decision stems most directly from perceived need for fast cas deCISIOn is activated mediated and channeled by partICIpation in street culture gtStreet culture represents an essential intervening variable linking criminal motivation to background risk factors and subjective foreground condition Methods Motivation Money and Street Culture r a based on indepth interviews with sample of 86 currently active gtRespondents ages range from 1651 3983 were AfricanAmerican 14 were female gtAll taken part in robberies but many also committed strongarm attacks gtDid not offend at equal rates but all Had committed robbery within the recent past typically within past month Defined themselves as currently active Regarded as active by other offenders gt61 admitted to having committed 10 or more lifetime robberies gt31 estimated having committed at least 50 robberies gt73 typically robbed individuals on the street or in other public settings gt10 reported usually targeting commercial establishments gt3 claimed they committed street and commercial robberies in roughly equal proportions Fast Cash gtPerception for need for fast cash was motivation with few exceptions 3980 of 81 offenders who spoke directly to issue of motivation Frequency of committing crimes governed largely by lack of money in pockets gtMany gave little thought to crime until money was needed gt1 9 of 59 offenders who specified particular use for proceeds of their crimes claimed they needed money for ba3ic necessmes gtllost central pursuits in street culture revolves around enjoyment of cod times with minimal concerns for obli ations and commitments that are external to heimmediate somal setting Shover amp onaker 1992 p 283 gtGeneral lack of social stability and absence of conventional sources of support Keepinq Up Appearances gtConsLurncption of personal nonessential statusenhancing items was no less impor an gtFunctionality of offenders purchases was tangential perhaps irrelevant gtSorrne offenders would use funds for haircuts manicures and other mundane purc ases gtWillingness to spend large amounts of cash on luxury items to detriment of more pressmg financial concerns sets them apart from normal oitizens gtSeldom had cash in hand to sustain lifestyle for long gtDisdain for longterm planning encouraged spending with reckless abandon Whv Robberv gtDecision to commit robbery is motivated by need for cash gtThat the decision to obtain cash by wayof committing robbery typicallyernerges in course of IIIICIt street action suggests legitimate employment IS not a realistic solution Need for cash is pressing and immediate Offenders cannot or will not wait Jobs available to them do not pay sufficient wages to support their lifestyle Legitimate employment seen to be overly restrictive orkRobbery allows offenders to flaunt independence and escape the rigors of legal w gtNot every offender summarily dismissed prospect of gainful employment gtMost lacked cultural capital necessary for conduct of legitimate business gtDoubtful offenders would keep legitimate job for long if they could obtain it Borrowing gtln theory offenders could have borrowed cash from friend or relative Not feasible in practice gtBorrowing a shortterm solution gtPossibility may be moot for most offenders Many friends and family will not loan to offender gtWhenconfronted with immediate need for money offenders perceived themselves as havrng little hope of securing cash qurckly and legally Most committed wide range of incomegenerating offenses in past gtOther forms of inco e ener in crime t ica l ro ted b hance gris cjojgeg grfaens lecralry vu neragle garget ratlPer tLBaererPnrg partyof typical gtMany1 offenders who ex ressed strong preference for robbery had come to offense throug burglary drug se lung or both Claim that robbery has several advantages over other crimes Discussion gtOver ll ict th tem r e is one of offen ers ca ht u in a c cle of Fxrpensaive selllf ndu entehgbicts that feed on t emse vges arPd constantly call 0 more vrctims oft e same gtMistake to conclude that these offenders are driven to crime by genuine financial hardships gtBeing a street robber is a way of behaving thinking an approach to life gtStopping themin the absence of lengthy incarcerationis not likely to be successful EVANT AND PERTINENT GRAPHS AND OWERPOINT Property Crime XIII Property crime involves either the illegal acquisition of money and goods or the malicious destruction of property 80 of offenses reported to police in 2011 were property crime Larceny Theft 68 burglary 24and motor vehicle theft for 8 Most people have or will commit property offenses results in secondary deviance Property crime can be instrumental as well as expressive An expressive crime has no purpose except to accomplish the action that is desired by the perpetrator ex murder and assult They really do nothing but allow the perpetrator to express hisher wishesdesires an instrumental crime is committed by a person who uses them as a stepping stone to goods or services they can39t get on their own LarcenyTheft the most common property crime committed in the United States unlawful taking leading or riding away from the possession or constructive possession of another shoplifting pocket picking purse snatching motor vehicle thefts most common Grand Theft a felony is distinguished from petty theft a misdemeanor based on the value of the asset stolen cutoff is usually about 1000 little economic gain rather it is the seduction of the