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Study Guide for EXAM 2!!!

by: N3koKikyu

Study Guide for EXAM 2!!! 70771 - PSYC 100 - 002

GPA 3.5
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Keith D Renshaw (P)

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Here is the study guide for exam 2!! happy studying!!
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Keith D Renshaw (P)
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by N3koKikyu on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 70771 - PSYC 100 - 002 at George Mason University taught by Keith D Renshaw (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 10/30/15
Friday October 23 2015 Psychology 100 Exam 2 Study Guide Memory 3 Processes of Memory 1 Encoding gt putting info into memory 2 Storage gt holding info in memory 3 Retrieval gt getting info out of memory Influences on Encoding Attention Levels of Processing Shallow gt basic simple repetition sound basic shape Deep gt richer mnemonic meaning category Ways to Make Processing Deeper Elaboration linking to existing information in memory Imagery Memory Storage Sensory Memory gt input from senses stored briefly large capacity brief duration ShortTerm Memory gt info transferred from sensory memory attention smaller capacity intermediate duration 20303econd Maintained predominantly by rehearsal LongTerm Memory gt information transferred from STM elaboration Explicit gt conscious intentional recollection of previous experiences and information pisodic gt the memory of autobiographical events times places associated emotions that can be explicitly stated Friday October 23 2015 semantic gt general world knowledge that we have accumulated throughout ourHves Implicit gt previous experiences aid the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences Node piece of information that occupies spot memory Priming activation of one node makes a related node more accessible Memory Retrieval SCHEMAS Cognitive framework that organized memory Filing cabinets of the mind Affects attention and interpretation Efficient help us organize AND fill in missing information Serial Position Effect Curve gt The tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best and the middle items worst Primac Effect Words at Beginning Recencv Effect Words at the End Von Restorff Effect gt isolation effect predicts that an item that stands out like a sore thumb called distinctive encoding is more likely to be remembered than other items Encoding Specificity Principle gt The more similar things are to when you encoded information the easier it is to retrieve that information Context dependent external environment is similar Statedependent internalphysical state Moodcongruent Recal gt recalling information based on if the information evokes some emotion from us Friday October 23 2015 feeling sad easier to recall sad events or sad things amp harder to remember happy things Theories on Forgetting Trace Decay Hypothesis Decay Theory gt over time neural trace weakens disappears As time goes on we forget Interference Retroactive gt Learning new info interferes with remember info that was already learned 39 W gt Already learned info interferes with learning new info Amnesia Retrograde inability to recall past memories Anterograde inability to form new memories Cognitive Thinking Intelligence Intelligence Ability to understand complex ideas learn from experience understand and adapt to environment and use reasoning and thought Theories of Intelligence Spearman s G Theory gt one central level of intelligence general intelligence everything else is driven by that Horn and Cattell s Two Factor Theory Crystallized intelligence gt knowledge that s static book smarts Fluid lntelligence gt learning from experience street smarts Sternberg s Triarchic Theory 39 Componential lntelligence gt traditional critical thinking logical Experimental intelligence gt creativity Practical intelligence street smarts Gardner s Theory of Multiple lntelligences Friday October 23 2015 Musical intelligence bodilykinesthetic intrapersonal knowing yourself interpersonal understanding others and traditional types Guilford s Structure of the lntellect gt over 100 types of intelligence Reliability gt has to be consistent Validity gt accuracy does the test measure what it says it measure IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO HAVE POOR RELIABILITY AND GOOD VALIDITY Test of Intelligence Full Scale IQ Verbal IQ Performance IQ StandfordBinet Weschsler Adult Intelligence scale WAIS Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC Normal Distribution gt bell shaped curve Most people are close to the average 68 within 1 SD 95 within 2 SD 99 within 3 SD Heredity vs Environment Heredity gives a range Environment determines where in that range a person ends up Language Communication vs Language Structure and rues set s us apart from most animals Development of Language Phonological Development gt babbling 46 months Semantic Development gt holophrases 1 year vocabulary spurt 2 years errors Overextension gt using a word to refer to more than it actually means Underextensiongt narrow use of the word using it to refer to a specific example Friday October 23 2015 Grammar Acquisition gt telegraphic speech text talk more errors Overregularization gt applying rules to words that don t apply lgoed to playground instead of go to playground Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis gt our language affects how we think political correctness Nature vs Nurture babbling is innate and initially similar environment then shapes development Critical Period of language development 07 and 815 Social Development Nature vs Nurture genes determine personality behavior ect environment determines how we develop 39 Attachment gt bond between baby and caregivers 6 months Secure Attachment gt mildly upset when caregiver leaves