Milestones in Communication Research Study Guide
Milestones in Communication Research Study Guide COM 239
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MILESTONES FINAL STUDY GUIDE Methodology Lecture 1. Sample and Population 1. Population the group of elements you wish to estimate (e.g., all college students) 2. Sample a subset of elements selected from the population 3. Sampling Frame the list of sample units from which you select (e.g., MSU student directory) 2. Sampling Methods 1. Probability Vs. NonProbability Probability Sampling • each elements chance of being in the sample is specified Non Probability Sampling • You cannot specify each elements chance of being in sample 2. When to use what? • Probability: Better for heterogeneous population • Non Probability: Better for homogeneous population 3. Types of Probability and NonProbability sampling A.Probability Sampling Types 1.Simple Random – each element has an equal chance of inclusion (1/50 chances in this lecture) 2.Stratified Random – a random sample is selected from different strata (can control % of eac h stratum) (X% Freshmen, Y%Junior, Z% Senior) 3.Cluster or Multistage – a sample is drawn from a large group (e.g., randomly), and then a simple random or stratified random sample is drawn from the first sample (4 colleges from NYC, 30 students from COM 239) B.NonProbability Sampling Types 1.Convenience – each available element is included until desired size 2.Purposive – specific strategies used to pick each sample element (e.g., I'll pick this one because X) 3. Research Method to select – Know when to use WHAT 1. Surveys When should you use surveys? 1.When you want to measure covariation (X varies with Y) 2.When you want to collect data in natural settings When should you NOT use surveys? 1.When establishing CAUSALITY 1.Surveys do not account for other variables that can cause a change in your dependent variable outside of the independent variable. 1. Types of Survey Design A.CrossSectional Design • a large representative sample X O1 • can estimate occurrence and distribution of variables; or the relationship of two variables within a population B. Longitudinal Surveys • Data from subjects are collected at two or more points in time O1 X O2 Two types – Panel and Trend Studies 1.Panel study uses same subjects at each point in time (HCMST 2009). 2.Trend study – uses a different sample from the same population at each point in time • Observing change in two variables at different time points helps establish time order 2. Survey Question Do’s and Dont’s • Find out a preexisting scale for your IV and DV if your IV and DV are concepts. • Avoid reinventing the wheel AVOID QUESTIONS THAT ARE: • Ambiguous • Lengthy • Leading • Double Barreled • Threatening C.Question Sequence • general ordering pattern to make use easy • funnel vs. inverted funnel questions • group topically related items • easytoanswer questions first • Main topic questions first, demographic variables later 2. Experiments 1. Defining Characteristics of Experiments When should you use Experiments? • When you are trying to establish causality, i.e., X and only X leads to Y. XàY • This is done by controlling for other variables that can affect Y. When should you NOT use experiments? • When not looking for causality • When you want to cut down on costs (time & money) C.Two defining characteristics of a true experiment • Random assignment (randomization) ◦ to create equivalent groups • Manipulation of the independent variable 3. Content Analyses When should you use Content Analyses? • 1.When you want to describe, not make causal claims or covariation claims. • 2.When you are trying to capture the nature, the essence of the phenomenon For instance, • Subject matter of ads • Topics of newspaper headlines • Types of fillers used in public speaking 1. Sample • Find your sample • Eg., you want to study content of newspaper headlines • Select newspaper • Select time line Select newspaper section 2. When to code 3. Figure out HOW to code: The CODING SCHEME 1.Themes of coding • Positive/negative/international/national news 2.Rules for identifying themes • Rule 1: if words related to “terror”, “bombing”, etc. then negative; if words related to “good”, “change”, etc. then positive • Rule 2: if content related to the US, then national, if content relates to any other country outside the US and which does not have an effect on US, then international. 3. What to code • What are you looking for? • Eg., nature of news (positive/negative; national/international; political/civil) 4. Count instances • After coding, count instances of each theme. • Count total instances. • Then make claims. Milestones 8 – Experiments with Films contd. 1. DVs for Capra Films 1. A firm belief in the right of the cause for which we fight. 