Popular in biological psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriela Saint-Louis on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2015 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Wu in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see biological psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
1 Outline the major divisions of the nervous system The nervous system can be divided into two components the central nervous system CNS and the peripheral nervous system PNS CNS brain spinal cord PNS contains nerves that exit the brain and spinal cord carrying sensory and motor messages to and from other parts of the body Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous system 2 Know the components of the somatic vs autonomic nervous systems The somatic and autonomic nervous systems make up the peripheral nervous system T Somatic nervous system cranial nerves spinal nerves Brings sensory input to the brain and spinal cord returns commands to the muscles Autonomic nervous system controls the actions of many glands and organs 3 Know the 12 cranial nerves their functions and their classi cation into sensory motor and mixed 12 Cranial nerves serve the region of the head and neck Sensorv Region 3 Olfactory Nerve Optic Nerve Auditory Nerve Motor Information 5 Eye muscles controlled by oculomotor nerve trochlear nerve abducens nerve Neck muscles spinal accessory nerve Tongue movement hypoglossal nerve Mixed g4 Trigeminal nerve controls chewing movements but also provides some feedback regarding facial expression Facial nerve produces facial expressions and carries the sensation of taste Glossopharyngeal nerve performs both sensory and motor functions for the throat Vagus nerve long distance fibers which provide input and receive sensation from heart liver and digestive tract 4 Contrast afferent vs efferent nerves dorsalventral sensorymotor Afferent nerve that carries sensory information to the CNS Efferent nerve that carries motor commands away from the CNS Mixed nerves travel together to the part of the body they serve Nerves that are bringing you sensory information from your hand are adjacent to the nerves that tell your hand to move 5 Distinguish between the sympathetic vs parasympathetic nervous systems of the autonomic nervous system effects on the body Sympathetic Nervous System Svmpathetic neurons form their first synapse in the sympathetic chain prepares body for action either fighting or eeing by shutting down low priority systems and putting blood and oxygen into the most necessary parts of the body Salivation and digestion stand by Heart and lungs operate to provide extra oxygen fed to large muscle groups Blood vessels near skin s surface are constricted to channel blood to large muscle groups if you re cut don t bleed very badly Increased blood ow to brain so more mentally alert Simultaneous coordinated response to emergencies essential for survival energy is expended Sympathetic chain string of cell bodies outside spinal cord that receive input from sympathetic neurons in the CNS and these fibers from the cells then communicate with target organs More specifically neurons in thoracic and lumbar segments of spinal cord communicate with a series of ganglia just outside the cord Messages from spinal neurons reach sympathetic chain through fibers of equal length arrive at about the same time Input from sympathetic chain arrives at all of the target organs simultaneously Parasvmpathetic Nervous System provide rest repair and energy storage Parasvmpathetic neurons synapse on ganglia close to the target organs above and below thoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cord for sympathetic nervous system in the brain and sacral divisions of the spinal cord neurons are around para those of the sympathetic NS Different neurotransmitters at the target organ After exiting brain and sacral spinal cord parasympathetic axons do not synapse with a chain Travel to target organs where parasympathetic ganglia are located Coordination provided by a chain is not necessary because timing is not as important as it is in sympathetic nervous system Chemical Messengers identify the source of the input Both systems communicate with cells in ganglia outside spinal cord second connection to target organ two chem messengers provide clear method of action at target organ Acetylcholine ACh to communicate with ganglia in both Ex If heart is stimulated by ACh it will slow At target organ parasympathetic NS uses ACh but sympathetic switches to norepinephrine to communicate with target organs Ex If heart is stimulated by norepinephrine it will speed up Exception Sympathetic nerves and sweat glands ACh is still used Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous system Dilates pupil Contracts pupil Inhibits salivation Stimulates salivation Accelerates heartbeat Slows heartbeat Relaxes airway Constricts airway Inhibits digestion Stimulates digestion Constricts blood vessels Stimulates bladder Contracts bladder Stimulates penile erection and labial engorgement Stimulates orgasm 6 Know the anatomical directions ie rostral caudal and 3 planes of section 7 Know the 3 meninges layers that protect the brain Meninges the layers of membranes that cover the CNS and peripheral nerves Dura mater arachnoid layer pia mater all cover brain and spinal cord Dura mater and pia mater cover nerves