New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Milestones in Comm Research Study Guide

by: Justin Hynes

Milestones in Comm Research Study Guide COM 239

Marketplace > Pace University > Journalism and Mass Communications > COM 239 > Milestones in Comm Research Study Guide
Justin Hynes
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Midterm - Fall 2015
Milestones in Communication Research
Professor Aditi Paul
Study Guide
Communications, Milestones
50 ?




Popular in Milestones in Communication Research

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications

This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Justin Hynes on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 239 at Pace University taught by Professor Aditi Paul in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Milestones in Communication Research in Journalism and Mass Communications at Pace University.

Similar to COM 239 at Pace

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications


Reviews for Milestones in Comm Research Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/26/16
MIDTERM Introduction: 1. Mass Communication: Large­Distribution and reception process  characterized by: • One directional information flow • Impersonal source­receiver association • Asymmetrical source­receiver association (organized powerful source) • Market (i.e. economic) exchange relationship • Standardized message content   1. Three Phenomenon that led to the development of Mass Society: • Industrialization: agricultural society  one based on the manufacturing  of goods and services • Urbanization: population shift from rural  urban areas • Modernization: traditional, rural, agrarian  secular, urban, industrial  society   1. Characteristics of Mass Society: • Social Differentiation Increases • Informal social controls weaken; formal increase • Communication becomes more difficult • People become more; Media become important information sources • Anomie: “Normlessness”; Think of New York; Society provides little  moral guidance to individuals   1. Magic Bullet Theory: • Perspective of much early research: • People are socially isolated • Have uniform Animal instincts • Not influenced by social ties • Receive and Interpret information in similar ways • Thus media messages = bullets • Media strikes every eye and ear • Direct, Immediate, Powerful, and Uniform effects             Methods: 6 Methods of Research Methodology (CES­FMT) 1. Content Analysis: Description: Assesses what is presented in Media, Purely Descriptive,  No evidence of media effects When to do it: To describe content How to do it: Select a Sample, Coders assign messages to categories Outcome: Tells us how much of something we have (Frequency or  Magnitude)                  Tells us how content differs (by medium, source, daytime,  rating etc.) Pros:Describes what is going on          Helps Identify areas of interest/concern Cons: Incomplete picture (limited to categories)           No evidence of media’s effect   1. Experiment: Description:Designed to assess causal relationships 1. Independent Variable (IV)­ The Cause 2. Dependent Variable (DV)­ The Effect 3. Mediating Variable (Intervening)­ Helps us explain the phenomena we  observe: IVMediating Variable Dependent Variable 4. Moderating Variable­ Regulates the phenomena (controls the extent to  which it occurs) 5. Confound Variable­ variables that the researcher failed to control or  eliminate, damaging the internal validity  6. Positive/Negative/Neutral Relationships: Positive: As X increases Y  Increases 7. Negative: As X increases Y decreases. How to do it: Random assignment to experimental conditions,  Manipulation of key variable. Pros:Criteria for causality, Researcher control, Low cost, Easy to  replicate Cons:Artifact­ settings may affect a participant’s behavior,  Experimental bias.   1. Survey: Description: To access the measurable characteristics of a naturally  occurring population Two Goals: 1. Describe Characteristics of population                      2. Establish associations or relationships between  variables           Pros: Generalizability, Good for Description Cons: Criteria for Causality, Poor data quality (self­report)   1. Field Experiment: Description: Participants are studied in real­life settings, behaviors are  more natural Cons: Does not allow for much physical control, May raise ethical  issues   1. Meta­Analysis Description: statistical technique for combining findings from  independent studies   1. Triangulation: Description: Multiple Methodologies are used Pros:Combined results are more compelling than any single  methodology           Programmatic research increases credibility   1. Longitudinal Analysis: Description: Two Types: Panel and Cohort Study • Panel Study: Exact Same sample, multiple time points. • Cohort Study: Different samples, observed at multiple time points. Pros: Can see change over time, rule out some alternate explanations. Cons: Validity Threats • Historical Events • Selection Bias • Subjects mortality • Outliers • Time and Cost Summary: To describe content: • Content analysis To describe use: • Survey To establish causal effects • Experiments • Longitudinal To combine research efforts • Meta analysis • Triangulation         Payne Fund Studies­ 1  Major Research ◦ In 1928, exec director William Short invited psychology profs to  conduct series of studies to examine influence of movies on children. ◦ 1929­1932 2 Goals of the Study: 1. To study content of films, and audience composition. 