2. A realization that we are up against a tough job 3. A determined confidence in our own ability and the abilities of our comrades and leaders to do the job that has to be done 4. A feeling of confidence, insofar as is possible under these circumstances, in the integrity and fighting ability of our Allies 5. A resentment, based on knowledge of the facts, against our enemies who have made it necessary to fight. 6. A belief that through military victory, the political achievement of a better world order is possible. a. What was the effect of Capra Films on each of these DVS? • Opinions and interpretation changed, but not a MAJOR effect. • 1. MAJOR effect on factual information acquisition. • Differences between the control and the film groups were consistently large. • For example: the questionnaire asked why the Germans were not successful in British bombing planes on the ground. Answer given in film was “because the British kept their planes scattered at the edges of the field” Only 21% of the control group checked this answer. Whereas 78% of the film group got it right. Similarly, much larger proportions of the film group consistently answered other factual items correctly. • 2. Opinions and interpretation changed, but not a MAJOR effect • Battle of Britain was a major defeat for Nazis • British resisted heroically • Royal Air Force did a magnificent job • British resistance provided time for other countries to prep. • 3. No major effect in improving attitudes toward British allies. • “Do you feel that the British are doing all they can to help win the war?” • Experimental Group (one who saw films): X % • Control Group (one who did not see films): (X – 7) % • 4. Film was also ineffective in strengthening overall motivation and morale of its viewers. Films INTENDED to • Increase willingness to serve • Unconditional surrender • Resentment of enemy • Results from other 3 movies similar to The Battle of Britain b. Were they significant? • Highly effective presentation methods are possible through films • Helps in retention of material over large periods of time • Opinion changes can occur through films • Not so effective in increasing motivation c. Why were the results not as significant as they hoped to be? 1. Information about topics covered in films had already reached recruits and non recruits through civilian mass media 2. Motivation to serve and fight = multidimensional+complex • Pressure from family, social norms, fear of death. 3. Sleeper effect • Effect may have kicked in later than when measurements were taken. 4. Personal beliefs, values, personality traits. 2. Audience Evaluation and Films • Did they find it Boring/Interesting? • Did they view it like Hollywood movies/propaganda? 3. Films compared to other media types • Radio shows/filmstrips • Audience Evaluation of Films 4.Method used: Questionnaires and Group Interviews • 3 Basic Issues explored: 1. LIKE the film 2. PURPOSE of film 3. TRUE PICTURE depiction by film 5. Persuasiveness of films (long and short term) Results: 1. Yes, they liked the film 2. Majority thought film is giving factual information, NOT propaganda. • 27 % thought movies inspired them to kill “those sons of bitches.” • 65 % thought it gave true picture; 35% thought it was onesided true picture; 2% thought dishonest picture. • Group 1 was assessed 1 week after watching film • Group 2 was assessed 9 weeks after watching film Results: 1. Long Term group retained ONLY 50% of what the Short Term group retained. 2. Long Term group showed MORE OPINION CHANGE than Short Term group. 6. Importance of study on Films • Seminal study in the field of PERSUASION • Teach factual materials effectively to large number of people in a short time. • Persuasive effects of films limited. • Showed that individual differences and social categories mattered. • Marked advancement in research methodology BeforeAfter with Control Group This study marked the Clear End to Magic Bullet Theory Research moved on to “Magic Keys” of Persuasion Milestones 9 – Communication and Persuasion 1. After Capra studies, what did social scientists want to know? • Study on Capra films were evidence to the fact that there ARE “underlying regularities” of human behavior. • Careful scientific research was needed to 1. Discover these underlying regularities 2. Discover how opinions and attitudes could be modified 3. Change overt behavior patterns in socially desirable ways. 4. Prosocia behaviors. 