that exit the brain and spinal cord PNS Dura mater outermost of the three layers of meninges found in both CNS and PNS leather like tissue that follows outlines of the skull bones Arachnoid laver middle layer of meninges covering the CNS below dura mater more delicate layer structure like spider s web in cross section Subarachnoid space space filled with cerebrospinal uid that lies between the arachnoid and pia mater layers of the meninges in the CNS Pia mater innermost of the layers of meninges found in both CNS and PNS nearly transparent membrane sticks closely to the outside of the brain Meningitis infected meninges by various viruses and bacteria Meningiomas tumors arise in tissue of meninges 8 Know the difference between gray matter and white matter and where they are distributed in the brain and spinal cord White matter area of neural tissue primarily made up of myelinated axons nerve fibers or axons parts of neurons that carry signals to other neurons looks white due to myelin fatty material that covers most human axons responsible for carrying information to and from brain axons from sensory neurons touch position pain temperature travel up dorsal parts of the spinal cord axons from motor neurons movement travel in ventral parts of the cord Gray matter area of neural tissue primarily made up of cell bodies appears gray because cell bodies absorb some of hte chemicals used to preserve the tissue which stains them gray neurons in dorsal horns of the center of the cord H receive sensory input neurons in ventral horns of the H pass motor information on to the muscles participate in either voluntary movement or spinal re exes re ex involuntary action or response patellar re ex Knee jerk spinal re ex in which tapping below the knee produces a re exive contraction of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh causing the foot to kick managed by two neurons sensory information coming to the cord from muscle stretch receptors which communicates with a spinal motor neuron that responds to input by contracting a muscle causing your foot to kick 9 Know the 5 divisions of the brain ending in cephalon refers to the head and the important brain structures in each division Early in embryological development the brain divides into three parts hindbrain midbrain mesencephalon and forebrain Together the hindbrain and midbrain make up the brainstem Forebrain T elencephalon neocortex basal ganglia limbic system bulk of the symmetrical left and right cerebral hemispheres two large globular structures Basal Ganglia motor control include caudate nucleus putamen globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus small nucleus located ventral to the thalamus and nucleus accumbens reward Parkinson s and Huntingtno s disease disorders of movement ADHD OCD The Limbic System emotional behavior and learning limbic border describes location of these structures on the margins of cerebral cortex hippocampus amygdala cingulate cortex septal area olfactory bulb hipp0campus learning and memory damage anterograde amnesia new long term memories amygdala fear rage aggression interacts with hippocampus during encoding and storage of emotional memories damage interferes with appropriate response to dangerous situations cingulate cortex segment of older cortex just dorsal to corpus callosum divided into Anterior Cingulate Cortex ACC and Posterior Cingulate Cortex PCC ACC in uence over autonomic functions decision making error detection emotion anticipation of reward and empathy PCC eye movements spatial orientation memory Septal area anterior to thalamus and hypothalamus electrical stimulation pleasure lesions uncontrollable rage and attack behaviors Olfact0ry bulbs extend from ventral surface of the brain that processes the sense of smell at base of the forebrain Cerebral Cortex gyrusgyri hills sulcussulci valley fissure large sulcus six layers 1 no cell bodies just nerve fibers of cells forming connections with other layers 11 and IV large numbers of small cells known as granule cells 111 and V large numbers of triangular shaped pyramidal cells VI types of neurons which merge white matter that lies below cortical layers Diencephalon thalamus upper portion hypothalamus located at rostral end of the brainstem Thalamus two thalamic nuclei one on either side of the midline Connections form between cerebral corteX and thalamus unknown purpose of cortical input states of arousal and consciousness learning and memory Damage coma disturbances in circuits linking thalamus and cerebral corteX involved in some seizures Hypothalamus below the thalamus a collection of nuclei regulatory center for behaviors such as eating drinking seX biorhythms temperature control ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus VMH regulation of feeding behavior Suprachiasmatic nucleus receives input from optic nerve set daily rhythms according to sunrise Connected to pituitary gland located just above roof of the mouth serves as a major source of hormones Directs autonomic nervous system part of PNS directs glands and organs Midbrain Mesencephalon division of brain between hindbrain and forebrain tectum roof or dorsal or top half of the midbrain tegmentum covering or ventral or bottom half of the midbrain periaqueductal gray cell bodies that surround cerebral aqueduct role pain perception respond to opiates such as morphine and heroin electrical