Week 1-5 midterm prep
Week 1-5 midterm prep ANTH 171
Popular in Intro Monkeys & Apes >3
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Smargiassi on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 171 at University of Oregon taught by Ting N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intro Monkeys & Apes >3 in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Anthl7l Day 1 Introduction to primatology Anthropology is the study of humans with 4 subfields cultural biological archeology and linguistic Cultural Anthropology Looking at the culture of modern human and their behaviors Norms and behaviors of a society passed on by learning a fundamental human adaptation Linguistic Anthropology How language affects social life How does language affect our perception of reality Also focuses on origin and extinction of languages Archeology Study of material culture to understand the past Looks at architecture and objects Biological anthropology Study of human biology within evolutionary framework Primatology Study of non human primates to learn more about human primates Distribution and ecology diet social behaviors cognition locomotor behavior conservation evolutionary history Why study primates Louis Leakey is one of the founders of primatology He understood that in order to know about our ancestors we need to understand out closest living relatives He studied great apes chimpanzees Jane Goodall gorillas Dian Fossey orangutans Birute Galdikas Primatology requires Interpretation of fossils requires knowledge of closely related species Linking anatomy and behavior with ecology Comparing other species to see how we diverged Present and past species of primates are very diverse gt200 Learning objectives of this class What are primates What are the different types of primates What kind of variation do we see in the behavior and ecology of modern primates What do we know about extinct primates What dangers are facing the conservation of primates What is a human What separates us from other animals fe culture tools technology language symbolic thinking large brain size however these traits are present in other species but we do it to a different degree Course is designed as an introduction to primatology introduction to science and a gateway to more advanced sciences Class divided into 2 parts evolution classification and taxonomy primate behavior Quiz week 4 Primate ecology primate conservation Midterm week 6 Nov 3 Everything from day 1 Part 2 Survey of primate diversity Quiz lab practical Looking at bones and distinguishing features Thursday Dec 8 8 am Final Non cumulative Check canvas to print things for sections Biological anthropology is a scientific discipline use scientific method to produce What is science Collecting and cataloging observation and experimentation production of knowledge a way of knowing based on systematic search for eXplanations Scientific revolution Facts are determined by nature not by men or books Naturals laws can be discovered by proper methods Scientific method Observationgt questiongt background researchgt hypothesisgt eXperimentationgt interpret resultsgt reject or accept datagt develop theorygt report findings Hypothesis is a provisional eXplanation of a phenomenon Must be falsifiable DAY 2 lO115 Evolutionary Theory Keywords are in bold blue font Evolution is a theory It has been tested many times withstood repeated attempts at rejection and is formed from things that are known to be fact fe fossils and knowledge of anatomy of other animals Types of science Basic Science Concerned with the process of discovery and increases the knowledge base of a field Applied science Uses knowledge collected in basic science to solve specific problems EX The idea of plate tectonics is that plates on the earth s surface or crust move slowly and change the shape of continents basic science Why do some continents look like they fit together Why do we find the same fossil records in very distant continents Now applied science can be used to predict earthquakes and other plate movement Evolution A change in allele frequencies in a population over time 1 generation This is the simplest definition The cell Heu he reticulum ER mitoclheudrien Efpfmglasm cell membrane cjgtescul mlcmruburlee 1x manicf c mlreleie 39 lysceume 397 3 erexiscme 39 nucleus smeeth eudel lasmic nuc mlw chmmetin nuclear pure 39 1 nuclear e ue39lepe reticulum free rilhoseme cemlrrio le m U U y E r PL c Inside each nucleus in each cell is a genome which holds your entire DNA DNA is genetic code EX Protein hemoglobin The DNA in your cells clump into chromosomes Locus is the location of the gene on a chromosome Chromosomes work in pairs with 23 pairs Humans are diploid Allele for purple flowers Locus for Homologous flowercolor pair of gene chromosomes Allele for white flowers Gopyr lghh Pearson Educatlon Ino mollshlng as Benjamin Bummings Allele frequency the percentage of all the alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele in a population Population a