2. Hovland and associates definition of communication • A Process • Stimuli (Verbal/NonVerbal) • Individual (Communicator) ———> Other individuals (Audience) WHO Said WHAT to WHOM over what Channel with what EFFECT 1. Communicator (or the person initiating Stimuli) 2. Content of Communication (message/stimuli) 3. The Audience (people receiving the stimuli) 4. Actual response by audience 3. Definition of Persuasion • Persuasion = Amount of Attitude & Opinion Changed Positive/Negative Interpretations, Drive Value Expectations Unconscious Evaluations Verbalized 1. Problems with definition: . • Opinions = Verbal Responses given in “Inner Speech” • May not be OVERT • There could be a difference between Over and Covert Responses. Why? • Hovland and Team ASSUMED overt = covert responses. • Real Opinion Change Vs. Change in response to Question items • Example: Activism Vs. Slacktivism 4. Theoretical Model of Persuasion a. Details of model: Stimuli presented. Assume audience has (a) Paid ATTENTION to the stimuli and (b) COMPREHENDED the stimuli, Audience Reacts (Initial Opinion Vs. Recommended Opinion) Attitude change IF, Reward for Recommended Opinion > Reward for Old Opinion b. Experiments on each component of persuasion model and findings of the same i. Communicator • Hypothesis: Effectiveness of communication, depends LARGELY upon who delivered it. • WHO is saying it? Is it coming from a Good Source? • Expertness and Trustworthiness: the extent to which the communicator is perceived to be a source of valid assertions & the degree of confidence in the communicator’s intent to communicate the assertions he considers most valid. • Hovland and Associates presented messaged on 4 things • Antihistamine Drugs • Atomic Submarines • The Street Shortage • Future of Movie Theaters • From HIGH CREDIBILITY vs LOW CREDIBILITY sources Study Setup: Measurement: Trustworthiness of Source Stimuli: Read Article with Source Name Measurement: Opinion about Article Findings: Initial: Attitude Towards SourceàEvaluation of Article Low Credibility = Less Fair and Less Justified HOWEVER, After 4 weeks, this difference in judgement based on source credibility DISAPPEARED! • Forgetting Content • Sleeper Effect ii. Content and Structure of Message 1. Motivating Appeals • Stimuli which operate as appeals that arouse motives to accept recommended opinions. • 3 types of incentives offered: • Substantiating Arguments – True or Correct • Positive Appeals Rewards • Negative Appeals – Unpleasant Consequences 2. Fear Appeals • Individual is first exposed to relatively neutral content which defines the topic of communication • Threat statements follow, which are interpreted to referring to a genuine danger and which evoke anticipations such as: “This might happen to me.” • As these anticipations are mentally rehearsed, the individual experiences a marked increase in emotional tension. • While in a state of high emotional tension, the individual is exposed to other statements in the communication that make assertions about ways of averting the threat. That is, the threat can or should be avoided by performing the recommended action or by adopting the recommended attitude • As the reassuring recommendation is mentally rehearsed emotional tension subsides. • The reduction of emotional tension operates as a reinforcement of the reassuring recommendation, and thus the new response will tend to occur on subsequent occasions, when similar stimuli are present 3. Intensity of Appeals • Fear Appeals>Conformity • Minimal Appeal MOST PERSUASIVE • Strong and Moderate Appeals Lead to HIGH DEGREE OF ANXIETY • “High Levels of Anxiety can interfere with a person’s attending to, comprehending, or accepting communication” 4. Explicit vs. Implicit • EXPLICIT vs. IMPLICIT Conclusion • “Education for Americans”, devaluation of currency • Explicit better than implicit • Could be different for sophisticated audience 5. One Vs. Both Sided • Experiment by researchers: • “soviet would not be able to produce A bombs in quantity for at least 5 years” • Group 1: For topic; Group 2: For AND Against topic • After 1 week, both groups heard counterpropaganda • Results: Group 2 HAD MORE SUSTAINED CHANGE than Group 1. • WHY? • The term is: INOCULATION • (3) SIDE A vs. SIDE B of ARGUMENT PRESENTED FIRST • Primacy Vs. Recency Debate • Hovland suggested, • The order of presentation does not really make a difference iii. Audience 1. Group Membership and Conformity • Opinion change INVERSELY RELATED to the degree to which the person values group membership. • Example: STRONG Christian Vs. NOTSOStrong Christian Chastity, Acceptance of Homosexuality. 2. Personal Characteristics • 2 types of personality factors: • Intellectual abiliti Determines how someone will attend to, interpret to, and assimilate message. • Motive Factors: Predominant personality needs, emotional disturbances, defense mechanisms, frustration tolerance, threshold of excitability, which may facilitate or interfere with a person’s responsiveness to many different type of personality messages. • High Persuadability: Low Self Esteem, Social Inadequacy (shyness, no confidence), Aggressively Inhibited • Low Persuadability: Persistent Aggressiveness toward others, Withdrawal tendencies. acute psychoneurotic complaints iv. Audiences Responses Active versus Passive Participation Active: Subjects induced to play a role requiring them to deliver persuasive message