not out of control happy to see them when they return Anxious Avoidant gt shows little to no reaction to Mom leaving Anxious Ambivalent gt extremely upset baby is distressed kicking at the door Disorganized gt depends if they find themselves in anxietyprovoking situations they will be upset Nature side of development Temperament stable traits in infants child personality Easy babiesslowtowarmup babies difficult babies Ndrtdre side elf develepment Parental Responsiveness Consistently responsive consistently nonresponsive inconsistently responsive Friday October 23 2015 Lifespan Development Theory Erik Erikson 8 stages Stage 1 Trust vs Mistrust 1 year is the world predictable and supportive Stage 2 Autonomy vs Shame Doubt 12 or 3 control actions am capable of doing things myself Stage 3 Initiative vs Guilt 2 3 45 start exploring asserting self is it ok for me to do things independently Stage 4 Industry vs lnferiority 56 1213 things deemed worthwhile am competent Stage 5 Identity vs Role Confusion II I If you mess up one stage I adolescence who am I they are all messed up I Stage 6 Intimacy vs Isolation I 2030 do I want to share my life with someone Stage 7 Generativity vs Stagnation 30s 50 60 80 will I leave something meaningful behind Stage 8 Ego Integrity vs Despair elderly years was my life worthwhile Cognitive Development Piaget Stage 1 Sensorimotor Stage 02 I am separate from the world around me I can have an effect on it mental symbols Object Permanence gt we can understand that somethings exist and continues to exist even when we can t see it Stage 2 Preoperational Stage 2 7 mental representation of objectevents verbal symbols imagination Friday October 23 2015 Egocentrism gt having difficulty taking another persons perspective Reversibility gt you can undo certain physical actions Conservation gt mass can t just disappear 39 Stage 3 Concrete Operational Stage 711 conservation reversibility beginning of logical thought Stage 4 Formal Operational Stage 11 abstract thought deductive reasoning Problems with this Theory children develop more quickly people use reasoning from different stages different times Moral Development Kohlberg 3 Levels 2 stages in each 1 Preconventional Level overt consequences Rules and punishments 2 Conventional Level rigid social norms an individual life is more important than anything vs the greater good is the most important 3 Postconventional Level flexible moral principles Understand the complexity of situations Problems Not everyone reaches postconventional people do not apply consistent type of reasoning culture biases OCOOOOCOOOOCOOOO Personality Personality traits consistent over time organized and coherent affect behavior Personalit Ps cholo tries to explain and predict behavior 7 Friday October 23 2015 Big 5 Personality Traits OCEAN 39 Openness gt how open to new experiences is a person 39 Conscientiousness gt how much people conform to rules Extraversion gt how outgoing a person is stimulated by external things 39 Agreeableness gt being affable tolerant sensitive trusting kind and warm Neuroticism gt being anxious irritable temperamental and moody Situationism gt tell me their personality and then tell me the situation and I can tell you exactly how they will behave situation dictates behaviori lnteractionism gt personality drives behavior in weak situation that allows for free expression of personality where strong situation dictate behavior Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis Topographical Model of the Mind Three Different parts of the mind Conscious gt what we are thinking feeling seeing in the exact moment Preconscious gt stuff we aren t thinking about right now Unconscious gt stuff we bury we don t want to think Accessed by Dreams Freudian Slips Hypnosis Structural Model of the Mind ld gt Libido psychic energy pleasure principle Superego gt Conscience morals values what s right and wrong Ego gt Balances id and superego reality principle Defense Mechanisms gt protect against anxiety unacceptable id impulses memory of negative events Repression gt push into unconscious and keeping it there Rationalization gt take something externally or internally and we explain it away make an excuse and it disappears that way Friday October 23 2015 Displacement gt feel impulseurge toward someonething but we displace it somewhere else Sublimation gt you take unacceptable impulse and you find a constructive way to express it Psychosexual Stages of Development 1 Oral Stage 01 12 gt wants to put everything in their mouth 2 Anal Stage 1 123 gt potty training 3 Phiallic Stage 35 gt centers on his or her genitalia 4 Latency Period 613 gt repression of sexual urges associate with opposite sex 5 Genital Stage adolescence into adult hood gt sexual interest outside family Neoanalytic Theory ollective unconscious gt unconscious mind which are shared among beings of the same species Archetypes gt templates for viewing the world Chidgod good motherbad mother Humanism Basic Principles Selfdetermination gt we have the power to choose to behave the way we want to Selfactualization gt all people have the innate tendency to grow and become the best they can be Carl Rogers lncongruence selfconcept doesn t match reality or ideal Positive regard unconditional vs conditional Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Friday October 23 2015 Pyramid physiological safety and physical security love and belongingness esteem people respect usvalue us selfactualization Personality Assessment Rorschach lnkblot Test gt show the ink blobs TAT Thematic Apperception Test gt show someone a picture and ask Empirical Test MMPI Minnesota Multi phasic Personality Inventory Validity scales gt does the person seem to have given you a good effort Content scales gt tell you about the person themselves NEO Based on Big 5 MyersBriggs 1O


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