community of interbreeding individuals Microevolution a change in allele frequency in a population over time from one generation to the next Forces of Evolution Mutation Force that creates new variation Natural selectionGenetic DriftGene ow Forces that reshuf e existing variation Mutation is a change in your DNA that may or may not manifest in a physical way If it is physical then it creates variation that others can act on Variation is necessary for evolution mutation is the only source of this variation Mutation is a slight or vast change in chromosomal arrangement EX Mclr gene mutation changed the fur color of rock pocket mice could be dark or light leading to a camou age on either a dark or light surface Depending on the environment the mice are more or less likely to survive and reproduce based on their fur color Natural selection When an animal has a favorable variation the likelihood of survival and reproduction Thus the favorable variation survives This is also referred to as differential reproduction or survival of the fittest Limited resources lead to competition and the environment can give an advantage to animals with a favorable variation Those without the favorable gene are less likely to survive and reproduce EX Giraffes with longer necks can get more food resources Those giraffes can survive more easily and pass on more genes The next generation will have longer necks Genetic drift Fluctuations in allele frequencies due to random factors typically as a result of small population Population bottleneck is a drastic reduction of population size causing a loss of alleles Founder effect is a small population that branches off of a larger population therefore new alleles are rarely mixed in Amish communities are an example Alleles survive for random reasons Gene ow Evolution in populations through genes from other populations An outsider mates with an insider This counteracts with genetic drift Anth 171 day 3 Keywords in bold blue font How do we organize the Natural world Phylogeny Evolutionary relationships often depicted by phylogenetic trees Shows relationship and the time scale of splitting between ancestors and the following evolution of the species Taxonomy theory behind naming and categorizing biological organisms modern taxonomy groups all living organisms in hierarchal categories EX Kingdom phylum class order family genus species largest encompassment down to most specific name Humans in kingdom animalia phylum chordate class mamalia order primates family homindae genus homo species sapiens Primate Taxonomy Chart T 00 large to post here but it is available on canvas under files and then labs How do we trace ancestry back millions of years Look at liVing animals and fossil groups try to identify features that related groups share Homology vs analogy Homologous similarities similarities due to ancestry Analogous similarities similarities due to common function Homology traits that are the same in different organisms because of a common ancestor EX tetrapods and armbones all have a structure starting from the top with 1 big bone humerus two bones ulna and radius little bones cluster of wristbones and then digits or fingers This is the structure in our own arms because we are tetrapods Analogy similar traits despite not having a common ancestor EX Bats and birds have similar bone structures and wings but they do not belong in the same order Different types of homology Primative refers to features that have not changed from the ancestral form Derived refers to feature modified from the ancestral reference point is required EX Among primates quadrupedalism is primitive and bipedalism is derived Tree shrews Model for ancestral primates Order primates and homologous features of the order primates Primitive body plan 5 digits clavicle 2 bones in forearm that rotate primitive Derived Horses for example only 1 digit that is very extended no clavicle Grasping hands and feet Opposable thumbs with exception to spider monkey Grasping feet with exception to humans Nails instead of claws for the most part Binocular vision Orbits or eyes on the front of face and visual fields to overlap and gain depth perception and teamwork between eyes Reduced reliance of olfaction Olfactory bulbs much smaller in primates smell not as important as vision Shorter rostrum and plate that separates orbitals from tempora fossa Generalized dentition More primitively designed not derived Reduced dentition Cut patterns primitive but number of teeth is derived Relatively large brains Primates have relatively larger brains compared to body size Relatively slow life history Longer gestation maturation age to reproduction and life span Results increase parental investment reliance on learned behaviors and greater sociality Anth 171 day 4 Keywords in bold blue font Refer to primate taxonomy Chart found on canvas anderfiles then labs Strepsirhines lemurs lorises and galagos Found in Africa and Asia Typically thought to be more primitive Haplorhines Tarsiers and Anthropoids Tarsiers