NHM 101- Exam 3 Study Guide
NHM 101- Exam 3 Study Guide NHM 101
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NHM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Libo Tan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
The exam will cover Chapter 8 Energy Balance and Body Composition Chapter 10 and 11 Vitamins and Chapter 12 Water and the Maj or Minerals Chapter 8 1 Components of total energy expenditure a Energy for Basal Metabolism b Energy for Physical Activity c Thermic Effect of food 2 Factors that affect basal metabolism rate BMR a Age b Height c Rate of growth d Body comp e Gender f Fever g Stress h Environmental temperature i Fastingstarvation j Hormones k Smoking 1 Caffeine a Sleep 3 Body mass index BMI and body fat recommendations a BMI a measure of a person s weight relative to their height i BMI weight kgheight m2 1 Conversion divide by 22 for wt divide by 3937 for ht b Recommendations i BMI under 185 underweight ii BMI of 18525 healthy weight iii BMI of 2530 overweight iv BMI over 30 obese 4 Waist circumference recommendations a Women i Over 35 inches Greater risk of chronic diseases b Men i Over 40 inches Greater risk of chronic diseases 5 Visceral fat vs Subcutaneous fat Implications of body shape a Visceral fat stored around the organs of the abdomen i Central obesity ii Upperbody fat apple body shape iii Chronic diseases iv More common in men b Subcutaneous fat around the hips and thighs i Lowerbody fat pear shape ii More common in women Chapter 10 and 11 1 Characteristics in general of vitamins a Vita life Aminnitrogen containing group the first vitamins discovered contained nitrogen b Differ from macronutrients i Functions 1 DO NOT provide energy but do assist with the energy release process ii Food contents and Body requirements 1 Milligrams and micrograms vs grams c Similarities to macronutrients i Vital to life ii Can be obtained from foods iii Organic nutrients contain carbon 2 Differences between fatsoluble and water soluble vitamins a Water Soluble Vitamins B Vitamins and Vitamin C i Most travel freely in the body ii Go directly to bloodstream when absorbed iii Kidneys identify excess which are removed in urine b Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamins A D E K i Require a transport protein ii Go to lymph system rst when absorbed and then to blood stream iii Stored in fatty tissues and liver so are not readily excreted 3 Know basic functions of all vitamins a Involved in energy metabolism assist energy release i Thiamin vitamin B 1 ii Ribo avin vitamin B2 iii Niacin vitamin B3 iv Biotin v Pantothenic Acid vi Vitamin B6 b Helps cells to multiply i Folate ii Vitamin B12 4 Know RDA AI and UL for vitamins that are underlined in the outline of vitamins a Vitamin B6 i RDA 13 mgday b Folate i RDA 400 mcgday c Vitamin B12 i RDA 24 mcgday d VitaminC i RDA for men 90 mgday ii RDA for women 75 mgday iii Smokers 35 mgday iv UL 2000 mgday e Vitamin D i RDA 15 mcgday ii RDA 20 mcgday if over 70 yo iii UL 20 mcgday f Vitamin E i RDA 15 mgday 5 Know maior food sources of all vitamins a Thiamin i Wholeenriched grains pork products Ribo avin i Milk products whole enriched grains green leafy vegetables Niacin B3 i Meat poultry sh enriched Whole grains legumes vegetables Biotin i Liver soybeans egg yolks Pantothenic Acid i Meat poultry liver egg yolks grains vegetables B6 pyridoxine i Meat poultry sh soy legumes noncitrus fruits vegetables Folate i Legumes fruits dark green leafy vegetables forti ed grains 1312 i Milk sh ii almost exclusively in animal food Vitamin C i Fruits vegetables 6 Know de ciencytoxicity diseases related with each vitamin a Thiamin i Beriberi disease b Ribo avin i In ammation of mouth skin eyes GI tract c Niacin i Pellagra 1 Four D s diarrhea dermatitis dementia death ii Toxicity large dose of niacin from supplements d Biotin i De ciency unlikely depression lethargy hair loss e Pantothenic Acid i De ciency unlikely fatigue GI distress neurological disturbances f B6 Pyridoxine i Depression and confusion ii Cancers CVD g Folate i Megaloblastic anemia l 2 3 Folate is important for rapidly dividing RBCs Inadequate folate impairs cell division of RBCs This leads to continuing cell growth without division large fragile RBCs decreased number of RBCs ii spinal bif1da l 2 h B12 Folate is important for rapidly dividing embryo neural tube Inadequate