to others Passive: Subjects had to just read and listen to the same message. Duration of the effect of Communication People tend to remember: • More Emotional Material • More Vivid Material • Pleasant Vs. Unpleasant Material What affects acceptance of message? Remember sleeper effect in regard to Communicator? Researchers studied this by: • Exposing 330 high schoolers to 3 versions of persuasive message on pardoning juvenile delinquency 1. Positive Speaker Intro: Juvenile court judge 2. Neutral Speaker Intro: Member of audience 3. Negative Speaker Intro: Delinquent in youth, recently free on bail after arrest for peddling dope WHAT DID THEY FIND? POSTIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE Reminded of Greatest Effect Smallest Effect Speaker Intro Not Reminded of Decline in agreement Increase in agreement Speaker Intro with speaker with speaker Conclusion about Audience Retention of Information? People often remember WHAT was said without recalling WHO said it. 1. Individual may accept communicator’s POV but then revert back to his/her own (sleeper effect) 2. Individual may reject communicator’s POV but then “come around” communicator’s position. Milestones 10 – Personal Influence 1. Perception of media – good or bad? • After WWII, a LARGE number of studies started studying principles, processes, and influences of mass communication. • Main fascination: “Society’s expanding ability to communicate on a mass scale with its citizens” • Pros: (1) Save democracy – informed decision; increased access to information provided to ordinary people! • Cons: (2) Control the mind – people becoming defenseless against media suggestions (from MBT); but, not enough support for this. 2. Joseph Klapper, media scholar, concluded: 1. Media has LESS power than what public thought it would have. 2. Media does have effect on audience, but very minor. 3. The conditions under which media has an effect, not straightforward, they were COMPLEX! 3. What was the shift in Research study? • Primary and Small Groups • Find out things that happened between Media and Mass. • Hovland thought: message structure was important • Katz and Lazarfeld thought: “primary groups” was important • Primary Groups acknowledged in twostep flow theory • This theory presumed a movement of information through • Interpersonal Networks • Media——>People——>More People • NOT • Media > Mass. • Thus, Close Social Ties Very Important! 4. What was the new research agenda? What did they want to find? (4 things) • People are NOT isolated and individualistic • People are influenced by what happens to other people in their surroundings that help them understand life in modern world. • Thus, primary groups = cliques • Small groups emerging in large, formally organized social structure New Assumption: Small intimate groups have a PROFOUND on nearly every aspect of social life. So research should focus on finding the following: 1. How people act and interact messages from media 2. Tell these messages to others 3. Get influenced from others who they trust 4. Eventually, responded to media message. 5. Research 1. Purpose Find role of opinion leaders as they influences others in: • Marketing (food, household products) • Fashion (clothing, hairstyle) • Public Affairs (political & social issues) • Selection of movies b. Procedures • Drawing a sample of people • Identifying opinion leaders (OL) • Studying the characteristics of leaders and followers • What did the researchers want to find out? • Opinion leaders who were in ACTUAL CONTACT with followers (i.e., had a FACE2FACE interaction with them) • [NOT the ones who were influential by virtue of media] c. Sampling • Selecting the Site ◦ 1 interview out of 20 homes. ◦ 800 interviews anticipated so community of the size of 60,000 ◦ Midwest chosen ◦ This part generally less characterized by sectional pecularities, i.e., mostly uniform ◦ 28 Cities in OH, MI, IN, WI, IA, and KS chosen. ◦ From 18 to 3 to 1 (based on indices collected). Final Sample • Decatur, Illinois because it deviated least from the central tendencies (bargraph). Women 16 or older interviewed. d. Opinion Leaders i. Conceptualizing OL • Since no study was done on this topic, no clear guidelines available for conceptualizing opinion leaders. • Researchers came up with 4 ways to conceptualize opinion leaders. • General Influentials • Specific Influentials • Everyday contacts • SelfDesignation • General Influentials – People who gave advice or interpretations to others on a range of topics. • Do you know anyone around here who keeps up with the news and whom you can trust to let you know what is going on? • Findings: Husbands (married women), Male parents (unmarried), Male friends (once married). Mostly, • Males > Females Specific Influentials 2 interviews conducted – June & August 1. Women’s opinion change on 9 public affairs topic recorded and changes measured. 