are found in south east Asia more closely related to humans than lorises Anthropoids are monkeys and apes Anthropoids Platyrrhines found in central and south America New world monkeys Catarrhines old world monkeys found in Africa and Asia More closely related to humans than platyrrhines Catarrhines Hominoids and apes Gibbons found in SE Asia small apes Great Apes Orangutan genus pongo found in bomeo and Sumatra Gorillas genus gorilla found in west and east Africa Chimpanzees genus pan found in central and east Africa Bonobo also genus pan found in central Africa Why do primates live in groups Most mammals don t live in large social groups Primates are particularly known for being very social Sociality is an adaption Potential cost of being social Increased competition over resources Risk of disease transmission Conspicuousness to prey or predators Chance of being cuckholded increased Potential benefits of being social Foraging for food Cooperative hunting and cooperative defense of food patches EX In capuchin monkeys there is a relationship between group size and encounter success Predation avoidance if a predator attacks your group you have a better chance of surviving the larger the group sel sh herd effect if the herd is running around the predator may get confused confusion effect in larger groups and individual spends less time scanning for predators and can spend more time looking for food Vigilance effect cooperative defense Social benefits Learning is easier Finding a mate is easier Sharing information is easier Assistance in rearing offspring Division of labor Primate social systems are determined by Mating systems Social structure Philopatry and dispersal Social organization Mating systems M0n0g0m0us one male and one female Polygyn0us one male and multiple females Polyandr0us one female and multiple male Polygynandry multiple females and multiple males Social structure N0y0u 0r solitary foraging individuals are relatively solitary however are still social Males have a larger movement range than females Typical unit is female and offspring Males rarely know their offspring Pair bonded social group Typical unit is one male one female and their offspring Typically territorial however they do cheat on each other sometimes One female and multi male social group Typical unit is one adult female that reproduces with all the males One male multiple females and their offspring composition Bachelor males may reside together until they find a group to take over Multi female and multi male and their offspring Common around species that are active during the day Fissionfusion social structure seen in chimpanzees and bonobos Large social groups containing small parties that do their own thing but return to their groups Those small groups are not consistent Multi level society social groups one male units combine to make clans clans form into bands and bands get together to form troops Can get up to 400 or 500 individuals Social structure vs Mating system One describes who is in the group and the composition of it and the other describes who is having seX with who Evolution and Behavior Females invest more into offspring than males do Mothers under nutritional stress have high infant mortality Poor nutrition leads to later age at reproduction Poor nutrition leads to longer inter birth interval Probability of conception is tightly linked to food availability Females exert mate choice search for highest quality male increases their ability to reproduce Males invest verv little energv into parental care Sperm are numerous and inexpensive there is no gestation or lactation period and mail aid in rearing offspring is relatively rare Resource availability is not a limiting factor for male reproductive success Access to mate is more important to male fitness Intrasexual selection Male male competition to gain access to mates EX How do males compete Strength large canines Mate guarding or hanging around a female while she is cycling Infanticide killing offspring of a female so that she may start cycling again this is evolutionarily beneficial because the female now must mate with the more dominant male Sperm competition Energetic displays like colorful features this is indication of good genes and high fitness Intersexual selection Struggle by female to choose the right mate EX Female is much more likely to choose a mate if it is shown their offspring will survive One way they Choose a mate is based on strength ANTH 171 101315 Altruism Evolution by natural selection says that altruism shouldn t happen Individuals should behave selfishly in order to improve fitness Altruism is doing things that increase the fitness of others and perhaps in turn decreases your own fitness You are not the only person with your genes Family members and relatedness come into play with altruism Kin selection process of behaviors that increase the survivorship of relatives Your own indirect fitness is affected Animals should be more likely to help kin rather than non kin and more likely