folate during pregnancy leads to a group of birth defects called neural tube defects Folate supplements taken 1 month before conception and continued throughout the first trimester of pregnancy help prevent Folate supplementation in any woman of childbearing age i Vegans and older adults at risk ii Megaloblastic anemia and impaired cognition i Vitamin C i Scurvy 99 9 Bleeding gums Pinpoint hemorrhages Muscles degenerate Skin rashes Wounds fail to heal Teeth fall out due to weakening cartilage Chapter 12 Water 1 Functions of body water Carries nutrients and waste products b Participates in metabolic reactions c Acts as lubricant and cushion for joints eyes spinal cord and the amniotic sac in pregnancy d Aids in regulation of body temperature e Maintains blood volume 2 Intracellular uids and Extracellular uids a Intracellular i Fluid within the cells ii High in potassium and phosphate iii Twothirds of the body s water b Extracellular i Fluid outside of cells ii Interstitial uid is high in sodium and chloride iii Onethird of the body s water 3 Water recommendations a Vary depending upon diet activity level environmental temperature and humidity b AI for total water includes food i Men 37 Lday 16 cups ii Women 27 Lday 12 cups c Average intake for adults is 3L 12l3 cups d Any beverage uid is good for hydration purposes i Must think about weight management as well 4 Primary electrolytes cations amp anions in intracellular uids and extracellular uids a Electrolytessalts that dissolve in water and break apart into charged particles called ions i Cations are positively charged ii Anions are negatively charged iii EX NaCl separates into Na and Cl39 b Anion and cation concentrations are always balanced c Electrolytes attract water i Major minerals When electrolytes move across the cell membrane water follows 1 Characteristics in general of Minerals Inorganic elements a b Contain no carbon c Cannot be changed Pd Cannot be destroyed by heat air acid or mixing e Maj or minerals mineral present in the human body in quantities gt 5 g i ii iii iV V Vi Vii Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Sodium Chloride Magnesium f Trace minerals mineral present in the human body in quantities lt 5 g i ii iii iV V Vi Iron Zinc Copper Manganese Iodine Selenium 2 Know basic functions RDA AI and UL major food sources and deficiencytoxicity diseases of all major minerals Focus on Sodium Potassium and Calcium a Maintain uid and electrolyte balance i Sodium chloride potassium b Bone growth and health i Calcium phosphorus magnesium c Sodium i Functions 1 Primary cation in extracellular uid 2 Responsible for maintaining uid balance 3 Involved in nerve transmission and muscle contractions ii Recommendations 1 A1 for 1950yo 1500 mgday 2 UL for adults 2300 mgday 3 Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommend no more than 1500 mg Na for older adults and those who already have htn 4 Average intake is 3400 mgday iii Food Sources 1 Processed foods table salts some naturally occurring a 75 of salt in diets comes from salt added to foods from manufacturers b 15 salt added to foods during cooking and at the table c 10 naturally occurs in foods iv De ciency Toxicity 1 De ciency is rare a Blood sodium may drop with vomiting diarrhea or heavy sweating b Symptoms are muscle cramps and c confusion 2 Toxicity is common a Causes edema and high blood pressure d Potassium i Functions 1 Main intracellular cation 2 Maintains uid and electrolyte balance 3 Potassium and hypertension a Low potassium diets high sodium raise blood pressure b High potassium diet low sodium prevent and correct hypertension c DASH diet ii Recommendations 1 AI adults 4700 mgday iii Food Sources 1 Fruits vegetables iv De ciency Toxicity 1 De ciency a High blood pressure b Salt sensitivity c Kidney stones 2 Toxicity a Overconsumption of potassium supplements b Kidneys accelerate excretion e Calcium i Functions 1 Most abundant mineral in the body a 99 Bone and teeth b An integral part of bone structure 2 Serves as a calcium bank offering a readily available source of calcium to blood when blood calcium drops a Blood calcium should almost always be normal b Bones are continuously gaining and losing minerals 3 1 Body uids a Maintain normal blood pressure b Muscle contractions c Nerve impulse transmission ii Recommendations 1 RDA for adults and older men 5170 