2. Who did you discuss these issues with?Did these discussions modify your opinions? Finding: Family relationships and males. . Everyday Contacts People with whom they usually talked things over, regardless of the direction of influence. • Not very helpful procedure of identifying OL. • ½ of Women were not able to identify such a person. • 4. Self Designation whether they had recently been influential to others. • “Have you been asked for your advice about marketing, fashion, movies, or public affairs?” • Identify EXACT name and address of person. ii. Checking “Validity” • 1,549 designations of people who had sought advice from those 800 interviewees. ◦ 2/3 confirmed the claim ◦ ¼ could not recollect the claim ◦ 910% DENIED the claim ◦ Final Definition of OL based on this initial search, ◦ Opinion Leaders are people recognized by their peers as having some special competence in a particular subject. iii. Characteristic of OL • Position in the life cycle • Position on the community’s socioeconomic ladder • Extent of individual’s social contacts 6. Findings of Study 1. Marketing 2. Fashion 3. Public Affairs 4. Movie Selection Milestones 11 – Television and Children Television • 1950’s • TV= Status Symbol • By 1960150 Million Americans had TVs • TV became a source of children’s entertainment (replaced radio & comic books) 1. Research program on Television a. Television in the lives of our children • By Schram, Lyle, and Parker • Over 6,000 children studied • Between 19581960 • Uses and Gratification; Function of TV • Authors did not believe in EFFECTS “Children are sitting victims, television bites them.” • Children ACTIVELY consumed what they wanted from TV, not passively. b. Purpose c. Design and Methodology: Schram & Associates conducted 11 studies. STUDY 1: Use of TV for Grade 18 i. Sample • 2,688 ii. Data Collection • Interviews, Questionnaires, tests,diaries (few), q’s completed by parents of young kids, talked with teachers,etc. iii. Measures • Psychological, mental ability, public affairs knowledge, family lives, peer relationships STUDY 2: Use of media by different family members (San Francisco) i. Sample • 188 ENTIRE FAMILIES • 188 moms, 187 dads, 502 children ii. Data Collection: • Talk to parents & children together for crossvalidation & interaction observation iii. Measures • The use of the media different member of the family made and what part the media played in family life Studies 37: Rocky Mountain Communities i. Sample • The entire 6th and 10th grades or where necessary ad adequate sample of them • Interviewed in 5 communities in the rocky mountain area • In 3 of these communities, researchers also included the first grade • TOTAL SAMPLE: • 1708 Children • 284 Parents • Local teachers and officials were also consulted as a check on the information. ii. Data Collection: • Questionnaires expanded and sharpened from San Francisco study • In the case of the three first grade cohorts, researchers administered vocabulary tests to the children. iii. Measures: Same as San Francisco (The use of the media different member of the family made and what part the media played in family life) Studies 89: Canada i. Sample: • 913 Children • 269 Parents ii. Data Collection: • Same as Rocky Mountain Experiment; but materials were sharpened and expanded to take into account special characteristics of canadian mass communication. • First Graders take vocab tests again iii. Measure: • The use of the media different member of the family made and what part the media played in family life Study 10: American Suburb i. Sample: • 474 Elementary School Children • Teachers and Parents were consulted ii. Data collection: • Examined in detail? (Surveys) iii. Measures: • Measure: Tv behavior, program choice, and time allocations Study 11: Denver i. Sample: • 204 students in the 10th Grade ii. Data Collection: Surveys iii. Meaures: Student’s media behavior in relation to mental ability and social norms d. Findings i. Functions of TV 1. Entertainment • Escape from reallife problems & boredom • Identify with exciting characters • Escape not Solve problems 2.Information Girls learned: • “personal grooming” (How to tie hair, walk’n’talk, choose clothes, contemporary manners) Boys learned: • How men dressed in NY and CA • Parents Child learned: • how to swing baseball bat from athletes 3.Social Utility • Girls & guys hang out • Become conversation • Pieces in school • OVERALL VERDICT: • Fantasy & Reality Seeking/Social Norms ii. How and When children use TV • Relationships between IQ and Viewing Time • In early school years, high IQ watched more TV than low IQ In later years, this flipped...WHY? • TV no longer presented a challenge to these children • Turned to other media such as print • Social Class and TV Viewing • Children of well educated families watched less TV than other children • Children of working class parents watched more