Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide PSYCH 85
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Hawes on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 85 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Kellman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cognitive Science in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Psych 85 Introduction to Cognitive Science Study Questions PHILOSOPHICAL amp HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS I Consciousness the Mind Body problem Minds and Machines Palmer Ch 1 MindbodV Droblem 1 What is the mindbody problem a Wheat is the relation between mental events 6 g perceptions pains hopes desires etc and phsycial evetns brain activity 2 What is the problem of other minds a The problem of other minds is how to determine whether another being outside of one s self has conscious experience 3 Distinguish between dualism monism behaviorism functionalism amp supervenience 4 Dualism a What was Rene Descartes dualism theory i The mind and body are two separate substances What is the nature of mental substances b What were the criticisms of it i How do the two substances interact if one is physical and the other is non physical c Distinguish between substance vs property dualism i Substance dualism believes that the mind and body are two different substances but property dualism believes that there is only one substance the physical that gives rise to the non physical thoughts and feeling we experiences 1 What are subjective phenomena Objective phenomena 1 Subjective phenomena cannot be observed except by the person having them 2 Objective observable by everyone 6 What is intentionality i Experiences are intentional if they refer to things other than themselves f What are emergent properties i This goes along with property dualism Once the brain physical becomes complex enough and structured in a specific way it can give way to nonphysical mental properties g What is interactionism 5 6 i The claim that the brain and mind both in uence each other h What is epiphenomenalism i The claim that mental states are different from physical brain states but that the mental states make no impact on the physical brain states however the physical brain states do have an effect on the mental states Think of mental states as side effects of neural causes i How do the mind and body interact according to interactionism amp epiphenomenalism i Monism Refer my previous statement a What is monism i The idea that there is only one substance b What is idealism i They believe that the one substance is mental c What is materialism ii i ii 1 They believe that the one substance is physical What is reductive materialism 1 The idea that mental events will ultimately be reduced to material events What is the mindbrain identity theory 1 All mental events can be explained by physical events What is another name for it 1 Psychophysical identity theory DK Lewis a What are its problems i It does not take into subjective mental events b What is eliminative materialism What are its problems i ii Behaviorism The idea that at least some of our current concepts concerning mental states and events will eventually be eliminated from scientific vocabulary because they will be found to be simply invalid Problems you can explain away mental events since they are held subjectively Even if you can scientifically explain how they happen objectively you can t take away the subjective experience of mental events c How does behaviorism approach the mindbody problem if at all i Objective behaviors are the only measurable quantifiable aspects of the physical word What it means to have a mental state is simply a behavior not a neurophysiological explanation d Why did it fail 1 Inability to enumerate all conditionals For example someone might be hungry and given a plate of appetizing food and yet refuses to eat it This might be because the person did not see the food or is fasting 2 Inability to eliminate mental entities For example whether for not someone intends to fast introduces the mental state of intention into the supposedly behavioral definition This intention is unacceptable to a strict theoretical behaviorist 7 Functionalism e What would functionalism say about a computer having a mind i They would say that a computer has a mind since many different physical devices can serve the same function given that they are causally connect inputs and outputs in the same way via internal states f What is it an argument against How i The question is would the computer have mental states or have the appearance of having mental states Take for example the Searle s Chinese room the computer can compute information at a very fast speed but does it understand the information it is computing like a human would g What is multiple realizability i many different physical devices can serve the same function given that they are causally connect inputs and outputs in the same way via internal states 8 Supervenience h What is this i Any difference in conscious events requires some corresponding differences in underlying neural activity Mental events supervene on neural events because no two possible situations can be identical with respect to the neural properties while differing in their mental properties The problem of other minds 9 What is the problem of other minds a How can I know if someone or something else is conscious b Why is it still a problem i Because there is no way to experience the same consciousness as another being 10 Explain the inverted spectrum argument a My color experience is the same as yours except that my color spectrum is inverted but we still identify all the same colors 11 What is the claim a How can I know if my experience of color is the same as yours b What is it arguing against How 12 13 14 15 