1000 mgday 2 RDA for men over 70 1200 mgday RDA for women over 50 1200 mgday RDA for adolescents 1300 mgday UL 2500 mgday 955 6 Calcium intakes too low iii Food Sources 1 Milk and milk products 2 Vegetables greens broccoli spinach 3 Tofu 4 Almonds iV De ciency Toxicity 1 Limits peak bone mass or weakens bones a Peak bone mass is reached by 30 yo b Bone loss typically begins between 3040 c Excess bone loss can cause fractures due to osteopenia or osteoporosis d Osteoporosis is a silent disease e Important to measure bone density An outline of vitamins is uploaded to Blackboard in the Study Guides folder to help you with the vitamins session Vitamins 339 Thiamin Vitamin B1 gt Function I Part of Coenzyme TPP I Assists with energy metabolism I Participates in conversion of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA gt RDA I RDA Men 12 mgd I RDA Women 11 mgd I Most Americans meet or exceed gt Upper Limit I No upper limit gt Food Sources I Grains I Pork products gt De ciency gt I Beriberi damage to nervous system heart and muscle weakness I Alcohol impairs thiamin absorption and enhances excretion Toxicity I None noted Ribo avin Vitamin B2 gt Function I Part of coenzyme FAD I FAD can accept and carry Hydrogen ions and electrons I Assist with energy metabolism RDA I RDA Men 13 mgday I RDA Women 11 mgday I Most Americans meet or exceed Upper Limit I None Food sources I Milk and milk products I Grains I Green leafy vegetables De ciency I Causes in ammation of mouth eyes skin and GI tract Toxicity I None noted Niacin Vitamin B3 gt Function I Part of coenzyme NAD I FAD can accept and carry Hydrogen ions and electrons I Participation in macronutrients energy metabolism I Protects neurological degeneration RDA I RDA for men 16 mg NEday I RDA for women 14 mg NEday Upper Limit I 35 mgday Food sources I Meat poultry sh I Grains I Legumes I Vegetables mushroom potatoes and tomatoes De ciency I Pellagra Four D s diarrhea dermatitis dementia death Toxicity I Niacin Flush Dilates capillaries and causes a tingling sensation 339 Biotin gt Function I Metabolismas a coenzyme in gluconeogenesis fatty acid synthesis and breakdown of amino acids and fatty acids I Protects neurological degeneration gt A1 I AI 30 mcgday gt Upper Limit I No UL gt Food sources I Grains I Soybeans I Egg yolks gt De ciency I De ciency unlikely I High consumption of raw egg whites 2 dozen or more per day may cause de ciency I Symptoms of de ciency depression lethargy red scaly rash hair loss gt Toxicity I None noted 339 Pantothenic Acid gt Function I Part of Coenzyme A used in energy metabolism gt A1 I AI 5 mgday gt Upper Limit I No UL gt Food sources I Meat poultry liver egg yolk I Grains I Vegetables potatoes tomatoes broccoli gt De ciency I De ciency is rare I Symptoms include Fatigue GI distress Neurological disturbances gt Toxicity I None noted v Vitamin B6 gt Function I Coenzyme involved in amino acid metabolism I Synthesis of neurotransmitters from amino acids gt M I RDA 13 mgdav gt Upper Limit I UL 100 mgday gt Food sources I Meat poultry sh I Soy products I Forti ed cereals I Legumes I Noncitrus fruits I Vegetables potatoes and other starchy vegetables gt De ciency I Results in diminished synthesis of key neurotransmitters and accumulation of abnormal compounds in the brain I Symptoms depression and confusion I Low levels associated with cancers and CVD gt Toxicity I None noted Folate Folic Acid or Folacin gt Function I Coenzyme involved in metabolism Helps with conversion of Vit B 12 to a coenzyme form Helps with synthesis of DNA for rapidly dividing cells I Adequate consumption is key during pregnancy gt M I RDA 400 mcgday gt Upper Limit I UL 1000 mcgday gt Food sources I Legumes I Fruits I Vegetables dark green leafy vegetables I Forti ed Grain Products gt De ciency I Symptoms of de ciency Megaloblastic Anemia Neural tube defects I Brain and spinal cord develop from the neural tube Spina bi da Folate supplementation in any woman of childbearing age Vitamin B12 gt Function I Closely related to folate as each depends on the other for activation gt M I RDA 24 mcgdav gt Upper Limit I None listed gt Food sources I Milk I Fish I Other animalderived foods I Forti ed grains or soy products for vegans gt De ciency I Symptoms Megaloblastic Anemia and impairs cognition gt Toxicity I None noted v Vitamin C gt Function I Antioxidant substance