to help the Closer kin Inclusive fitness Direct fitness indirect fitness EX Bonnet macaques are more likely to form coalitions with individuals that are related to them Reciprocal Altruism Altruistic behaviors towards non kin expecting something in exchange Social Relationships Affiliation Grooming very important in primate societies promotes social bonds and reinforces dominance hierarchies Agonism Dominance A quality of a repeated agnostic dyadic interaction with a predictable outcome with the loser yielding to the winner so as to avoid escalation Looking for which shows dominate or subordinate behavior How does one acguire dominance Resource holding power Inherit from mother Coalition formation Size age tenure Redirected aggression If a dominant male goes after a subordinate they re direct aggression to a lower ranking individual Ritualistic behaviors Reconciliation and greetings EX Hugs putting fingers up each other s noses fondling genitals Primate lives females Female reproductive success is limited by resources Contest competition When a resource can be monopolized and defended and individuals will compete for it Scramble competition Whoever gets the resource first High competition between groups often leads to female philopatry Matrilocal societies Dominance hierarchies is common among females Often inherited from mothers Hierarchies are both between and within maternal lines Females form strong bonds with one another Support from kin is extrememly important for reproductive success Female dispersed societies Females leave natal groups and often do not live with much kin Do not form close relationships Dominance is present but weak and difficult to discern Unfamiliar females may be harassed before being allowed to join a group Female strategies Grooming of more dominant male Protective alliances to exert female choice Advertised receptivity estrus Synchronized estrus so males cannot monopolize all females Multiple partners increases choice and reduces infanticide if males don t know exactly who their offspring are Primate lives males Directly related to access to mate Competition shapes malemales relationships Multi male groups Dominance hierarchies Rank cofounded by cooperation and alliances Join forces to keep other males out Ritualistic behaviors used to reduce aggression Single male groups Males generally intolerant of one another Age graded groups may form where a dominant male may tolerate the presence of the more subordinate male but will not let him mate They may be kin Benefits in size and fighting off other males Males may form bachelor groups for predation avoidance and resources They may potentially be able to over through a dominant male This often results in infanticide Very high levels in competition Primate lives infants M0therinfant bond Physical contact is very important infant often clings on to mother s belly where it can access the nipple Allom0thering is common in some species Other females handle infants they are often related Offers mothering eXperience and offers fitness benefits to mother Father infant bond Small amounts in paternal investment maybe more in single male mating groups Mating effort Agn0stic buffering where a male may grab an infant to protect itself from an aggressive male Anth171 101515 Many videos were Shown during this Class Tools are pieces of equipment that are used to give advantage in accomplishing tasks EX Chimps and termite fishing Chimps modify twigs to stick them into the ground wait for the termites to start eating the wood and then eat the termites stuck to the stick Chimps also used stones as hammers and we can track this behavior very far back because them they bang 2 stones together akes are made and we can find out how old the akes are Chimps have been using stones to process foodstuff for 150 years Spears for hunting galagos or bush babies Chimps also create spears by biting on the end of a stick to sharpen it Then they jab it into a spot in a tree they believe a bush baby is living inside of Pull the stick out to smell it and then if there is the scent of the bush baby they will make further attempts to kill it and then get it out of the tree and eat it Experimental tool use and training chimps to make human like stone tools Kanzi a bonobo was thought through extensive methods to chip away at a rock to make a sharp stone to cut a rope and then get food Tool use in birds corbidae or crows Finches are known to use tools but crown can too Crows have been trained to use vending machines and use sticks to get food Culture Integrated system of learned behaviors that are specific characteristics to a population of and are not due to genetics EX Macaques one population of Japanese macaques were given sweet potatoes and one monkey washed them in salt water instead of fresh water and now the entire population of macaques do that simply because they like the taste Chimps and arm clasp groom Populations of chimps from different area use different ways of grooming each other s underarms The way