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by: Anointyd Collins

7-10StudyGuide.pdf BIOL 1040

Anointyd Collins
Intro to Biology
Tamera Wales

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Intro to Biology
Tamera Wales
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anointyd Collins on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Tamera Wales in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
DNA Genetics DNA molecule of heredity passed from offspring to parents Chromosome Large DNA molecule wrapped around proteins Located in the nucleus Nucleotide building blocks of DNA Sugar Phosphate and a Base A s C s G s T s Double HeliX Spiral structure of DNA Two strands of nucleotides DNA Profile Visual representation of a person s unique DNA sequence DNA Replication natural process by which cells make an identical copy of a DNA molecule Complimentary two DNA strands paired together A s with T s G s with C s DNA Polymerase helps add complementary nucleotides to form a new strand during DNA replication SemiConservation each newly DNA molecule has one original and one new strand of DNA PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction A technique used to replicate a speci c DNA segment Genome Complete set of genetic instructions encoded in the DNA of an organism Gene sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein Gene Expression Process of using DNA instructions to make proteins Alleles Alternative versions of the same gene that different nucleotide sequences Transgenic An organism that carries one or more genes from a different species Regulatory Sequence Part of a gene that determines that timing amount and location of protein production Coding Sequence Part of a gene that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein determine the identity shape and function of proteins Genetic Engineering process of assembling genes with a combination of regulatory and coding sequences Recombinant Gene genetically engineered gene GMO organism that has been genetically altered by humans Gene Therapy treatment that aims to cure human disease by replacing defective genes with functional ones Transcription DNA gt mRNA carried out by RNA polymerase Translation occurs in the ribosome and uses mRNA to assemble the appropriate amino acid sequence of the protein 1 New mRNA associates with a ribosome 2 The ribosome moves along the mRNA Which it reads in codons Each codon speci es an amino acid Which is brought to the ribosome by tRNA transfer RNA The tRNA is used to nd the matching mRNA codon 3 When the correct tRNA is in place the speci ed amino acid is added to the chain and the ribosome moves on to the next codon 4 The nish amino acid chain detaches from the ribosome and folds into its three dimensional shape mRNAs may be translated several times and tRNA may pick up another amino acid for reuse in translation Ribosome The cellular machinery that assembles proteins during translation Codon sequence of 3 mRNA nucleotides that represents an amino acid Anticodon part of a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary codon Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes in their cells gt one set inherited from the mother and one from the father CANCER Cancer a disease of unregulated cell division cells divide inappropriately and accumulate sometimes forming a tumor Tumor mass of cells Metastasis Spread of cancer cells from one location in the body to another Radiation Therapy use of ionizing radiation to treat cancer Chemotherapy Treatment for cancer by the use of chemicals Cell Division process Where the cell divides itself important for normal growth development and repair of an organism Cell Cycle ordered sequence that a cell goes through in order to divide during its life stages gt Preparatory phases Embryonic Development Cell Replacement Wound Healing Division phases mitosiscytokinesis Mitosis segregation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division Sister Chromatids 2 identical DNA molecules that make up a duplicated chromosome following DNA replication Mitotic Spindle Separates sister chromatids during mitosis Mutation change in nucleotide sequence of DNA Mutagen any chemical or physical agent that can damage DNA by changing its nucleotide sequence Carcinogen chemical agent that causes cancer by damaging DNA Protooncogene a gene that codes for protein that helps cells divide normally Tumor Suppressor Gene gene that codes for proteins that monitor and check cell cycle progression When these gametes mutate tumor suppressor proteins lose normal function GermLine Mutation mutation occurring in gametes passed on to offspring Oncogene mutated and overactive form of protooncogene drive cells to divide continually Somatic Mutation occurs in a body non gamete cell not passed on the offspring Cell Cycle Checkpoint ensures that each stage of the cell cycle in completing correctly Apoptosis a programmed cell death cellular suicide performed in cell is not operating correctly


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