crime conquering fearand the euphoric thrill of completion that is the real payoff Burglary the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft alternating experience for victims because of the sanctity of the home financial loss experience anger fear invasion of privacy and vulnerability Burglary statutes are a mix of laws covering a variety of conduct the unlawful entry element enables some states to define shoplifting as burglary if it can be shown that a suspect entered a store with the intention of stealing thereby making the entry unlawful typical burglar young male firmly embedded in the street culture basic motive for committing burglary is to gain resources at little or no cost to oneself may offer greatest chance of success with the least amount of risk Wright and Decker 1994 found that burglars come from poor run down socially disorganized neighborhoods with high unemployment poorly educated unreliable resistant to taking orders and often from single parent households many burglars give up jobs to concentrate on burglary unemployment didn t cause crime rather crime caused unemployment When females commit burglaries it is overwhelmingly in mixed gender teams someone drives while others steal etc choosing Targets Target exposure refers to the visibility and accessibility of the home namely isolation from other homes and easy access via side and back doors shielded by abundant trees and shrubs can the premises be seen by neighbors and passer by I Guardianship refers to how well the home is protected Does the home show signs of occupancy such as cars in the driveway lights on music playing is there a burglar alarm or dog present or is there mail in the mailbox newspapers in the foyer and a general silence about the place I Target attractiveness refers to signs that there should be rich pickings in the house previous surveillance may have revealed high priced cars in the driveway or delivery trucks delivering expensive items I Proximity refers to the distance between the target home and the burglar s home The majority of burglars are low to mid level opportunists who engage only in rudimentary even spurof the moment planning guardianship is the most consideration for low and mid level burglars with many choosing homes occupied by individuals known to them such as neighbors acquaintances and even friends suggests they lack empathy and a conscience some do report occasional pangs of guilt but they justify their actions as the result of desperate need to get money for another drug fix Disposing of loot most immediate pressure facing burglars after a successful burglary is to convert the stolen goods into cash fence a person who regularly buys stolen property and who often has a legitimate business to cover his activities provides burglars with a way of disposing of hot property most likely fences drug dealers they provide uncomplicated durgs for merchandise barters have cash relatives friends and acquaintances pawnshops not popular outlets for burglars because identification request first place law enforcement official will check once for reports of stolen property potential economic loss for business Motor Vehicle Theft defined by FBI as the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle Motives vary some do it for the thrill others it is a profession the high recovery rate of stolen vehicles about 62 indicates that most motor vehicle thefts are for eXpressive reasons to show off to get some kicks rather than for instrumental reasons financial gain Many MV thefts are committed by juveniles for fun 35 are under the age of 21 of the vehicles stolen for profit most are taken to chop shops place where they are stripped of their parts and accessories these items are easily sold to auto supply stores repair shops and individuals who get faster delivery at a cheaper price than they would from legitimate suppliers gt the common theme of people who specialize in stealing automobiles as with most types of criminals is their disdain of legitimate employment and their unending pursuit of their self indulgent lifestyles jockeys professional auto thieves who steal particularly high value vehicles to order for specific customers Carjacking the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle from its occupant by force or threat of force most serious of MV theft can be charged with robbery assault AND MV theft carjackers are mostly male 93 and African American 56 and more closely resemble robbers than other car thieves Arson defined as any willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn with or without intent to defraud a dwelling house public building motor vehicle or aircraft personal property of another etc FBI 2012 hard to determine whether a fire is considered as arson Motives Financial gain revenge intimidation expressive motivations juveniles only make up 6 of the American population but are arrested in more thn 43 of arson cases likely done for eXpressive reasons and don39t usually re offend if caught and dealt with Persistent fire starters are a concern have higher levels of other antisocial behaviors higher levels of hostility and impulsiveness and lower levels of sociability and assertiveness than youths in general also suffer more psychiatric symptoms higher levels of depression and tend to come from families with low levels of affectionate eXpression and child monitoring Crimes of Guile and Deceit Embezzlement Fraud and Forgerv Counterfeiting The UCR lists three