16 17 i The argument against is that if one person s color spectrum was inverted they could still identify which colors would be darker or lighter and thus the spectrum differences would be detected What are the criteria for consciousness what reasoning do we have to believe that people have experiences similar to our own a Behavioral when I cut my arm open and you cut your arm open we both scream in pain thus we have similar consciousness b Physical Similar in the basic biological and physical structure c Phenomenological this is the nesseary and sufficient conditions for consciousness because it first person knowledge How can we use Turing s test to examine behavioral criteria for consciousness a If the computer behaves in an intelegent manner enough to fool another intelegent being human then the computer fulfills the behavioral criteria for consciousness What are some problems with behavioral criteria as a sufficient condition for consciousness As a necessary condition a The problem is that behavioral criteria as a sufficient condition does not show us the inside or conscious part of a being Something might just be acting consciously but not actually be conscious Why can t biology give us an objective definition of consciousness independent of its subjective definition a We need the subjective definition to determine what physiological events correspond to consciousness in the first place We would have no way of telling which brain events were conscious and which were not even if we had a perfect biological map of the brain What is the difference between correlational and causal statements about consciousness a The difference is that one is saying that consciousness is caused by our brain and the other is saying that there is brain does not cause consciousness but that they both exist at the same time Dennett Ch 2 Dennett says I thought to myself Well here I am sitting on a folding chair staring through a piece of plate glass at my own brain But wait I said to myself shouldn t I have thought Here I am suspended in a bubbling uid being stared at by my own eyes I tried to think this latter thought I tried to project it into the tank offering it hopefully to my brain but I failed to carry off the exercise with any conviction pg 19 What does Dennett s exercise demonstrate a This demonstrates that Dennett in this case is in the point of view of his body and not that of his brain Dennet is in his body since his body is driven by his sensual inputs instead of his thoughts driving his reality 18 19 20 21 b WHAT DEFINES WHERE SOMEONE IS THE SENSES AND THE AREA WHERE YOU INTERACT WITH THE ENVIRONMENT MAJOR POINT YOUR POINT OF VIEW YOUR SENSES AND WHERE YOU INTEREACT WITH THE ENVIRONMENT TELL YOU WHERE YOU ARE What alternatives does Dennett consider regarding the spatial coordinates for his self a He considers that he is where is brain is instead of where his body is But this depends on his point of view What is the importance of point of view a The point of view is where Dennet is The scientists in Dennett s story constructed a computer duplicate of his brain reproducing both the complete information processing structure and the computational speed of his brain in a giant computer program Dennett says the incoming signals from Hamlet were sent simultaneously to Yorick s transceivers and to the computer s array of inputs Over days and even weeks the outputs were identical and synchronous p24 What is the significance of this a To show that point of view is not unique to a specific entity but can be recreated through a physicallist process At the end of Dennett s story Hubert the computer brain and Yorick the biological brain get out of sync What happens as a result a PHILOSOPHICAL amp HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS II Behaviorism and Cognitivism 22 23 24 25 26 Chomsky reader p 4156 Generally what did Skinner endeavor to do with his book Verbal Behavior a To explain verbal behavior and language learning as a process of operante conditioning What does Chomsky think is so surprising about the particular limitations Skinner has imposed on the way in which the observables of behavior are to be studied a He is surpised that Skinner is only interested in the external process of language development not the internal process of the mind 42 How is describing causation of behavior in terms of the history of inputs nothing more than the definition of the problem How do we do linguistics how do we encode grammers By simply saying that there is a history of inputs all we do is take the information we are given It is not explaining how we process language what are respondents a 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 What are operants What is the experimental arrangement that Skinner usually works with What are the stimulus elicits a response response action elicited by stimulus strength how long will it take for the rat to stop pressing the lever after it stops giving food pellets In other words it is the extinction rate of a response and reinforcement either makes response to stimulus stronger or weakerin that situation How is strength defined What are some difficulties in extending these notions to reallife behavior What must a psychologist conclude if he accepts the broad definitions The narrower definitions Chomsky writes A typical example of stimulus control for Skinner would be the response to a piece of music with the utterance Mozart or to a painting with the response Dutch Suppose instead of saying Dutch we had said Clashes with the wallpaper I thought you liked abstract work Never saw it before Tilted Hanging too low Beautiful Hideous Remember our camping trip last summer what is the significance of this example How does the word stimulus lose all objectivity in this situation WHAT A STIMULUS IS IN THE REAL WORLD IS