Milestones in Comm Research Study Guide
Milestones in Comm Research Study Guide COM 239
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Justin Hynes on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 239 at Pace University taught by Professor Aditi Paul in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Milestones in Communication Research in Journalism and Mass Communications at Pace University.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
MIDTERM Introduction: 1. Mass Communication: LargeDistribution and reception process characterized by: • One directional information flow • Impersonal sourcereceiver association • Asymmetrical sourcereceiver association (organized powerful source) • Market (i.e. economic) exchange relationship • Standardized message content 1. Three Phenomenon that led to the development of Mass Society: • Industrialization: agricultural society one based on the manufacturing of goods and services • Urbanization: population shift from rural urban areas • Modernization: traditional, rural, agrarian secular, urban, industrial society 1. Characteristics of Mass Society: • Social Differentiation Increases • Informal social controls weaken; formal increase • Communication becomes more difficult • People become more; Media become important information sources • Anomie: “Normlessness”; Think of New York; Society provides little moral guidance to individuals 1. Magic Bullet Theory: • Perspective of much early research: • People are socially isolated • Have uniform Animal instincts • Not influenced by social ties • Receive and Interpret information in similar ways • Thus media messages = bullets • Media strikes every eye and ear • Direct, Immediate, Powerful, and Uniform effects Methods: 6 Methods of Research Methodology (CESFMT) 1. Content Analysis: Description: Assesses what is presented in Media, Purely Descriptive, No evidence of media effects When to do it: To describe content How to do it: Select a Sample, Coders assign messages to categories Outcome: Tells us how much of something we have (Frequency or Magnitude) Tells us how content differs (by medium, source, daytime, rating etc.) Pros:Describes what is going on Helps Identify areas of interest/concern Cons: Incomplete picture (limited to categories) No evidence of media’s effect 1. Experiment: Description:Designed to assess causal relationships 1. Independent Variable (IV) The Cause 2. Dependent Variable (DV) The Effect 3. Mediating Variable (Intervening) Helps us explain the phenomena we observe: IVMediating Variable Dependent Variable 4. Moderating Variable Regulates the phenomena (controls the extent to which it occurs) 5. Confound Variable variables that the researcher failed to control or eliminate, damaging the internal validity 6. Positive/Negative/Neutral Relationships: Positive: As X increases Y Increases 7. Negative: As X increases Y decreases. How to do it: Random assignment to experimental conditions, Manipulation of key variable. Pros:Criteria for causality, Researcher control, Low cost, Easy to replicate Cons:Artifact settings may affect a participant’s behavior, Experimental bias. 1. Survey: Description: To access the measurable characteristics of a naturally occurring population Two Goals: 1. Describe Characteristics of population 2. Establish associations or relationships between variables Pros: Generalizability, Good for Description Cons: Criteria for Causality, Poor data quality (selfreport) 1. Field Experiment: Description: Participants are studied in reallife settings, behaviors are more natural Cons: Does not allow for much physical control, May raise ethical issues 1. MetaAnalysis Description: statistical technique for combining findings from independent studies 1. Triangulation: Description: Multiple Methodologies are used Pros:Combined results are more compelling than any single methodology Programmatic research increases credibility 1. Longitudinal Analysis: Description: Two Types: Panel and Cohort Study • Panel Study: Exact Same sample, multiple time points. • Cohort Study: Different samples, observed at multiple time points. Pros: Can see change over time, rule out some alternate explanations. Cons: Validity Threats • Historical Events • Selection Bias • Subjects mortality • Outliers • Time and Cost Summary: To describe content: • Content analysis To describe use: • Survey To establish causal effects • Experiments • Longitudinal To combine research efforts • Meta analysis • Triangulation Payne Fund Studies 1 Major Research ◦ In 1928, exec director William Short invited psychology profs to conduct series of studies to examine influence of movies on children. ◦ 19291932 2 Goals of the Study: 1. To study content of films, and audience composition. 2. Effect of exposure to films on audience ◦ Effects = Attitude change, emotion stimulation, health, morals, conduct. Content of Films: Large scale systematic analysis of motion pictures • Crime Sex and Love • Children’s stories, history, travel were minorities • Tobacco and Liquor use openly showed Six Effects: 1. Information Acquisition: (6 weeks/ 3 mos) = movies led to more retention than std. lab memory experiments. 2. Change of attitude measured 3. Stimulating Emotions:(Neurological measurements used) = adults could “discount”, children could not. 4. Harming Health :(measured sleep patterns after exposure to movie types). Some movies resulted in disturbed sleep. 5. Moral Values: responses of approval/disapproval of scenes from movies. People’s morals were conflicting with ones shown in movies. 