part 11 property crimes that are committed purely by guile or deceit Embezzlement Fraud Forgerycounterfeiting these offenses are committed by a broader range of people than burglary and motor vehicle theft some people consider these to be white collar offenses but their is such a wide range of people who commit these crimes white collar workers blue and pink collar workers as well as the unemployed and welfare recipients most criminologists examine them as property crimes rather than white collar crimes Embezzlement defined as the misappropriation or misapplication of money entrusted to the embezzler s care custody or control the rarest of all property crimes females 50 were arrested almost as often as males for embezzlement in 2011 whites constituted 66 of arrestees computers make embezzlement easier and more lucrative salami technique embezzlers open accounts in their own name and slice off a few cents from a large number of accounts FLud defined as theft by trick ie obtaining the money or property of another through deceptive practices such as false advertising and impersonation dishonest telemarketing quack medical cures phony faith healers price Gouhing diploma Mills most common kind of fraud is income taX fraud Forgerycounterfeiting forgery creation of documents to give them the appearance of legality and validity with the intention of gaining some frraudlent benefit from doing so false writing of a document and uttering the passing of that document to another with knowledge of its falsity and intent to defraud counterfeiting a special case of forgery which involves the creation or altering of currency considered a federal offense Cybercrime defined as the use of computer technology to criminally victimize unwary individuals or groups everyone who enters cyberspace is a potential victim of cybercrime this category encompasses crimes that range from terrorism to seX crimes to harassment 0 identify theft the use of someone else s personal information without their permission to fraudulently obtain goods and services phishing a method of committing identity theft casting of thousands of fraudulent emails asking for personal information and waiting for someone to bite most identity information is stolen to be sold not for the personal use of the thief O denial of Service Attack occurs when criminals kidnap a business website or threatens to kidnap it so that business cannot be conducted accomplished by overloading the victim s computer system by flooding it with millions of bogus messages and useless data Hacker someone who illicitly accesses someone else s computer system different kinds of hackers those interested in the challenge of breaking into a system with no 3 intention of causing damage cyberpunksvirtual vandals interested in implanting viruses to destroy data hackers tend to be white males loners nerdy high IQ and idealistic but also unpopular with others prone to lying and cheating alcohol and drug abuse even Searching a dwelling Deterrence and the Undeterred Residential Burglar Richard Wright In most jursidictions a residential burglary has been completed in the eyes of the law the moment an offender enters a dwelling without permission intending to commit a crime therein seen through the eyes of the burglars themselves a break in is far from complete at this point Burglars must transform their illicit intentions into action searching for goods and stealing them and ecaping from the scene without getting caught injured or killed offenders must strike a deceptively complex subjective balance that maximizes reward within the limits of accptable risk Qualitative interview interviewed 105 currently active residential burglars in St Louis Missouri recruited through the efforts of a field based informant The leisurelv Search Safest course of action for offenders is to search the target quickly and then leave without delay Adopting this approach however means that they seldom will come away from offenses having stolen more than is necessary to meet their immediate financial needs there is unlikely to be anything left over to help them deal with their next monetary crisis A small minority prefer to remain in targets long enough to make certain they have found everything of value These burglars claim to understand the schedules kept by occupants of their targets and to have a clear idea about how long residents will be out Thus they can proceed unimpeded by concerns about being discovered in the act of searching places Even offenders who do not routinely linger in targets occasionally succumb to the temptation to stay longer when they know that the occupants will be away for some time Their reasons for doing so however often seem to transcend the desire for greater financial rewards Indeed many devote this extra time almost wholly to relaxation and entertainment Summary majority of residential burglars want to search dwellings ASAP in belief that the longer they remain inside the more chance they stand of being caught trial and error script locating maximum amount of cash and goods per unit of time invested proceed almost automatically without having to make complicated decisions at each stage of the search process by the time offenders have entered a target with the intention to steal a burglary has been committed the offense can no longer be deterred or prevented while it is too late to prevent the burglaries there is still an opportunity to limit the loss of cash and goods if we can