chimps do it can help identify where the chimps are from Anth 171 102015 Key questions in bold blue font How sophisticated is primate cognition Can primate behavior be explained by simple associative learning N0 Can we tell what an animal is thinking Maybe Are there definitive answers in the field of animal cognition Depends not really Plavback experiments record vocalizations of individuals and plav it back to see how the animals react Vervet monkev alarm calls Major threats include eagles leopards and snakes When a threat is present they have vocalizations separate for each predator When alarm calls were played back for a snake the monkeys would look around on the frond for eagles they would look up and for leopards they looked around at the bushes They also recognize alarm calls of other species Vervet monkev distress calls Mothers recognize the calls of their own infants and react more strongly than to another infant When the group hears the infant distress calls they look at the mother rather than the infant This shows that they understand family and social relationships Recognizes the different vocal sounds of individuals in different groups that surround them and where those individuals are Baboons Societies are female bonded with dominance hierarchies Played back vocalizations that indicate rank changes responses indicated knowledge of each individual and kept good track of each individuals separate rank Redirected aggression remains within a matriline When aggression is redirected it will go back to a kin of the high ranking individual of which the aggression was originally directed The significance of this is that primates recognize individuals as well as relationships between those individuals and have sophisticated memory Not just simple associative learning Chimpanzees and spatial memory Can take short cuts rather than follow the same path Orangutan spatial memorv Least distance strategies Seasonal memory EX Chimpanzee numeral eXperiment Svmbolic Thinking and Language What is the non human capacity for symbols Kanzi and leXigrams Understands the symbol and can rearrange them to communicate what he wants He understands English he knows 3000 spoken words However cannot make conversation Problem solving and cooperation Chimp and peanut in a plastic tube used water to get the peanut to oat to the top of the tube Capuchin monkey and honey in a tube with plastic top Uses rock to make a knife to cut the top of a tube containing honey Honey is still hard to reach Uses branch to get honey Sequential tool use is special to primates When using chips to represent the tools the monkey demonstrated an understanding of symbols Capuchin monkeys with hazelnuts in tube with top One monkey cannot reach the tube but has the rock that is used to open it He gives the monkey that can reach the nuts in hopes that once it is open he will share They did share Knowledge of fair play and cooperation evident Chimps and nut under heavy stones When taught cooperation pulling the stones became cooperative Theory of mind Being able to induce the mental states of others 1st order I know that 2nd order I know that you know that 3 order I know that you know that I know Do non human primates have empathy Do they have a sense of fairness Mirror self recognition test Mark test proves sense of self necessary in order to have a sense of others Put mark on forehead and they look in the mirror and if they wipe it off they have a sense of self Known to pass Chimps orangutans gorillas elephants dolphins orcas and magpies Knower and guesser experiment Humans with a non human primate One person knows which cup has food and the other doesn t non human primate must choose which human to help them get the food Chimps repeatedly chose the knower and the macaques did not Role reversal test 2 animals need to perform different roles and cooperate to get food When roles are reversed if they can empathize they should get it right away Chimps can do this macaques cannot Chimps and responsibility for actions Chimps given a tray of food behind a cage they also have a lever to pull to know over the tray They begin to eat the food and then a second chimp on the other side of the tray and also behind a cage pulls the tray closer to him The first chimp pulls the lever to knock over the tray The same experiment is done except this time a human pushes the tray over to the second chimp The first chimp does not pull the lever This demonstrates an understanding of fairness and responsibility for actions Capuchin and grapes understanding of fairness 2 monkeys have to hand a rock to the reasercher and in return they get a treat First monkey gets a cucumber and the second gets a grape The first time this happens it is fine but the second and third time the monkey that gets the cucumber throws the cucumber at the researcher and asks for the grape Chimps and human like emotion Ill chimp infant mother touches forehead to test for fever When the mother looks at the baby it is clear she is concerned and emotional