that signi cantly decreases the adverse effects of free radicals by donating an electron or two Free radicals are an unstable molecule I Protects tissues from oxidative stress I Serves as a cofactor to form collagen I Enhances iron absorption in the small intestine I Some studies show no bene t to preventing common cold gt M I RDA for men 90 mgday I RDA for women 75 mgday I Smokers 35 mgdav gt Upper Limit I UL 2000 mgday gt Food sources I Fruits citrus fruits strawberries I Vegetables broccoli gt De ciency I Scurvy Symptoms 9 Bleeding gums O Pinpoint hemmorhages 9 Muscles degenerate 9 Wounds fail to heal 9 Teeth fall out due to weakening cartilage gt Toxicity I GI distress I Diarrhea 0 v Vitamin A gt Function I Vision Conversion of light energy into nerve impulses at the retina I Regulate protein synthesis and cell differentiation I Maintain the health of epithelial cells protects skin from sun damage I Support reproduction and regulate growth Participates in sperm development Supports fetal growth I Beta carotene acts as an antioxidant gt RDA I RDA for men 900 mcgday I RDA for women 700 mcgday gt Upper Limit I UL 3000 mcgday gt Food sources I Milk and milk products 39 Eggs I Liver I Beta carotene Dark green leafy vegetables Deep orange fruits and vegetables 9 Apricots and cantaloupe 9 Squash carrots sweet potatoes and pumpkin gt Deficiency I Uncommon in the US I Maj or nutrition problem in developing countries 250 million children have vitamin A deficiency l2 become blind every year I Night blindness is one of the first detectable signs Individuals lose the ability to see after dark I Total blindness Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world gt Toxicity I Typically only happens with high doses from supplements I Beta carotene causes yellowing of the skin but is not harmful I Cause birth defects by causing abnormal cell death in the spinal cord Vitamin D gt Two forms I Vitamin D2 primarily from plants foods I Vitamin D3 Primarily from animal foods and synthesized in the skin UV rays from the sun hit a precursor in the skin and convert it to Vitamin D3 with the help of the body s heat gt Function I Hormone Calcium homeostasis Bone health May protect against in ammation hypertension and some cancers gt M I RDA 15 mcgday I RDA 20 mcgday if over 70 yo gt Upper Limit I UL 20 mcgday gt Food sources I Forti ed milk I Margarine and butter I Beef and liver I Fatty sh herring salmon and sardines I Egg yolks gt De ciency I 10 of the US population is de cient and 25 are marginally de cient I A Vitamin D de ciency creates a calcium de ciency Calcium would not be absorbed in the GI tract without Vitamin D I Factors that contribute to de ciency include Dark skin Breastfeeding without supplementation Lack of sunlight Not using forti ed milk I Adults Osteopenia Osteoporosis I Older adults Common in the elderly Older adults typically drink less milk Spend a lot of time inside I Children and adolescents Adolescents Vitamin D de cient adolescent do not reach peak bone mass Children 9 Rickets Inadequate bone mineralization that causes bowed legs 9 Not common in US but common worldwide O AAP recommends supplementation for all children who do not receive enough Vitamin D gt Toxicity I Raises the concentration of blood calcium I High amounts of blood calcium can cause kidney stones 339 Vitamin E gt Function I Antioxidant to defend against the adverse effects of free radicals I Thus may reduce the risk of heart disease M I RDA 15 mgday Upper Limit I 1000 mgday Food sources I Vegetable oils I Margarine and salad dressings Def1ciency I Rare I Causes neuromuscular dysfunction Toxicity I May interfere with blood clotting action of Vitamin K Vitamin K gt Function I Primary function is blood clotting I Synthesis of bone proteins I Bacteria in the GI tract synthesize vitamin K RDA I RDA Men 120 mcgday I RDA Women 90 mcgday Upper Limit I No UL Food sources I Liver I Dark green leafy vegetables I Vegetable oils Def1ciency I Problems with fat absorption may cause deficiency I Antibiotics kill the bacteria in the intestine I Newborns are born with a sterile GI tract and thus their body cannot make vitamin K Given a single dose at birth to prevent VK deficiency and excessive bleeding Toxicity I Not common I High doses can work against Coumadin an anticoagulant drug
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