understand the cognitive scripts used by burglars to search dwellings well enough to be able to disrupt those scrips Public Order Crimes XIV Defn Public Order Crimes include a variety of offenses that have been variously called vice offenses consensual offenses victimless crimes or even nuisance offenses Public order crimes are of the moving Target type legal in some places and at some times prostitution in Nevada drugs in Amsterdam gambling in London and illegal at other times and in other places Notion of victimless crimes rejected by most criminologists because there are always secondary victims 0 All public order offenses cause some social harm but there is debate regarding whether the harm is great enough to warrant the investment of criminal justice resources AlcoholCrime Alcohol more directly linked to crime especially violent ones than other substances used to alter mood and consciousness 0 Has been estimated that at least 70 of American prison inmates Wanberg amp Milkman 1998 and 60 of British inmates are alcohol andor drug addicted 0 Alcohol is linked to about 110000 deaths a year vs the 19000 fatalities attributable to other drugs 0 Police officers spend more than half of their time on alcohol related offenses 0 Estimated that one third of all arrests excluding drunk driving in the US are for alcohol related offenses Effects of alcohol and context on Behavior 0 Effects of alcohol or any other drug on behavior is a function of the interactions of Pharmacological properties of the substance Pharmacologically alcohol is a depressant drug that inhibits the functioning of the higher brain centers As more and more alcohol is drunk behavior becomes less and less inhibited as the rational corteX surrenders its control of the drinker s demeanor to the more primitive emotional limbic system Individual s physiology and personality Alcohol is not sufficient by itself to change anyone s behavior in the direction of serious law violations Most people don t become violent or commit criminal offenses when drinking or even when they are over the limit Alcohol is a releaser of behaviors that we normally keep under control but which we may be prone to eXhibit when control is weakened Debate on whether antisocial tendencies lead to alcohol abuse or whether alcohol consumption leads to antisocial behavior Social and cultural context in which the substance is ingested If one s culture defines alcohol as a good time eliXir then one is granted cultural permission to do just that Physiological effects of alcohol 0 Alcohol is a depressant but at low dosages it serves as a stimulant by raising dopamine levels 0 Reduces inhibition by affecting GABA 0 Increase serotonin reduces impulse control and increases the likelihood of aggression Alcoholism Type I and Type II Alcoholism a chronic disease condition marked by progressive incapacity to control alcohol consumption despite psychological social or physiological disruptions 0 Type I alcoholism characterized by mild abuse minimal criminality and passive dependent personality variables Usually start drinking later in life than type IIs and progress to alcoholism slowly They typically have families and careers and if they have character defects these are induced by their alcohol problem and are not permanent 0 Type II alcoholism characterized by early onset violence and criminality and is largely limited to males Start drinking at a very early age and rapidly become addicted and they have many character disorders and behavioral problems that precede their alcoholism Environmental factors are more important in understanding type I alcoholism than type II Illegal Drugs and Crime Alcohol use is legal and socially acceptable way of drugging oneself but these substances are not Many drugs have been legitimately used in religious rituals for medical treatment and for recreational use around the world and across the ages 0 Up until 1914 drugs now considered illicit were legally and widely used in the US for medicinal purposes 0 People were not fully aware of the dangers of addiction and many were openly advertised and sold as cures for ailments 0 Led to high rates of addiction among upper middle class white women during westward eXpansion Attitudes towards drug usage in America gradually began to change as awareness of the addictive powers of the many of these substances grew 0 The Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 Benchmark for changing America s concept of drugs and their use Act reduced the number of addicts but also spawned criminal black market operations by early 1920s the conception of the addict changed from that of a middle class victim accidentally addicted through medicinal use to that of a criminal deviant using narcotics or stimulants for pleasure o Mariiuana Stamp Act 193 7 A United States Act that placed a taX upon certain dealers in marijuana to impose a transfer taX upon certain dealings and to safeguard the revenue therefrom by registry and recording 0 Counter culture movement of the 1960s In the broadest sense 1960s counterculture grew from a confluence of events issues circumstances and technological developments which served as intellectual and social catalysts for exceptionally rapid change during the era 0 War on drugs began in the 1970s an American term commonly applied to a campaign of prohibition of drugs military aid and military intervention with the stated aim being to define and reduce the illegal drug trade This initiative