stimulation provides pain relief contains the most rostral portion of the reticular formation and a number of nuclei associated with cranial nerves motor nuclei red nucleus and substantia nigra red nucleus located within reticular formation communicates motor information between spinal cord and cerebellum substantia nigra black stuff connected with basal ganglia of forebrain Parkinson s Dorsal of midbrain four bumps a pair of superior colliculi a pair of inferior colliculi Superi0r Colliculi coordinate visually guided movements and visual re exes receive input from optic nerves leaving the eye change size of pupils of the eye in response to light Inferi0r Colliculi process auditory information localization of sound time comparison of sound arrival to the two ears Hindbrain Metencephalon cerebellum and pons m structure located between medulla and midbrain part of the brainstem located in the hindbrain lies immediately rostral to the medulla Form connections between medulla and higher brain centers as well as with cerebellum large fiber pathways with embedded nuclei are found in the pons Cochlear nucleus nucleus found in the pons that receives information about sound from the inner ear Vestibular nucleus group of cell bodies in the pons that receive input about the locationposition and movement of the head from sensory structures in the inner ear keeps our balance or makes us feel motion sickness begins in medulla extends through pons on into midbrain Raphe nuclei nuclei located in pons that participate in regulation of sleep and arousal Locus coeruleus structure in pons that participates in arousal Cerebellum looks almost like a second little brain attached to dorsal surface of the brainstem contains more nerve cells Neurons than rest of brain combined internal structure of cerebellum resembles a tree white matter axons trunk and branches gray matter cell bodies leaves coordinates voluntary movements maintain muscle tone regulate balance Cerebral corteX by way of the pons tells cerebellum about movements you intend to make cerebellum processes the sequences and timing of muscle movements required to carry out the plan Damage affects skilled movements including speech production so FSTs are tests of cerebellar function Myelencephalon Medulla most caudal part of the hindbrain contains white matter vast majority of all information to and from higher structures of the brain must still pass through the medulla contains nucle or collections of cell bodies with a shared function suspended in white matter of the medulla some nuclei contain cell bodies whose axons make up several of the cranial nerves serving the head and neck area others manage essential vital functions breathing heart rate blood pressure reticular formation collection of brainstem nuclei located near midline from upper rostral medulla up into the midbrain that regulate sleep and arousal 10 Know the functions of the following hindbrain structures medulla reticular formation pons cerebellum Medulla Eh I I1 Reticuma v in hindbrain is located just above the spinal cord Medulla O the most caudal portion of the brain 0 regulates essential functions such as breathing heart rate and blood pressure O damage to the medulla is fatal due to its control over those Vital functions reticular formation 0 located along the midline of the upper medulla O regulates sleep and arousal pons 0 lies immediately rostral to the medulla 0 one of this many roles is to form connections between the medulla and higher brain centers as well as the cerebellum O arousal sleep audition balance position cerebellum 0 balance motor coordination cognition 11 Know the functions of the following midbrain structures located in the tectum superiorinferior colliculus and tegmentum substantia nigra Tectum the roof or dorsal half of the midbrain gt Superior colliculi the uper pair of bumps on the dorsal surface of the midbrain receive input from the optic nerves leaving the eye 0 although part of the visual system they are unable to tell you what you re seeing 0 allow us to make visually guided movements such as pinting in the direction of a visual stimulus O participate in a variety of visual re exes including changing the size of the pupils of the ye in response to light conditions gt inferior colliculi the other pair of bumps on the dorsal surface of the midbrain 0 involved with hearing or audition 0 involved with auditory re exes such as turning the head in the direction of a loud noise 0 also participate in the localization of sounds in the environment Substantia nigra gt midbrain nulcei that communiate witht he basal ganglia of the forebrain 0 motor information communication 12 Know the basic functions of the following forebrain structures thalamus hypothalamus amygdala hippocampus anterior cingulate cortex 10 11 12 See 9 13 Know the 4 lobes of the brain and major functions of each visual processing auditory processing touch motor control The four lobes of the cerebral cortex are frontal parietal temporal occipital Frontal Lobe most rostral of the lobes Primary motor cortex provides highest level of command to motor systems Parietal Lobe other side of the central sulcus Primary somatosensory cortex provides highest level of processing for body senses such as touch position temperature and pain Temporal Lobe in the ventral direction separated by the lateral sulcus Primary auditory cortex