After infant s death she carries the infant around for weeks mourning or even in denial of infant s death much like humans Anth 171 102215 Keywords in bold blue font Ecology First coined by Haeckel in 1866 The relationship between and organism and its environment is very important Population group of interbreeding individuals Community All species in the area Ecosystem abiotic and biotic components and all their interactions Biome group of natural ecosystems that are ecologically similar Tropics are areas that we find non human primates These are areas close to the equator Some species are found in the subtropics which lie just outside the tropics of Capricorn and the tropics of cancer Forests are terrestrial ecosystems that are dominated by trees that are typically 10 meters tall whose crowns form a continuous canopy except for small gaps from tree fall Rainforests are categorized by high rainfall Not all rainforests are in the tropics and not all forests in the tropics are rainforests Tropical forests are not homogenous There is large variance in rainfall distribution altitude variation soil variation disturbance variations humans or elephants or storms for example and history of the earth causes variance These things lead to many different species of trees EX Primary forest Undisturbed or old growth forests with continuous canopies and sunlight competition Very dark and not much can grow without the sunlight Secondary forest Regenerated or disturbed forest Canopy is not complete and there is more undergrowth because sunlight can get through Altitude Lowland less than 750 500 meters Submontane up to 1500 meters Montane 1500 2500 meters Types of habitats we find non human primates Gallery forests surround a water source Woodland habitats are found surrounding forested areas less rainfall and higher seasonality not much canopy present Savannas nearly have no canopy with shrubs and only a few primate species Montane grasslands Competitive exclusion No two species can occupy an identical niche competition will eliminate one species through either behavioral Change or extinction Niche is a sum of habitat requirements that allow a species to persist Primates are typically found in different layers of the trees Emergent canopy understory immature and herb layer Each layer has different Challenges like solar stress in the emergent layer or higher rate of predators on the ground layers Primates also make partitions through activity patterns like nocturnal diurnal crepuscular cathermeral Diurnal primates use more sight than olfaction increased predator vulnerability increased heat stress visual communication Nocturnal primates are more hidden from primates increased olfactory use and less sociality Primates make partitions through diet as well Diets require Meeting energy requirements Provide specific organisms Nutrients needed are Carbs protein and fat for energy Minerals for cellular function Vitamins Water Primates generally eat Fruits Leaves Insects Small vertebrates Seeds Nectar Grass blades Roots Insectivores insects are a high quality food source that provide energy and amino acids Frugivore food provides calories but not much protein also is unequally distributed in time and space and creates social issues Folivores leaves are abundant but low in caloric value and sometimes difficult to digest folivores need adaptations that break down leaves Mature leaves have lower protein content young leaves are preferred Gumivore tree gum is high in calories and carbs but low in protein adaptation to gouge bark is necessary Granivore high in energy but special adaptions are necessary to break outer coating otherwise they will pass the GI track Folivores are good for seed dispersal for this reason Foraging Strategies require minimum eXpenditure of body movement and maXimum intake of energy Food is distributed unevenly in both space and time this affects various aspects of primate behavior Fall back foods are important Food ties back to primate sociality Primate locomotion creates partition as well Vertical clinging and leaping Cling to vertical support and use hind legs to go from one vertical support to another Common in strepshirines Aboreal and terrestrial quadrueadalism Walking on all fours Aboreal quadropedles show climbing and leaping as well Aboreal quadropealism shows slow climbing as well never leaping one foot always grasping a branch Suspension Suspension using arms gibbons Quadrumanous climbing orangutans use legs as well to suspend Knuckle walking Found with chimps and gorillas Adapted in many ways to be suspensory but since are so big they spend so much time on the ground they are considered quadrapedalism Walk on second knuckles Bipedalism Walking on 2 legs Anth171 102715 Keywords in bold blue font Primate Adaptation Sexual Selection male male competition and female choice in previous lecture Leads to sexual dimorphism which is the difference between males and females These differences are mainly expressed in body and canine size Correlates with a