includes a set of drug policies that are intended to discourage the production distribution and consumption of what the governments and UN define as illegal psychoactive drugs Drug addiction compulsive drug seeking behavior where acquiring and using a drug becomes the most important activity in the user s life 0 phsycial dependence refers to changes to the body that occur after repeated drug use necessitating its continued administration to avoid withdrawal symptoms 0 Psychological dependence the deep craving for the drug and the feeling that one cannot function without it synonymous with addiction 55 of youth today have used some form of illegal substance though few become addicted Drug use Trends Self report surveys suggest drug use among kids is lower today than 20 years ago 0 Peaked in late 1970s o Lows in early 1990s 0 Peaked again in late 90 s 0 Has slowly decreased since with a slight recent up swing over the last couple of years Why do people use Drugs 3 similar to other forms of crime Social disorganizationanomiestrain conflict theory Social leamingdifferential social organizationpeer pressure 0 Peer pressure a associating with others who take drugs socialized into a drug using subculture Warm bonds to develop Relationship is reciprocal Social control weak bonds Self control impulsiveness sensation seeking 1 Family factors abuse neglect 0 Family breakup neglect abuse 0 Race and gender differences Females and whites more likely to display an abuse drug use link Observing drug use may lead to future use Genetic factors 0 Addiction can be genetic 0 Biological children of alcoholics reared by non alcoholic adoptive parents more often develop alcohol problems 0 Certain traits linked to future drug use Rational choice excitement noveltv escapism o Perceived benefits relaxation greater creativity being liked by peers Conflict theorv powerlessness among the underclass 0 Poverty hopelessness stress of environment absence of social cohesion informal social controls and collective efficacy 0 Do not necessarily consume drugs at higher rates but rather for different reasons Does drug abuse cause crime 0 Drug abuse does not appear to initiate a criminal career but it increases the extent of the seriousness of one Explaining drug use and crime Drug causes delinquency Delinquency leads youths to engage in substance abuse or Both drug abuse and delinquency are functions of some other factor Huizinga and Menard find a strong association between delinquency and drug use 0 As a general rule drug abuse appears to be a type of delinquent behavior itself and not a cause of delinquency 0 Most youths become involved in delinquent acts before they are initiated into drugs Illegal drugs are associated with violence in three ways 1 Pharmacological Violence induced by the pharmacological properties of the drug itself 2 Economiccompulsive Violence associated with efforts to obtain money to finance the high cost of illicit drugs 3 Systemic Violence that which is associated with doing business DEA scheme identifies 5 categories schedules of drugs Schedule 1 high abuse liability and no medical use in the US EX cannabis Schedule 11 High abuse liability but some approved medical uses Ex meth opium morphine 9993599 Schedule III and IV moderate to moderately high abuse lability and are legally available with prescription a Ex special K anabolic steroids 4 Schedule V can be purchased without a prescription a Ex Robitussin Three major types of drugs as defined by effects on the brain 1 Narcotics Reduce the sense of pain tension and anXiety and produce a drowsy sense of euphoria a EX heroin Stimulants keep the body in an extended state of arousal Ex Cocaine and meth Hallucinogens hallucinogenicmind altering drugs 9999 Ex lysergic acid diethylamide LSD and peyote Prostitution and Commercialized Vice FBI defines prostitution and commercialized vice as 0 People who sell sexual services prostitutes 0 Those who recruit procure them 0 Those who solicit clients pander for them and 0 Those who house them Prostitution is known as the world s oldest profession but it has not always had the negative reputation it has today Only legal brothels in the US are in certain counties of Nevada Hierarchy win seX trade Those working for escort services Those working in brothels Streetwalkers Becoming a seX worker or prostitute Estimated that seX work is primary source of income for over one million women in the US Pimps eXploit the strong need for love and acceptance among vulnerable girls 0 Takes on role of father protector employer lover etc Girls most vulnerable to pressures to enter seX work are those who have eXperienced high rates of physical sexual and emotional abuse at home and are drug users Should prostitutionsex work be legalized or decriminalized Harms associated with prostitution spread of STI s and eXploitation of women Aids has reduced prostitution Legalizing morality issue can we legislate morality Multiple Murder and Terrorism Mass Spree and Serial Murder Mass Murder 0 Mass Murder The killing of several people at one location that begins and ends within a few minutes or hours mass murders usually end with the killer committing suicide O They can be categorized into two types some choose specific targets that have caused them stress coworkers fellow students etc others attack those who belong to groups they dislike prostitutes different races etc Mass murderers are rarely people who just snap and kill people at random tensions