2. Effect of exposure to films on audience ◦ Effects = Attitude change, emotion stimulation, health, morals, conduct.   Content of Films: Large scale systematic analysis of motion pictures • Crime Sex and Love • Children’s stories, history, travel were minorities • Tobacco and Liquor use openly showed Six Effects: 1. Information Acquisition: (6 weeks/ 3 mos) = movies led to more  retention than std. lab memory experiments. 2. Change of attitude measured 3. Stimulating Emotions:(Neurological measurements used) = adults  could “discount”, children could not. 4.  Harming Health :(measured sleep patterns after exposure to movie  types). Some movies resulted in disturbed sleep. 5.  Moral Values: responses of approval/disapproval of scenes from  movies. People’s morals were conflicting with ones shown in movies. 6. Conduct: Questionnaires, autobiographical methods used. Affected day  to day activities, negatively perceived by others, led to delinquent acts. Methods used: • Attitudes Toward: 1. People from different nationalities/races 2. Socially sig. topics like crime, war • Method: • Initial measure of attitudes taken • Subjects went to see movie selected by researcher (16 out of 600  selected) • Next day: attitude measured again     RESULTS: 1. After single exposure: minor to no change 2. After cumulative exposure: sig. attitude modification • Influence of films more pronounced for younger children 3. Persistence of attitude change: follow ups to attitude change measured.  Was sig. in children. • Conduct • Recall influences on emotions or moods, patterns of imitation of the  actors.   Results: 1. Influenced Childhood Play­ role­play. 2. Adolescents imitated styles/patterns. 3. Day Dreaming and Fantasy 4. Emotional possession: lose self­control   Invasion from Mars Why study Radio? Functionalities of Radio: provided entertainment, brought the news of  the world to the public almost as it happened. Background of War of the Worlds: "The War of the Worlds" is an  episode of the American radio drama anthology series The Mercury  Theatre on the Air. It was performed as a Halloween episode of the  series on October 30, 1938, and aired over the Columbia Broadcasting  System radio network. Directed and narrated by actor and future  filmmaker Orson Welles, the episode was an adaptation of H. G. Wells'  novel The War of the Worlds (1898). It became famous for allegedly  causing mass panic, although the reality of this mass panic is disputed as the program had relatively few listeners.   Goal(s) of the study: The purpose of the study was to discover the  psychological conditions and the situational circumstances that led  people to believe that the broadcast drama was real. The researchers  were trying to answer 3 basic questions • What was the extent of the panic? i.e.: how many listened, how many  panicked? • Why did this broadcast frighten some people when other fantastic  broadcasts did not? • Why did this broadcast frighten some people but not others                 Methods used:    • Personal interviews (one week after the broadcast; 135 individuals, of  these 107 were selected because the broadcast had badly frightened  them. An additional 28 listeners were not frightened and interviewed to  provide a basis for comparison. Interviews limited to NJ area (because  funds were limited and proper supervision of this aspect of the research  program) • Surveys (920 people) conducted by CBS. • Newspaper accounts and mail: the study analyzed 12,500 clippings that  appeared in papers throughout the country for 3 weeks following the  broadcast. In addition, analyses of the volume of mail to CBS stations,  Mercury Theater and the FCC. Huge increases in the volume of mail  reported and letters to the Mercury Theater and CBS stations were  generally favorable, even congratulatory. However letters to the FCC  were unfavorable.                                           Three problems with Methodology: • unorganized selection of personal interviews • The delays in up to 4 weeks in obtaining interviews • Problems with validity; many people reluctant to reveal gullibility after  news reports.                                           