6. Conduct: Questionnaires, autobiographical methods used. Affected day to day activities, negatively perceived by others, led to delinquent acts. Methods used: • Attitudes Toward: 1. People from different nationalities/races 2. Socially sig. topics like crime, war • Method: • Initial measure of attitudes taken • Subjects went to see movie selected by researcher (16 out of 600 selected) • Next day: attitude measured again RESULTS: 1. After single exposure: minor to no change 2. After cumulative exposure: sig. attitude modification • Influence of films more pronounced for younger children 3. Persistence of attitude change: follow ups to attitude change measured. Was sig. in children. • Conduct • Recall influences on emotions or moods, patterns of imitation of the actors. Results: 1. Influenced Childhood Play roleplay. 2. Adolescents imitated styles/patterns. 3. Day Dreaming and Fantasy 4. Emotional possession: lose selfcontrol Invasion from Mars Why study Radio? Functionalities of Radio: provided entertainment, brought the news of the world to the public almost as it happened. Background of War of the Worlds: "The War of the Worlds" is an episode of the American radio drama anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air. It was performed as a Halloween episode of the series on October 30, 1938, and aired over the Columbia Broadcasting System radio network. Directed and narrated by actor and future filmmaker Orson Welles, the episode was an adaptation of H. G. Wells' novel The War of the Worlds (1898). It became famous for allegedly causing mass panic, although the reality of this mass panic is disputed as the program had relatively few listeners. Goal(s) of the study: The purpose of the study was to discover the psychological conditions and the situational circumstances that led people to believe that the broadcast drama was real. The researchers were trying to answer 3 basic questions • What was the extent of the panic? i.e.: how many listened, how many panicked? • Why did this broadcast frighten some people when other fantastic broadcasts did not? • Why did this broadcast frighten some people but not others Methods used: • Personal interviews (one week after the broadcast; 135 individuals, of these 107 were selected because the broadcast had badly frightened them. An additional 28 listeners were not frightened and interviewed to provide a basis for comparison. Interviews limited to NJ area (because funds were limited and proper supervision of this aspect of the research program) • Surveys (920 people) conducted by CBS. • Newspaper accounts and mail: the study analyzed 12,500 clippings that appeared in papers throughout the country for 3 weeks following the broadcast. In addition, analyses of the volume of mail to CBS stations, Mercury Theater and the FCC. Huge increases in the volume of mail reported and letters to the Mercury Theater and CBS stations were generally favorable, even congratulatory. However letters to the FCC were unfavorable. Three problems with Methodology: • unorganized selection of personal interviews • The delays in up to 4 weeks in obtaining interviews • Problems with validity; many people reluctant to reveal gullibility after news reports. Findings. • Extent of panic: book: AIPO (American Institute of Public opinion) • 28% thought news • 70% who thought news were frightened or disturbed • 1.7 million listeners thought the broadcast was a news bulletin. • 1.2 were excited by the news. • AIPO (9 million adults, 3 million children = 12 million saw the report. • Cantril (1940) Office of Radio Research • About 12 million heard broadcast • About 2 million panicked or thought it was real Reasons Broadcast was scary: Five Factors influenced fear • Dramatic excellence • Radio accepted as vehicle for announcements • Use of experts increased credibility • Use of real places • Tuning in late Why were some people scared? Four Categories of people • Those who checked the internal evidence of the broadcast (internal check) • Those who checked the broadcast against other information and learned it was a play (external check) • Those who tried to check the program against other information but for various reasons continued to believe the broadcast was authentic (unsuccessful external check) (neighbors, windows, etc.) • Those who made no attempt to check the broadcast or the event; became paralyzed with fear. Characteristics in which they differed: • Personality traits: emotional insecurity, phobic personality, lack of self confidence, fatalism. • Religiosity: thought the invasion was an act of god or end of world was near. Significance of Study: • 1 study of panic behavior triggered by a mass medium. • Evidence of powerful media effects • However proved not all viewers react the same • Uniform effects not an explanation • Media has a limited effect • Deterioration of MBT People’s Choice Study 1. Why conduct this study? • This study was conducted to analyze the Roosevelt vs. Wilkie race in the 1940s election 1. Main research question: • “How and Why people decided to vote as they did” • Formation of voting decisions OVER TIME 1. Method used: • Survey 1. Sampling Decisions: • Sample: they chose Erie County, OH; it was small enough to permit effective supervision of interviewers, free from sectional peculiarities, not dominated by a large urban center and diverse enough because rural/urban split to make meaningful comparisons possible. • In every presidential election in 20 century, the county had deviated very little from the national voting pattern. • Sample – 15 interviewers visited 3000 houses, split into 4 600 people panels interviewed 1. IV (s) – age, sex, ruralurban, residence, education, nativity, telephone & auto ownership. 