with their targets have often built over long periods of time Spree Murder 0 Spree Murder The killing of several people at different locations in rapid succession the book says over a period of several days Research suggests the main difference between spree and mass murders is the time frame Spree murderers make little effort to hide their activities or avoid detection Spree killing is rare and teams are even more rare One exception was John Muhammad and Lee Malvo s sniper shooting spree in the Washington DC area in 2002 If there is a team it usually consists of a dominant leader and submissive lover Serial Murder 0 Serial Murder The killing of three or more victims over an extended period of time with a cooling off period in between kills These kills are less likely to involve guns and more likely to involve hands on killing often includes torture Several myths surround serial killing probably because of media 0 Myth 1 Serial killers are all dysfunctional loners in reality most have families homes employment friends some are church goers and have been high profile citizens etc they hide in plain sight and neighbors are surprised to hear that such a nice man could be responsible because they hide in plain sight they are often overlooked by law enforcement 0 Myth 2 Serial killers are all white males 44 of serial killers operating between 1995 and 2004 have been black and 2000 to 2010 it was 579 White males receive a lot of media attention The book says an article by Anthony Walsh examines why the media focuses on white serial killers 0 Myth 3 Serial killers are only motivated by sex Sex is a major motivator but many others include thrill seeking attention getting anger and financial gain Perhaps the greatest motivator is a sense of power 0 Myth 4 Serial killers travel and operate interstate Most conduct their operations within a well defined geographic comfort area some zone where they feel comfortable typically centers around their home or place of employment There have been cases of interstate but those are not the majority O Myth 5 Serial killers cannot stop killing Most do continue until they get caught or die there are some well known kilelrs who stopped for years before starting again Example BTK Bind Torture Kill murdered 10 victims from 1974 to 1991 then stopped He was caught in 2005 because he gave himself up he wanted to tell his side of the story when someone was writing a book about the unsolved BTK killings They could just stop or stop for years and then re engage in crime 0 Myth 6 All serial killers are insane or are evil geniuses Most are psychopaths or antisocial personalities very few qualify as mentally ill ex schizophrenic or legally insane though Their IQs vary considerably the book gives more exact numbers and averages this myth probably comes from the few published IQs of infamous killers like Ed Kemper and Ted Bundy 0 Myth 7 Serial killers want to get caught Far from true Possibly derives from amateur psychoanalysis Serial killers plan their crimes target selection acquisition control disposal with great care they perfect it with each victim They sometimes have such feelings of power that they can I get caught not that they don t want to 0 Myth 8 Serial killers are never women There are female serial killers so far none seem to be motivated by sex or sexual violence Most female serial killers kill for financial reasons Prevalence of Serial Killing No one knows how many serial killers there are at any given time or how many murders per year are attributable to them There is a graph on his powerpoints estimating numbers Typology of Serial Killers Typology trying to identify ideal types 0 Visionary Out of touch with reality may be psychotic or schizophrenic and commit murder due to visions or voices in their head these visions or voices are attributed to God demons dead people parents the voices are commanding them to kill sexual assault not usually a component 0 MissionOriented Feel it is their mission in life to kill people such as prostitutes or homosexuals also race religion they define their own undesirables and set out to eliminate as many as they can sometimes there will be groups sexual assault not typically involved Hedonistic The majority of serial killers they kill for the thrill and joy of it engaging in cruel and perverted sexual activity self centered psychopath probably suffers from sexual inadequacy torture cannibalism necrophilia etc killing becomes an addiction PowerControl Gain primary satisfaction from exercising complete power of his victims rather than from bloodlust although sexual activity is almost always involved suffer from sexual inadequacy Examples Ted Bundy and Jeffrey Dahmer Theories of Serial Killing There is no single cause of serial murder but rather an interaction of several risk factors that interact over the course of time Stephen book says Elliott Leyton applied anomiestrain theory suggesting that classes with high aspiration may be most susceptible Culturally the increased emphasis on personal satisfaction may be significant Deinstitutionalization during 1960s From the controlsocial bonding perspective it is notable that many serial killers suffered neglect abuse and social isolation in their early years Sexual dysfunction may result in feelings of worthlessness and powerlessness Some may retreat into private fantasy worlds in which they escape their fears and exert control Stephen Giannangelo s diathesisstress model only one to