initial cortical processing of sound information Occipital Lobe back of the cortex Primary visual cortex initial cortical processing of visual information Longitudinal fissure separates two cerebral hemispheres along dorsal midline 14 Understand how surfacetovolume ratio affects temperature regulation aMaintenance of body temperatures is in uenced by an animal s surfacetovolume ratio the larger the volume of body the more heat is produced by metabolic activity The higher an animal s surfacetovolume ration the harder it must work to maintain core temperature The amount of heat loss is a function of the body surface area and body volume determines the amount of het generated by metabolic activity Because smaller animals have larger surfaceto volume ratios maintaining core temperature is harder for them than for larger animals such as humans Rats have larger surfacetovolume rations than humans or elephants a Rats much work much harder than humans or elephants to maintain core temperature 15 Understand how warm and coldsensitive neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus regulate body temperature Understand how viruses act on this system to increase body temperature and cause a fever coldsensitive neurons as temperature drops firing state of warmsensitive neurons decrease reduced inhibition of coldsensitive neurons warmsensitive neurons Increase their firing rates and inhibit coldsensitive neurons as core temperature increases As temperature drops the firing rates of warmsensitive neurons decrease reducing their inhibition to the cold sensitive neurons which respond by increasing their ring rates Pyrogens entering the brain act to gradually increase the body s temperature set point causing fever in attempt to kill the viruses Many diseasecausing organisms can tolerate a much narrower temperature range than can the infected animal or person Raising set point kills many of the invading organisms which helps the immune system rid body of disease 16 Understand the process of osmosis ie water moves from area of low salt concentration to high salt concentration EXplain how osmosis enables cancerous cells to squeeze through the narrow passages of the brain and how chlorotoxin keeps cancerous cells in one place Osmosis is the force that causes water to move from an area with lower concentration of solutes to an area with higher concentration of solute In osmosis the water moves across a barrier such as a cell membrane to equalize concentrations of the solutes on either side Hypotonic vs Hypertonic solutions Hypotonic solutions are lower in concentration of solutes than a reference solution for ex higher concentration of solute outside a cell would cause water to rush in the cell causing it to swell Hypertonic solutions are relatively higher in concentration of solutes for ex higher concentration of solute inside a cell would cause water to leave the cell to area of lower concentration causing the cell to shrink as water leaves a In order to squeeze through the narrow passages of the brain cancerous glioma cells must eXpel water out of their cytoplasm through osmosis causing them to shrink by having many chloride channels to push CL and water out of the cell a ChlorotiXin is a drug that blocks chloride channels causing water retention and bloating in cancer cells trapping them in one place so they can be removed by surgery or radiation 17 Distinguish between osmotic thirst vs volumetric thirst Be familiar with the different receptors osmoreceptors blood ow receptors baroreceptors including what they detect ie cellular dehydration blood volume blood pressure and where there are located in the body Osmotic thirst vs Volumetric Hypovolemic Osmotic Thirst Occurs in response to cellular dehydration that results from drop in intracellular uid volume cellular dehydration 0 After eatingdigesting a salty meal blood becomes more concentrated with sodium Higher salt content makes the blood hypertonic or more concentrated relative to the intracellular uid 0 Osmotic pressure moves the water out of the cells in effort to regain the balanced isotonic state 0 Receptors sense the lower volume of water inn the cells and you feel thirsty Hypovolemic thirst low volume occurs in response to drop in blood volume Results when we eXperience a drop in the volume of interstitial uid blood or both Most obvious case for hypovolemic thirst is the loss of blood due to internal bleeding or a severe injury i Baroreceptors of the heart Measure blood pressure Detects changes in blood volume as blood volume decreases blood pressure decrease ii blood ow receptors of the kidney When low blood volume is detected kidneys conserve uids low blood volume and the brain Osmorecetpros and baroreceptors o Stimulate posterior pituitary gland to release ADH aDH causes kidneys to reduce uine production and release the hormone renin 18 Compare the different signals for hunger vs satiety using the following hormones Glucagon Insulin Grehlin Leptin and CCK Know the function of each hormone and the body organ that releases each Satiety Q Occurs long before sufficient nutrients make their way into cells 0 Stretchvolume receptors in stomach signal meal size 0 Stomach and intestines release different peptides in response to different foodsa signal brain to stop eating 0 CCk is a pepetide released as food passes duodenum Q Detects presence of fats causes gall bladder