Findings. • Extent of panic: book: AIPO (American Institute of Public opinion)  • 28% thought news • 70% who thought news were frightened or disturbed • 1.7 million listeners thought the broadcast was a news bulletin. • 1.2 were excited by the news. • AIPO (9 million adults, 3 million children = 12 million saw the report. • Cantril (1940) Office of Radio Research • About 12 million heard broadcast • About 2 million panicked or thought it was real                   Reasons Broadcast was scary: Five Factors influenced  fear • Dramatic excellence • Radio accepted as vehicle for announcements • Use of experts increased credibility • Use of real places • Tuning in late                                                Why were some people scared?                                           Four Categories of people • Those who checked the internal evidence of the broadcast (internal  check) • Those who checked the broadcast against other information and learned  it was a play (external check) • Those who tried to check the program against other information but for  various reasons continued to believe the broadcast was authentic  (unsuccessful external check) (neighbors, windows, etc.) • Those who made no attempt to check the broadcast or the event; became paralyzed with fear.                                           Characteristics in which they differed: • Personality traits: emotional insecurity, phobic personality, lack of self­ confidence, fatalism. • Religiosity: thought the invasion was an act of god or end of world was  near.                                           Significance of Study: • 1  study of panic behavior triggered by a mass medium. • Evidence of powerful media effects • However proved not all viewers react the same • Uniform effects not an explanation • Media has a limited effect • Deterioration of MBT   People’s Choice Study 1. Why conduct this study? • This study was conducted to analyze the Roosevelt vs. Wilkie race in the 1940s election 1. Main research question: • “How and Why people decided to vote as they did” • Formation of voting decisions OVER TIME 1. Method used: • Survey 1. Sampling Decisions: • Sample: they chose Erie County, OH; it was small enough to permit  effective supervision of interviewers, free from sectional peculiarities,  not dominated by a large urban center and diverse enough because  rural/urban split to make meaningful comparisons possible. • In every presidential election in 20  century, the county had deviated  very little from the national voting pattern. • Sample – 15 interviewers visited 3000 houses, split into 4­ 600 people  panels interviewed 1. IV (s) – age, sex, rural­urban, residence, education, nativity, telephone  & auto ownership. 2. DV­ political decisions taken 3. Procedure followed: • Use one sample of 600 subjects as the main panel to be interviewed  every month from May to November • Another Panel of 600 (control A) was to be interviewed during the 3   month (July) th • Another Panel (control B) interviewed during the 4  month (August) • Another Panel (Control C) interviewed in the 6  month (October) • Interviewed original panel after the election was over. 1. Findings • Effect of demographic variable: Hypothesis was “Those who intended to vote as Republicans or Democrats would differ in (i) socio­economic  status, (ii) religion, (iii) area of residence, (iv) occupation, (v) age.  Results showed republicans were rich, white­collar workers, protestants,  older. • Opinion about matters: Democrats and Republicans had different ideas  about social and economic matters. • Level of Interest: Level of interest in Election was a major factor in  deciding voting behavior. LOI was also related to SES and Edu. Level • Early Vs. Late Decision Makers: Early decision makers had high level  of interest, late decision makers had a lower level of interest. Cross  Pressures delayed decision making (i.e. external forces pressuring them  to sway one way or the other) • Crystallizers, Waverers, Party Changers: ◦ Last minute decision makers ◦ original decision, confusion then choose original, ◦ flip sides. • Activation: ◦ Process of making something manifest or observable ◦ Arouse Interest ­> Increase Exposure ­> Increase Attention ­> Select  Information (consistent with pre­dispositions) ­> crystallize vote                         Reinforcement: • keep feeding arguments & justifications                                                  Conversion: • Only 8% converted: People already knew who they were voting for,  even if people didn’t know who they were voting for, most likely they  were sticking to their political party.     • Multiple Vs. Single Exposure: People exposed to multiple formats; print, radio, TV: Research  suggested that these people believed that they have an especially large  stake in the election. They tend to be more politically aware and they  have a deeper understanding of issues.   1. Most Significant Contribution of People’s Choice: • Survey Design: How surveys can be used in longitudinal panel research. Sophistication of survey method. • Political Propaganda: Insight into political propaganda presented by  media. Moderating role of media on people’s decisions, based on social  category membership. • Two step Flow: Unlike MBT, 2 Step flow showed the existence &  importance of social ties • Opinion Leaders: OPINION LEADERS – MORE PERSUASIVE.  