2. DV political decisions taken 3. Procedure followed: • Use one sample of 600 subjects as the main panel to be interviewed every month from May to November • Another Panel of 600 (control A) was to be interviewed during the 3 month (July) th • Another Panel (control B) interviewed during the 4 month (August) • Another Panel (Control C) interviewed in the 6 month (October) • Interviewed original panel after the election was over. 1. Findings • Effect of demographic variable: Hypothesis was “Those who intended to vote as Republicans or Democrats would differ in (i) socioeconomic status, (ii) religion, (iii) area of residence, (iv) occupation, (v) age. Results showed republicans were rich, whitecollar workers, protestants, older. • Opinion about matters: Democrats and Republicans had different ideas about social and economic matters. • Level of Interest: Level of interest in Election was a major factor in deciding voting behavior. LOI was also related to SES and Edu. Level • Early Vs. Late Decision Makers: Early decision makers had high level of interest, late decision makers had a lower level of interest. Cross Pressures delayed decision making (i.e. external forces pressuring them to sway one way or the other) • Crystallizers, Waverers, Party Changers: ◦ Last minute decision makers ◦ original decision, confusion then choose original, ◦ flip sides. • Activation: ◦ Process of making something manifest or observable ◦ Arouse Interest > Increase Exposure > Increase Attention > Select Information (consistent with predispositions) > crystallize vote Reinforcement: • keep feeding arguments & justifications Conversion: • Only 8% converted: People already knew who they were voting for, even if people didn’t know who they were voting for, most likely they were sticking to their political party. • Multiple Vs. Single Exposure: People exposed to multiple formats; print, radio, TV: Research suggested that these people believed that they have an especially large stake in the election. They tend to be more politically aware and they have a deeper understanding of issues. 1. Most Significant Contribution of People’s Choice: • Survey Design: How surveys can be used in longitudinal panel research. Sophistication of survey method. • Political Propaganda: Insight into political propaganda presented by media. Moderating role of media on people’s decisions, based on social category membership. • Two step Flow: Unlike MBT, 2 Step flow showed the existence & importance of social ties • Opinion Leaders: OPINION LEADERS – MORE PERSUASIVE. WHY? More likely to reach undecided, uninterested voter than media More trusted as nonpurposive sources of information & interpretation; more intimate. Flexible Social Approval and Rewards Daytime Radio: 1.) Reasons for conducting this research study: ◦ Challenged the older magic bullet idea People passively attended to whatever the media presented People responded to such messages immediately & uniformly ◦ Deviated from serious academic pursuit: Studied audience of pop culture, in particular, daytime radio soap operas 2.) Main Research Question(s): What radio means in the Lives of Listeners? (BIG Q) What are the characteristics of women who attended these soap operas? (Q1) What use did they make of the information and what gratification did the serials provide? (Q2) 3.) Predictions/Hypotheses: Predictions: SoapOpera listeners would: • Have a greater degree of social isolation compared to nonlisteners • Have fewer intellectual interests • Be less concerned with public affairs • Differ on personality characteristics • Have a marked preference for radio listening. 4.) Methods used: • Preliminary study conducted by Herzog identified the listeners vs. non listeners of radio. • Nearly 50% of American women were found to be listening to at least 1 of 20 soap operas. • Interviews 5.) Findings: Hypotheses Confirmed: Intellectual Interest, Current Events & Public Affairs, Preference for Radio Listening Intellectual Interests: Measured by i. Amount of formal education ii. Amount & type of reading iii. Area of residence As education level increased, listenership decreased. Hypothesis supported. Current Events & Public Affairs: Measured by 1. Preference for radio news programs 2. Pattern of voting & LOI in presidential elections No difference b/w L & NL on (1) However, Daytime soapopera listeners tended to be more nonvoters than voters (2) Hypothesis supported. Preference for radio listening: Measured by 1. Did L listen to radio on a general basis more than NL? 2. Do L look at radio as primary mode of getting political information than NL? Significant differences b/w L & NL in both these categories. Hypothesis supported Hypotheses not confirmed: Social Isolation, Personality Characteristics Social isolation: Measured by 3 factors • Church attendance • Other meetings & social gatherings • Going to movies No sig. difference b/w L & N.L Hypothesis not supported Personality Characteristics: Measured by 1. Level of selfassurance (observed by interviewers) 2. How much they worried No significant difference b/w L & NL on either (1) or (2) Thus, hypothesis not supported 6.) 3 Gratifications: • Emotional Release Made them feel better to hear about difficulties experienced by characters in the stories Hearing about the characters’ problems provided compensation for their own daytoday life distresses. Allowed users to feel superior • Wishful thinking Pretended that things that happened to the characters in the show, happened to them. Gave them vicarious satisfaction • Valuable Advice If you listen to these programs and something turns up in your own life, you would know what to do about it. Advice on grumpy husbands, misbehaved children, other i/p problems 7.) What was the moderator variable: Worry • Women who worried more 1. Tended to listen to a larger number of serials than other listeners. 2. Felt that they received good advice from serials. 