to release bile Q Stimulates vegas nerve hypothalamussignals stop eating 0 The arrival of food at the duodenum signals the release of the peptide cholecystokinin CCK CCK promotes the release of insulin by the pancreas and contracts the gallbladder to release bile to break down fats CCK antagonists increase eating indicating that CCK has an inhibitory effect on feeding behavior When fasting glucose levels decrease body relies on stored nutrients After a meal rising glucose levels promotes release of insulin 19 Know the 3 major signals for hunger and brie y define each 1 A lack of glucose glucoprivic hunger 2 Deficiency in fatty acids lipoprivic hunger 0 Fat cells produce and secrete leptin a substance secreted by fat cells that helps the body regulate its fat stores when fat stores are low level of circulating leptin will also be low Q When leptin levels are high indicating sufficient fat is stored oreXin cells are inhibited and feeding is reduced 0 When leptin levels are low indicating fat stores are low the oreXin cells are active oreXins are released and feeding is stimulated 3 Release of ghrelin as the stomach empties Q Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the stomach that stimulates feeding behavior It acts as a shortterm circulating hormone that stimulates hunger 20 Describe two interventions that can cause rats to become obese ie VMH leptin lesions of the VHM in rats producing VMH syndrome is characterized by weight gains 0 The VMH is involved in assessing satiety Low levels of leptin can cause rats to become obese Q a Leptin communicates with neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus O b Low levels of leptin usually means low levels of fat stores initiating eating 21 Explain how high fructose corn syrup and leptin may be involved in the obesity epidemic 0 Since low levels of leptin usually initiate eating added levels of leptin should decrease eating like in the mice However this does not work in humans because we are already producing large amounts of leptin but appear to be resistant to its effects 0 It is believed that high fructose syrup deactivates the effect of leptin despite the increasing levels of leptin we continue to eat 22 Identify the two language centers of the brain their function and which lobe of the brain each is located The two language centers of the brain Broca s and Wernicke s area typically found in the left hemisphere the broca s area is found in the frontal lobe near the primary motor cortex 0 important for movement 0 broca s area speech production The Wernicke s area is located in the temporal lobe near the auditory cortex 0 receives information from the ears 0 wernicke s area language comprehension and production 0 damage results in meaningless speech and poor comprehension of written and spoken communication 24 Explain why split brain individuals when presented with two different words or images one to their right and the other to the left will verbally tell you they see the word to the right but still point to the other word with their left hand hint corpus callosum contralateral processing language center of the brain gt idk 25Distinguish between rodsscoptopic vision and conesphotopic vision a Rods are very sensitive to light only distinguishes between levels of light work best with dim light Located in the periphery b Cones need bright light to work provide color vision Located in the fovia center 26 Know the 3 types of neurons that connect the retina to the optic nerve photoreceptors bipolar cells ganglion cells and which of these cells fire graded vs action potentials a Photoreceptors and Bipolar cells respond to changes in polarization graded potentials and releases of neurotransmitters while ganglion cell responses are caused by action potentials b Photoreceptors cells that transmit light photon stimuli c Bipolar cells Nerve cells that combine impulses from many receptors to send to ganglion cells d Ganglion cells Integrate the impulses from one or more bipolar cells into a single ring rate 27 Be able to describe all of the steps involved in photoreceptors detecting darkness vs light Use Figure 611 in your textbook as a guide ie rhodopsin openingclosing of Na channels depolarization vs hyperpolarization 11cis vs all trans form of retinal cGMP glutamate release j Absence of light iii Photoreceptors are relatively depolarized at rest In the absence 3f light there is an inward movement of ions guanosine monophosphate is constantly mduced This keeps Nia channels causes the photoreceptorsa to release more Inhibits b ipalar cells is absorbed by the photoreceptor ii iii iv Vi Vii Viii Rhodopsin molecules break apart Enzymes that break down cGMP are released Fewer Na channels remain open Fewer Na ions enter the cell Photoreceptors become more hyperpolarized The receptors release less glutamate bipolar cells are less inhibited 28 Understand how ganglion cells respond differently ie frequency of action potentials to light shined on an oncenter vs offcenter bipolar cell a Ganglion cells will respond in accordance to the bipolar cell attached to them which means depending if the bipolar cell is off or oncenter the ganglion will be the same Thus when light is shined upon oncenter cells 29 Distinguish between the P Parvocellular and M Magnocellular ganglion cells a i Parvocellular ganglion cells P cells Make up 90 of all ganglion cells ii iii iv vi