WHY?                ­More likely to reach undecided, uninterested voter than media                ­More trusted as non­purposive sources of information &  interpretation; more intimate.                                  ­ Flexible                                  ­ Social Approval and Rewards                     Daytime Radio: 1.) Reasons for conducting this research study: ◦ Challenged the older magic bullet idea ­People passively attended to whatever the media presented ­People responded to such messages immediately & uniformly ◦ Deviated from serious academic pursuit: ­Studied audience of pop culture, in particular, daytime radio soap  operas 2.) Main Research Question(s):    What radio means in the Lives of  Listeners? (BIG Q) What are the characteristics of women who attended these soap operas?  (Q1) What use did they make of the information and what gratification did the serials provide? (Q2) 3.) Predictions/Hypotheses:  Predictions: Soap­Opera listeners would: • Have a greater degree of social isolation compared to non­listeners • Have fewer intellectual interests • Be less concerned with public affairs • Differ on personality characteristics • Have a marked preference for radio listening. 4.) Methods used: • Preliminary study conducted by Herzog identified the listeners vs. non­ listeners of radio. • Nearly 50% of American women were found to be listening to at least 1  of 20 soap operas. • Interviews 5.) Findings:  Hypotheses Confirmed: Intellectual Interest, Current Events & Public  Affairs, Preference for                                Radio Listening    Intellectual Interests: Measured by                                           i. Amount of formal education                                           ii. Amount & type of reading                                          iii. Area of residence As education level increased, listenership decreased. Hypothesis supported.   Current Events & Public Affairs: Measured by 1. Preference for radio news programs 2. Pattern of voting & LOI in presidential elections No difference b/w L & NL on (1) However, Daytime soap­opera listeners tended to be more non­voters  than voters (2) Hypothesis supported. Preference for radio listening: Measured by 1. Did L listen to radio on a general basis more than NL? 2. Do L look at radio as primary mode of getting political information than  NL? Significant differences b/w L & NL in both these categories. Hypothesis supported Hypotheses not confirmed: Social Isolation, Personality  Characteristics  Social isolation: Measured by 3 factors • Church attendance • Other meetings & social gatherings • Going to movies No sig. difference b/w L & N.L Hypothesis not supported Personality Characteristics: Measured by 1. Level of self­assurance (observed by interviewers) 2. How much they worried No significant difference b/w L & NL on either (1) or (2) Thus, hypothesis not supported           6.) 3 Gratifications: • Emotional Release ­Made them feel better to hear about difficulties experienced by  characters in the stories ­Hearing about the characters’ problems provided compensation for their own day­to­day life distresses. ­Allowed users to feel superior • Wishful thinking ­Pretended that things that happened to the characters in the show,  happened to them. ­Gave them vicarious satisfaction • Valuable Advice ­If you listen to these programs and something turns up in your own life, you would know what to do about it. ­Advice on grumpy husbands, misbehaved children, other i/p problems 7.) What was the moderator variable: Worry • Women who worried more 1. Tended to listen to a larger number of serials than other listeners. 2. Felt that they received good advice from serials. 8.) Overall Importance of Study: How Audiences • Select content from media • How they use that information • Types of gratification derived from it Other study that trickled down from it New York News Paper ban Rational and non­rational needs 8 major newspapers went on strike in New York City. People were left  without their papers were 2 weeks. Study showed how important the  newspaper still was and how it became a “rational and non rational  need"             Adoption of Innovation: 1. Definition of Innovation: “An idea, practice, or object that is perceived  as new by an individual or other unit of adoption.”­ Rogers. 2. Innovation before and after industrial revolution: Before:                                                            • Rate of innovation low • Process of communication limited to WOM (WORD OF MOUTH) • Low rate of literacy, only among affluent After: changed scenario • Rate of invention increased • Speed and efficiency of travel increased • More literacy ­Penny press, magazine, telegraph, telephone   1. Background of Study: Bringing in innovations; Introduction of Hybrid  Seed Corn 2. Main research Question(s): • Why is one new thing, practice, or idea well received and widely  adopted, while another is ignored? • Main Motive: To identify decision­making processes that led people to  adopt or reject a given innovation 1. Pattern of Innovation: S shaped pattern 2. Methods used, questions asked: Interviews: Asked to identify their  earliest source of information about the new kind of seed and when that  information had come to their attention. Also asked to evaluate the  importance of these sources; how important were they leading them up  to take the practice. 