8.) Overall Importance of Study: How Audiences • Select content from media • How they use that information • Types of gratification derived from it Other study that trickled down from it New York News Paper ban Rational and nonrational needs 8 major newspapers went on strike in New York City. People were left without their papers were 2 weeks. Study showed how important the newspaper still was and how it became a “rational and non rational need" Adoption of Innovation: 1. Definition of Innovation: “An idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption.” Rogers. 2. Innovation before and after industrial revolution: Before: • Rate of innovation low • Process of communication limited to WOM (WORD OF MOUTH) • Low rate of literacy, only among affluent After: changed scenario • Rate of invention increased • Speed and efficiency of travel increased • More literacy Penny press, magazine, telegraph, telephone 1. Background of Study: Bringing in innovations; Introduction of Hybrid Seed Corn 2. Main research Question(s): • Why is one new thing, practice, or idea well received and widely adopted, while another is ignored? • Main Motive: To identify decisionmaking processes that led people to adopt or reject a given innovation 1. Pattern of Innovation: S shaped pattern 2. Methods used, questions asked: Interviews: Asked to identify their earliest source of information about the new kind of seed and when that information had come to their attention. Also asked to evaluate the importance of these sources; how important were they leading them up to take the practice. 3. Sample: 2 small communities, 259 Farmers, all male, more than 20 acres in production, only if he had planted corn before hybrid seed became available. 4. Findings: Adoption tended to be on a gradual and almost experimental basis. Most had tried it out on a smaller plot before making change. Conservatism of midwestern farmers + economic difficulties of the time held back wholesale and immediate adoption. Generally several year gap (56 yrs) before initial knowledge of the innovation and actual adoption. 5. 3 Implications of study 2 Factors on which adoption depends on 1.) Well established interpersonal ties 2.) Habitual exposure to mass communication Link between action and awareness 1.) Awareness of something new 2.) Action resulting in some sort of adoption. 5 Stages of Adoption 1.) Awareness 2.) Interest 3.) Evaluation 4.) Trial 5.) Adoption 10.) 3 Types of people what do they differ on? • Early Acceptors • Early Adopters • Later Accepters Different based on the personality trait of innovativeness. 11.) Definition of Diffusion: Process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels: friends, family, interpersonal ties, over time among the members of a social system. (e.g. ages 1825) 12.) Overall importance(s) of study: 1.) Stages of adoption process 2.) Different categories of adopters 3.) Channels of influences 4.) Specific Innovation (hybrid corn) 5.) I/P and mass communication processes that created awareness of item 6.) Specific kind of social system 7.) Different types of individuals who made decisions at different stages. 8.) Research shifted from pattern of adoption to behavior involved in adoption. 9.) Showed how i/p processes were much more important in creating awareness and adoption than mass comm channels. • Could be because of rural setting (more WORD OF MOUTH), innovation was not likely to be covered by the media 11.) Follows 2 Step flow theory 12.) I/P may not be that influential in urban settings (More awareness created by mass comm. Channels) Experiments with Films 1.) Background of study • World War II • U.S. Govt. releases a series of 7, 50 min. films to educate American soldiers on the reason for U.S.’s involvement in the war. • 4 of 7 used in research study • Prelude to War • The Nazi Strike • Divide & Conquer • The Battle of Britain Objectives: Measure Knowledge and opinion BEFORE seeing film EXPOSE them to film Assess change AFTER seeing film 2.) 2 assumptions made • Films would be effective in teaching Factual Knowledge about war, enemy, and Allies to recruits. • Such factual knowledge would shape interpretations and opinions in ways needed to improve acceptance of military rules and sacrifices necessary to achieve victory 3.) 6 Outcomes of study: • A firm belief in the right of the cause for which we fight. • A realization that we are up against a tough job • A determined confidence in our own ability and the abilities of our comrades and leaders to do the job that has to be done • A feeling of confidence, insofar as is possible under these circumstances, in the integrity and fighting ability of our Allies • A resentment, based on knowledge of the facts, against our enemies who have made it necessary to fight. • A belief that through military victory, the political achievement of a better world order is possible. 4.) Main research questions: • Was the film effective in improving factual knowledge about military events? • Did the content of the film alter the opinions and interpretations of viewers regarding several major themes presented in the film • How much did the film improve the general attitudes of the soldiers toward their British allies. • Was the film a significant factor in improving overall motivation among the recruits to fight a tough war. 5.) Experimental Procedures Used: BeforeAfter Design with Control Group X1OX2 Experimental group X2X4Control Group In Addition, After Only O> X1 > X2 X1, X2, X3, X4= Anonymous checklist questionaires O= Movie Items included in questionnaire 1.) Factquiz questions 2.) Opinion items 3.) Personal history items (age, education, so on ) After measures given after one week Camoflage: General opinion survey How soldiers felt about various subjects connected with war
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