TV • Trend influenced by Social Norms • Other factors influencing TV viewing outside AGE, IQ, SOCIAL CLASS? • Social Relationships and TV viewing • Unsatisfactory family and peer relationships • Escaped to TV Taste in Shows differed by 1.Age Young: Traditional Disney:: Elder: Crime Dramas & Music 2.Gender Girls: Music Shows, Romance, Marriage:Boys: Adventure 3.Mental Ability High IQ: transitioned faster to “serious” programs, identify faces in TV Strayed away from TV; Social life and homework took precedence; became more selective in tv shows Attitude Toward TV • TV = Affection & Respect (both children+parents) • Asked “which media would you miss the most?” • Asked “What would you like to change?” • Children be like NADA! • Parents concerned about •Crime and Violence •Sexual Content Finding 2: Learning from TV Incidental Learning •Learning that takes place when a viewer goes to TV for entertainment and stores up certain items of information without seeking them •Peak time : 38 years old •Depends on child’s •Learning ability •Need at the moment •Attention span •Content Novelty; Thinking things are “real”; relating to character; usefulness of tv program Finding 3: Social Norms and Relationships High Print Low Print High TV High Users Fantasy Oriented Low TV Reality Oriented Low Users • Reality Oriented: Norms of Activity, selfbetterment, deferred gratification • Relationship of Social Status and TV Watching more COMPLEX! • When problems in social life • High social status, High IQ: TV watching went up • Low social status, Low IQ: TV watching went down • If child was aggressive: • Remembered/sought more violent TV content Finding 4: Effect on TV • What does TV bring to the child? • Schramm and Associates content analyzed 1 week of TV b/w 49 pm (pg. 25657); Mostly cartoons and crime 4 Effects • 1.Physical Effects • Nothing major to report • Sit too close to TV set, get bad eye sight (duuh!) • 2.Emotional Effects • Children frightened when 1.Characters they identified with were harmed 2.Especially when harm involved cutting or stepping into trap 3.Increased fear in dark room 4.Engaged in “thrill play” • 3.Cognitive Effects 1.Giving into fads 2.Adopting details that fit into an already existing interest. 3.Did not bring “highbrow” culture • 4.Behavioral Effects 1.Giving into fads 2.Adopting details that fit into an already existing interest. 3.Did not bring “highbrow” culture Concluding thoughts: 1.Looked into the perspective of What children do with TV NOT What TV does to children 2.Outside of Uses and Grat., used Selective Influence ØThese influences based on individual differences, social categories, and social relationships Milestones 12 – Agenda Setting 1. Shift of research from previous studies. What did they look into differently? • Previous research debunked that idea (ref: MBT) • However, MASS Media • Still a significant source of information • Selectively interest in certain issues 2. Study 1 Study 1: Objective: Is the hunch of media = agenda setting true? Study Set up: Compare What voters thought were the keys issues of presidential election TO Actual content of news media to which they were exposed (watch out for operational definition pg. 269) c. Sampling: N = 100 Selected in such a way to reflect Economic, Social, and Racial composition of community. More PURPOSIVE than SIMPLE RANDOM Results: HIGH POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP! R=.97! d. Definition of Agenda Setting Not telling audience WHAT to think about issues, BUT Issues to Think ABOUT By Giving Greater EMPHASIS to these Issues 3. Charlotte Study a. Why programmatic? one study should lead to another that pushes the frontiers beyond those revealed by the first. b. Objectives (5) Research Objectives: 1.Systematic Definition of Agenda Setting: Relationship between EMPHASIS on set of issues by the press AND SALIENCE assigned to those issues by the people 2. Information Sources : Just Media or People? 3. Sequencing over Time: What is important today (as told by media), will be important tomorrow? 4. Personality Characteristics: Who turns more to media for information? Are you more influenced by media than others? Will it affect your ACTUAL voting? How many young voters? 