3. Sample: 2 small communities, 259 Farmers, all male, more than 20  acres in production, only if he had planted corn before hybrid seed  became available. 4. Findings: Adoption tended to be on a gradual and almost experimental  basis. Most had tried it out on a smaller plot before making change.  Conservatism of mid­western farmers + economic difficulties of the  time held back wholesale and immediate adoption. Generally several  year gap (5­6 yrs) before initial knowledge of the innovation and actual  adoption. 5.    3 Implications of study 2 Factors on which adoption depends on 1.) Well established interpersonal ties 2.) Habitual exposure to mass communication Link between action and awareness 1.) Awareness of something new 2.) Action resulting in some sort of adoption. 5 Stages of Adoption 1.) Awareness 2.) Interest 3.) Evaluation 4.) Trial 5.) Adoption 10.) 3 Types of people­ what do they differ on? • Early Acceptors • Early Adopters • Later Accepters Different based on the personality trait of innovativeness. 11.) Definition of Diffusion: Process by which an innovation is  communicated through certain channels: friends, family, interpersonal  ties, over time among the members of a social system. (e.g. ages 18­25) 12.) Overall importance(s) of study:             1.) Stages of adoption process             2.) Different categories of adopters             3.) Channels of influences           4.) Specific Innovation (hybrid corn)           5.) I/P and mass communication processes that created awareness  of item           6.) Specific kind of social system           7.) Different types of individuals who made decisions at different  stages.           8.) Research shifted from pattern of adoption to behavior  involved in adoption.           9.) Showed how i/p processes were much more important in  creating awareness and adoption than mass comm                   channels. •          Could be because of rural setting (more WORD OF MOUTH),  innovation was not likely to be covered by the media          11.) Follows 2 Step flow theory          12.) I/P may not be that influential in urban settings                 (More awareness created by mass comm. Channels)       Experiments with Films 1.) Background of study • World War II • U.S. Govt. releases a series of 7, 50 min. films to educate American  soldiers on the reason for U.S.’s involvement in the war. • 4 of 7 used in research study • Prelude to War • The Nazi Strike • Divide & Conquer • The Battle of Britain Objectives: Measure Knowledge and opinion BEFORE seeing film EXPOSE them to film Assess change AFTER seeing film 2.) 2 assumptions made • Films would be effective in teaching Factual Knowledge about war,  enemy, and Allies to recruits. • Such factual knowledge would shape interpretations and opinions in  ways needed to improve acceptance of military rules and sacrifices  necessary to achieve victory 3.) 6 Outcomes of study: • A firm belief in the right of the cause for which we fight. • A realization that we are up against a tough job • A determined confidence in our own ability and the abilities of our  comrades and leaders to do the job that has to be done • A feeling of confidence, insofar as is possible under these  circumstances, in the integrity and fighting ability of our Allies • A resentment, based on knowledge of the facts, against our enemies who have made it necessary to fight. • A belief that through military victory, the political achievement of a  better world order is possible. 4.) Main research questions: • Was the film effective in improving factual knowledge about military  events? • Did the content of the film alter the opinions and interpretations of  viewers regarding several major themes presented in the film • How much did the film improve the general attitudes of the soldiers  toward their British allies. • Was the film a significant factor in improving overall motivation among  the recruits to fight a tough war. 5.) Experimental Procedures Used: Before­After Design with Control Group X1OX2 ­­­­­­ Experimental group X2X4­­­­­­­­­­­­­Control Group   In Addition,   After Only O­­­> X1 ­­­­­> X2   X1, X2, X3, X4= Anonymous checklist questionaires O= Movie Items included in questionnaire 1.) Fact­quiz questions 2.) Opinion items 3.) Personal history items (age, education, so on )   After measures given after one week Camoflage: General opinion survey How soldiers felt about various subjects connected with war


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.