vii Small cells Respond to light of a particular color Small receptive fields located mainly in the fovea discrimination of fine detail and color K Konicellular Cells share a similar function b Magnocellular ganglion cells i ii iii iv vi Make up 5 Large ganglion cells with thickerfat axons Respond to all wavelengths regardless of color Detects subtle differences in contrast Stimuli that come and go rapidly specialized for movement located mainly in the periphery 30 Know the 3 brain areas that ganglion cell axons project to after eXiting the eye a Superior colliculus i newly detected objects In humans used to guide movements of the eyes and head toward b Suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN hypothalamus i Circadian rhythms c Lateral geniculate nucleus LGN thalamus i SiX distinct stacked layers d 80 of input comes from primary visual corteX 31Distinguish between amplitude and frequency and the unit of measurement for each decibel hertz a Amplitude Intensity which is the amount of vibration produced by sound perceived as loudness refers to the amplitude or size of the wave Measured in decibles starting 0 and passing through pain threshold b Frequency of cycles per unit of time wavelength perceived in how high or low the pitch of a sound is Measured in Hertz cycles per second 32 Know the structures of the Outer Middle and Inner ear 21 Outer ear Middle ear pinna and auditory canal Called focus and Channel 8011116 into the auditory canal L39Gcalize sound membrane collects sound vibratinns Os39scicles transfer energy from air to fluid 31 inner ear iii iv vi c Inner ear ii in the inner ear iii iv vi vii viii iX Xi Lever action increases force Oval Window force applied produces more pressure due to smaller size of oval Window vs tympanic membrane compensates for the loss of sound amplitude from to uid Cochlea Fluidfilled organ containing receptors that respond to vibrations Vestibular canal Perilymph CSF REISSNER S MEMBRANE Cochlear duct Endolymph rich in K Organ of Corti BASILAR MEMBRANE Tympanic canal Perilymph CSF 33 Understand how the structures of the middle ear amplify sound waves from air to the uid in the inner ear a The Tympanic membrane collects sound vibrations then the Ossicles transfer sound energy from air to uid of inner ear The lever action increases force The oval Window force applied produces more pressure due to smaller size of oval Window vs tympanic membrane which compensates for the loss of sound amplitude from to uid 34 Distinguish between endolymph and perilymph a Both located in the Cochlea but serving 3 different cannals i Perilymph CSF is a uid present in the Vestibular and Tympanic canal ii Endolymph rich in K is found in the Cochlear duct 35 Explain how the bending of cilia of an individual hair cell due to sound vibration influences the firing rate of spiral ganglion cells ie hair cell cilia endolymph K channels Ca channels glutamate spiral ganglion neuron a This bending allows electrical signals to be sent to the brain via auditory nerve translating the vibrations into the neural messages When endolymph moves cilia of hair cell towards tallest member i K channels open ii Endolymph is mostly K iii K influX iv Depolarizes cell v Ca channels open vi Glutamate release onto spiral ganglion neurons vii When endolymph moves cilia of hair cell towards shortest member it hyperpolarizes cell 36EXplain the similarities and differences between the visual system and auditory system Here are some comparisons that you should know between the visual and auditory systems sound vibration vs electromagnetic radiation photoreceptor vs hair cell ion channels involved different ions involved endolymph vs extracellular uid how light or sound causes depolarization vs hyperpolarization neurotransmitters involved ganglion cell types action potential frequency cranial nerve for sound vs vision inferior vs superior colliculus auditory vs visual cortex temporal vs occipital lobe o The auditory system and the visual system have similar receptor reactions that are responsive to external stimuli photoreceptors for visual and the auditory contains a receptor called the Organ of Corti which is located in the Cochlea o The cochlea is a bony structure that is coiled like a snail shell It houses the receptor for sound waves called the Organ of Corti The receptor cells of the Organ of Corti rest on the basilar membrane which forms the floor of the Organ of Corti It is the upward deflections of the basilar membrane due to sound produced pressure changes in the cochlea that stimulates the receptor cells and generates nerve messages through the cochlear nerve The cochlear nerve forms one half of the Vestibulocochlear nerve cranial nerve VIII Nerve messages through the cochlear nerve are carried to the auditory corteX of the temporal lobe for interpretation 0 The photoreceptor nerve cells are divided into two categories cones and rods each with a specific task colored and dim light contrasting shapes respectively There are 3 parts to this structure the cone or rod the bipolar cell and the ganglion cell which work in conjunction with surrounding similar structures to provide visual input through photo sensory reactivity action potentials and graded firing providing information to the brain passing through the optic nerve the optic chiasm and the optic tract
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