integrate cultural developmental psychological biological concepts Biological hem sposition Selfaesteem and Maladaptive low arousal levels prefmmtal Selfacozntml coping cortex damage etc problems 1 Dissociation En rnnmentalll Trauma Stress Sexual Dje39s mctinn Retreat into WIEB neglect fanta 523 world Terrorism 0 Offender Pro ling The FBI s Behavioral Science Unit B SU was created in the early 1970s This unit has developed methods of profiling serial killers and other violent offenders Profiling Done by extensive interviewing and formal psychological testing of incarcerated offenders in order to develop a typology based on personality and other offender characteristics At present profiling is more art than science and it is a part of the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime NCAVC What is terrorism Terrorism The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government the civilian population or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social goals It is a tactic used to in uence the behavior of others through intimidation Victims are incidental to broader aims Publicizing a cause Instilling fear in the general public Provoking government response Terrorism is immoral but not as senseless as it does have an ultimate purpose Terrorism has ancient roots but it is far more prevalent today 74 terrorist groups listed by US in 2003 only 3 were active before 1960 Of this 74 39 are Islamic 18 Marxist 17 are hybrids of MarxistIslamic groups or national groups 0 Incidents have risen dramatically since the 1960s due to the peak in con ict between the US and the Soviet Union technological advancements intemet email and cell phones modern transportation cheaper and more easily concealable weapons everyday technology that can be commandeered for terrorists purposes airplanes Terrorism and Common Crime Funding for terrorist activities comes from many sources but most of it originate with common criminal activities drug trafficking extortion bank robbery The money from these activities can corrupt Islamic fundamentalism may be an exception with members often sacrificing more than is gained materially 0 Domestic Terrorism many Americans see terrorism as a foreign thing but there is increasing Americanization of the leadership of al Qaeda several organizations focus on domestic targets ex Oklahoma City bombing other domestic groups take many forms including leftwing right wing and special interest groups Theories of Terrorism Many causes but all terrorist groups respond to perceived injustice If terrorists are moral crusaders theorists must account for their commission of brutal acts Four cognitive stages Stage 1 It s not right Stage 2 It s not fair Stage 3 It s not your fault Stage 4 You re evil Differential Association Theory is consistent with the recruiting of Islamic terrorists from madrasas O Madrasas religious schools 0 Rational Choice Theory suicide bombing may be consistent with this theory it suggests we need to look at what terrorist groups have to offer in order to understand why people join them Islamic suicide bombers are made promises in the afterlife Others see themselves as altruists saints and heroes Martyrs are afforded status within their communities Three Types of Terrorists Charismatic leader alienated narcissistic arrogant intelligent and has deep idealistic sense of right and wrong group members feed his egoism Q Antisocial Personality drawn to the ability to use force or violence have opportunities to use force or violence to further their personal goals as well as goals of the group 0 Follower the majority of terrorists see the world as us and them have deep needs for acceptance which makes them susceptible to religious ideological and political propaganda White Collar and Organized Crime The Concept of White Collar Crime WhiteCollar Crime Crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupation also defined as an illegal act or series of illegal acts committed by non physical means and by concealment or guile to obtain money or property or to obtain business or personal advantage More money is stolen and more people die every year as a result of scams and illegal corporate activity than as the result of street criminals Two types of white collar crime occupational corporate Occupational White Collar Crime 0 Occupational Crime Crimes committed by individuals in the course of their employment ranges from stealing pens and paper clips to the draining of company funds through sophisticated computer techniques 0 every occupational category generates a considerable number of criminals O higher the prestige of the occupation the higher the costs to the general public 0 over medical fraud estimated to cost 260 billion a year 10 of overall US health care bill Causes of Occupational Crime Hirschi and Gottfredson 1987 suggest that occupational crime is different from street crime only in that it is committed by people in a position to do so The motives of occupational criminals are believed to be the same as those of street criminals to obtain benefits quickly with minimal effort age seX and racial profiles are not much different than those of street criminals Corporate Crime 0 Corporate Crime criminal activity on behalf of a business organization committed during the course of fulfilling the legitimate role of the corporation and in the name of corporate proift and growth During much of American history the prevailing philosophy has been laissez faire Victims