5. Politics and Agenda Setting: Positive or negative? c. Choice of sample/location Charlotte, NC. WHY? 1.Central to other metropolitans 2.Restricted #media channels, so better monitoring 3.Dynamic not stagnant city 4.Not Democrat, more Republican d. Design and Methodology Panel Design selected Find out effect of time on opinion of people Same people over time June>October Sampling Frame • More than 150,000 names and a computer program was used to select who was going to be in the study • Some people died, others moved away but the changes weren’t reflected in the voter registration record which prevented the researchers from developing a truly random sample of registered voters. Sample N = 380 Voters interviewed in June, 320 in October 24 Black Voters included Definition of Agenda Setting Awarenessinformationattitudebehavior sequence of mass media failed Researchers looked at mass media effect from publicopinion perspective. Holding opinions and knowledge about political issues= second hand reality Mass Media created this REALITY for us. Agenda Setting Hypothesis: Press has power to establish agenda of political issues which both the candidates and the voters come to regard as important. NUTSHELL Relationship between Media Presentations Of The News AND Personal Views of the Importance of these Issues e. Findings i.Gate Keepers/Keeping Understanding Gate Keeping/ Gate Keepers 1.Editors and news directors Decide Which ideas to PASS or REJECT The Importance/Value given to each idea Many factors influences Gatekeeper decisions • Background and values • Social norms and pressure • Economic considerations • Technical considerations ii Sources of information 1.News 2.Advertisements 3.Personal Discussions (Interpersonal Communication) iii.Time Order • Agenda Setting proposed to be a CAUSAL PROCESS • Exposure to Media’s Agenda à Change in personal views • BUT, correlation DID NOT EQUAL Causation • Conducted crosslegged correlation • Results showed that NEWSPAPERS and NOT TV had an • agenda setting causal effect. iv. Personal Characteristics Why do some voters attend to Media and others Don’t? 1.Need for Orientation Perceived Relevance of Voter Uncertainty about issues 2. Effort Required to Locate Reliable Source of Info. Media Not Passive Sources of Information • They • Select • Screen • Interpret • Emphasize • Distort flow of information Agenda Setting= turning point in study of Mass Comm. Went back to the basic question of Press <> Society Milestones 13 – New Media 1. What is new media? What distinguishes New media from traditional media is not the digitizing of media content into bits, but the dynamic life of the "new media" content and its interactive relationship with the media consumer. Another important promise of New Media is the "democratization" of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content. Thus, a highdefinition digital television broadcast of a film viewed on a digital plasma TV is still an example of traditional media, while an "analog" paper poster of a local rock band that contains a web address where fans can find information and digital music downloads is an example of New media communication. • Traditional Vs. New Traditional: •TV •Book/print •Radio New: •Website •Videogame •Phone apps • Medium Theory •Is a broad term for research that focuses on the effect of the media technology itself, rather than the effect of the content within the media • Thoughts of McLuhan •According to McLuhan, it was the media technologies themselves that led to change. • Global Village, etc •“global village” Communications technologies have, in effect, shorted the distances between people in different parts of the world, all over the globe. •McLuhan coined the term “global village” with reference to the “new media” of his day. When a medium is introduced into a society, humans are shaped cognitively by that new medium. The older function of the human is “amputated” and now it serves to function by interacting with the medium. •McLuhan had a positive outlook on the future. •He thought that the new media of his time (TV, radio) would create a GLOBAL VILLAGE. •TVs and radios are good for receiving information. •But TVs and radios are not good for transmitting or creating information. • Emergence of New Media •New media are: 1.Numerically represented 2.Modular 3.Automatic 4.Variable 5.Transcodable • Manovich Professor, The Graduate Center, City University of New York (CUNY) Director, Software Studies Initiative softwarestudies.com • Characteristics of New Media (5) Numerically represented Objects exist as data (numeric, not analog); programmable Modular Elements/objects are made of discrete structures that come together to form wholes (photoshop layers) Automatic (eg. Red Eye Removal, auto correct) Variable Several different versions of the same basic thing (hyperlinks) Transcodable Transcoded into different formats. Example: 3D Printing • Things NOT on Manovich’s List •Interactivity The extent to which a user is able to influence the form and content of a media environment • Types of Interactive Media A. Video games B. Internet C. MoviesOnDemand D. Interactive TV • Interactivity Pros and Cons PROS: 1. Humans like options that fit them personally 2. User involvement suggests suspense not lost 3. Younger, experienced, educated like new tech CONS: 1.Effort may extinguish relaxation 2.Too much choice is not always a good thing 3.Less educated people dislike new technology media (THIS MAY BE CHANGING AS CONTROLS GET BETTER)
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