degree of male male competition EX Body size dimorphism and mate competition Gibbons are monogamous body size is similar between males and females and there is a lack of male male competition Gorillas are larger than females and live in a society with high levels in male male competition We can look within the fossil record to recognize sexual dimorphism and infer on their types of societies Sperm competition producing higher amounts of sperm which leads to greater chance of reproduction and testicle size also adds to dominance In multi male societies individuals have very large testicles but in single male societies they don t Allometry The study of the relationship between size to shape anatomy and physiology and behavior Size will affect morphology and behavior physiology and life history Size and Scaling Engineering You cannot double the size without exponentially increasing the volume Because of higher mass bones will need to be much larger and shaped differently for support Size and Scaling Ecology Body size effects locomotion Orangutans for example are suspensory but must distribute their weight to many branches unlike smaller suspensory primates Arboreal biomechanics The larger you are the harder it is to balance on the trees Primates have adapted to have grasping hands and feet hang upside down or decrease body size Physiology Kleiber s Law R a M34 R metabolism Mbodymass Basal metabolic rate energy use at rest minimum to sustain life EX Cat has lOOX the mass of a mouse but only eats 32X more J arman Bell principal chart lawman Bell Principle Wuhllcmmgy Ehcr upcrum uf requiresmil Indiawaight L Small 2 55339 abundant funding Pmr wimp funds Email Small Large animal Emu qudh hfglm quality fan sj Large animals need more total food but less per unit of mass High energy foods tend to be rare low quality food is common Large animals tend to eat more low quality food ex leaves while smaller animals use time to find high quality food ex insects Diets and Dentition Animals are adapted to eat certain foods and you can see this re ected in their dentition Insectivores Smaller bodies Smaller digestive tracks Sharp pointy molar cusps Folivores Small incisors and developed molar cusps Larger body size Large and compleX digestive tract Frugivores Larger rounded molars Large incisors Long small intestine Supplement diet with either insects or leaves Color Vision Trichromatic Dichromatic Monochromatic Brain size Is in scale with body size and more compleX neurological systems which results in grooves Brain size and social brain hypothesis neocorteX size is not related to ecological factors but very closely related to social factors Intermembral index IMI Arm lengtl leg length X 100 IMI lt 100 means legs are longer than arms Bipedalism vertical clinging and leaping IMI gt 100 means arms longer than legs Suspensory behavior IMI 100 Arboreal quadrapedalism or terrestrial quadrapedalism ThoraX shape and shoulder blade location are indications of locomotion as well Anth 171 102915 Keywords in bold blue font Conservation biologv Primate susceptibility Large body size Slow reproductive rate Group size and sociality Dietary specializations Major threats to primates Habitat alteration Largest long term threat to non human primates Forests lost through agriculture harvesting fuel wood and logging Outcomes include forest loss and fragmentation Non human primates are isolated into these smaller forests Without the migration loss of resources and possible mates messes with gene flow and population size Interbreeding depression can begin and will lead to a loss of genetic diversity and in turn a loss of fitness Forest loss is huge on the only 2 places orangutans are found Borneo and Sumatra Habitat alteration leads to a loss of biodiversity loss of timber resources contribution to the greenhouse effect reduce local rainfall Hunting Major threat to non human primates A population can be destroyed before the forest does Humans hunt for food subsistence and money Monkey hunting is a global market Effects of hunting are extinction There are cases of extinction as recent as fifty years Hunters will take the full grown mother for the food trade and use the infant for the pet trade Pet trade Disease Monkeys began dying of human respiratory viruses in the 90 s Monkeys are susceptible to human disease because of their close genetic relation to us Ebola HIV How to do conservation Species based approach which species are in need Area based approach which eco regions are in need Strategies Protected areas Idea of excluding people from nature like national parks Community based conservation Involves livelihood of local people This method put the lives of the wildlife above others An example of ecotourism is people paying money to see gorillas and the money for that going back to the community Captive Breeding Captive breeding is like zoos Ideally the individuals can be rereleased into the wild Plays a large role in conservation education
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