of defective products could not sue corporations due to the guiding principle of caveat emptor Q Criminogenic corporations Have a tradition of wrongdoing Newcomers typically socialized into the prevailing way of doing things Out of US 70 largest corporations 98 were found recidivists average of 14 regulatory or criminal decisions against them Is there a selection effect in corporate crime It appears that people who choose business careers tend to have lower ethical and moral standards than people who choose other legitimate careers this is a heavily contested finding Efforts to differentiate between offenders and non offenders in white collar context focus on locus of control moral reasoning and Machiavellianism Locus of Control The extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them Two types Internal and External I Internal Locus of Control 0 believe that one can in uence life outcomes operate at higher stages of cognitive moral development behave according to their own beliefs of right and wrong relatively resistant to coercion from others more likely to be whistleblowers I External Locus of Control believe that circumstances have more in uence over situations than they do themselves operate at lower stages of moral development tend to emphasize conformity to group norms gt Indications that those who engage in corporate crime tend to have EXTERNAL locus of control Machiavellianism Corporate criminals tend to display Machiavellian tendencies Machiavellianism is unprincipled and uncaring manipulation of others for personal gain They eXploit superiors as well as subordinates through deceit subordinates by bullying Top business executives often described in almost psychopathic terms Charisma via a superficial sense of warmth and charm Free floating hostility competitiveness ambition aggressiveness impatience Law Enforcement Response to Corporate Crime Corporate crime is monitored and responded to by a variety of criminal administrative and regulatory bodies Very few corporate crooks have received truly meaningful sanctions mgaHized Crime Organized around doing legitimate business Members of organized crime must be accomplished criminals before they enter such groups C Organized Crime A continuing criminal enterprise that works rationally to profit from illicit activities that are often in great public demand it continues to eXist because of uses of force threats and or corruption of public officials 0 La Cosa Nostra The Mafia LCN groups are hierarchically structured boss counselor underboss then others the members are not employees who earn regular incomes membership allows the use of connections and status of the group History of Organized Crime EXisted in the US long before any Italian presence Tammany Society corrupt political machine associated with the Democratic party that ran NYC Prohibition ushered in a 10 year period of crime that gangsters faught provided illicit alcohol Repeal of Prohibition 1933 organized crime was quieter however LCN was beginning to take form 0 Two main factions of LCN at the time in NYC one headed by Giuseppe Masseria another headed by Salvatore Maranzano there were struggles between these two factions that ended in 1931 with the death of both leaders Now the LCN is only a shadow of its former self due to the govemment s prosecution of hundred of organized crime figures during the 1980s Foreign Organized Crime 0 Russian Mafiya considered to be the most serious threat today it is the biggest threat to Russia s democratization economic development and security IRS FBI and CIA beleive Russian crime groups present a greater overall threat to the US than traditional ItalianAmerican crime families 0 Japanese Yakuza Probably the oldest and largest in the world historic connection to samurai they endow a certain level of respect and admiration among the Japanese because of this connection not shadowy underworld figures they eXist prominently in society Other Organized Crime Groups O Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs thre are about 900 motorcycle gangs in the US FOur pose a serious organized crime problem Hells Angels Outlaws Bandidos and Pagans African American Groups Gangster Disciples most closely matches the LCN in scope and sophistication Asian Groups they have an active presence in the US others aside from the Yakuza Big Circle and Fuk Ching actively operating in US prior to the British and Portuguese handover of Hong Kong and Macau became more active afterward since many fled from the prospect of Chinese rule Latino Groups After revolution of Fidel Castro assuming power 1959 in Cuba many Cubans fled there and some took to crime predominantly drug trafficking the fall of the Cali and Medellin Cartels in Colombia shifted drug trafficking corridors into Mexico Power of MeXican cartels increased notably the Sinaloa Cartel Theories of Organized Crime 0 Strain Theory organized crime provides immigrants with an avenue to social mobility Ethnic Succession Theory discrimination against immigrants and limitations on their legitimate means to success prompt involvement in organized crime there is a problem with this view the memoirs of LCN members show that they received good educations and could have entered legitimate careers if they desired 0 Differential Association Theory almost all mob members lived in neighborhoods where they were constantly surrounded by criminals and criminal values
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