POORLY DEFINED THERE COULD BE A NUMBER OF RESPONSES TO A STIMULUS Skinner asserts that a proper noun is held to be a response under the control of a specific person or thing and that the presence of a stimulus increases the probability of a response it controls How does Chomsky refute these assertions a ACCORDING TO SKINNER IT IS A RESPONSE TO SEEING A PERSON OR OBJECT THAT IS A PROPER NOUN BUT WHEN KASSY WALKS IN FRONT OF ME I SAY KASSY BUT I USE PROPER NOUNS EVEN WHEN THEY ARE NOT IN FRONT US Chomsky lists a number of examples p 46 first column of responses that are said to be controlled by a stimulus What is the problem with this notion of stimulus control how is it different from the control in barpressing experiments What are the problems with Skinner s definition of a unit in verbal behavior How does Skinner define response strength in his barpressing experiments In Verbal Behavior a THE PITCH STRENGHT ENERGY Skinner writes if we are shown a prized work of art and exclaim Beautiful the speed and energy of the response will not be lost on the owner To which Chomsky replies It does not appear totally obvious that in this case the way to impress the owner is to shriek Beautiful in a loud highpitched voice repeatedly and with no delay high response strength It may be equally effective to look at the picture silently long delay and then to murmur Beautiful in a soft low pitched voice by definition very low response strength What is the significance of this criticism a THE STRENGHT OF THE RESPONSE DOES NOT CORRESPOND SEMANTICALLY IN LANGAUGE MIN 9 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Chomsky says that Skinner uses a terminological revision that adds no objectivity to the familiar mentalistic mode of description What does this mean How has the notion of reinforcement in Skinner s application of it to verbal behavior totally lost whatever objective meaning it ever had How can it be considered a mere terminological revision of the ordinary vocabulary a IF SOMEONE CHOSES TO SPEAK THEN THEY MUST HAVE BEEN REINFOCED TO SPEAK THIS IS CICULAR THIS IS NOT PREDICTIVE What criticisms does Chomsky offer of Skinner s talk of conditioning or bringing previously available behavior under control of a new stimulus Language is generative almost every sentence we ever produce or comprehend is a novel sentence When we generate a novel sentence the people listening will all get the same meaning even though it s novel What is the significance of this Turing reader pg 263283 Who is Alan Turing What have been his contributions to the field of artificial intelligence What is the Turing test Describe the imitation game 3 PEOPLE ONE MAN ONE INTERIGATOR AND ONE COMUTER CAN THE JUDGE ACCURATLY SAY WHICH ONE IS THE PEROSN IF THEY CANT TELL THEN THE COMPUTER IS INTELEGENT THIS IS A SUFFICIENT CONDITION BECAUSE A COMPUTER MIGHT BE INTELEGENT BUT WOULD FAIL THE TURING TEST 3 COMPONITNETS OF A COMPUTER STORE DATA CONTROL SET OF PROGRAMS OR FUNCTIONS EXECTUTIVE UNIT EXICUTES THE ITEAMS IN THE CONTROL IF YOU HAVE A COMPUTER WITH ENOUGH STORE YOU HAVE A UNIVES SAL MACHINE WHICH CAN SOLVE ANYTHING WITH AN INPUT AND OUTPUT What is its purpose What are the main objections to the proposition that machines can think What are Turing s responses Which is the best objection a The theological objection b The heads in the sand objection The mathematical objection The argument from consciousness Arguments from various disabilities Lady Lovelace s objection Argument from continuity in the nervous system Argument from informality of behavior 1 Argument from extrasensory perception What features should a learning machine have quotwotmgr PHILOSOPHICAL amp HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS III Arti cial Intelligence 1 2 Newell amp Simon What do Newell and Simon mean by a physical symbol system a A UNIVERSAL MACHINE THAT THROUGH TIME PRODUCES AN EVOLVING i TWO COMPONIENTSDISIGNTATION EXPRESSION DESIGNATES AN OBJECT IF IT CAN AFFECT IT AND INTERPRETATION SYSTEM CAN INTERPERET AN EXPRESSION IF IT CAN CARRY IT OUT ii PSS HYPTOTHESIS PSS IS A NEC AND SUF CONDITIONS FOR INTELEGENCE THINK OF A WATER TANK PSS CAN REPRESENT THE THINGS COMEING IN AS SYMBOLS AND THINGS GOIG OUT AS SYMBOLS How does a physical symbol system use its intelligence to solve problems according to Newell and Simon What is a problem space a PROBLEMEND STATE THAT YOU WANT TO REACH PROBLEM SPACE ALL POSSBILE CONFIGURIATIONS OF THE PROBLEM What is the difference between weak and strong methods of artificial intelligence a HUERISTIC SEARCH HYPOTHISIS IS SOMETHING USE HUERISTIC SEARCH TO SOLVE PROBLEMS THEN IT IS EXERCISING ITS INTELEGENCE Nilsson What is the combinatorial explosion in computer science and artificial intelligence What solution does Nilsson propose to manage this What is a move as it relates to problem states CENTRAL PROBLEMS THE PROBLEM SET IS SO LARGE IN CHESS THAT YOU CANT USE ALGORITHIMS COMBINATORIAL EXPLOSION HOW TO MANAGE A PROBLEM SPACE THAT IS WAY TOO BIG THE SOLUTION IS A HEURISTIC HILLTOPING A MUCH MORE LOCALIZED APPROACH DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IRIVOCABLE CANT GO BACK AND FIX MOVES AND TENTATIVE CAN GO BACK AND CHANGE MOVES CONTROL REGIGM PERCEPTION I 1 Zimbardo Ch 6 What are the 3 stages of perception What happens during each of the 3 stages Distinguish between proximal amp distal stimuli a b C DISTAL PROXIMAL GOAL GET THE DISTAL STIMULS FROM THE PROXIMAL GET WHAT IS ACTUALLY OUT IN THE WORLD FROM YOUR MIND What can ambiguous figures tell us about our perception 8 TO THESE THINGS GIVE US INSIGHT INTO THE SHORT CUTS THE VISUAL SYSTEM IS TAKING WHEN IT IS PROCESSING VISUAL STIMULI What can visual illusions teach us about perception Types of illusions a b c What i a Ambiguities the necker cube spinning dancer hollow mask illusion Distortions Muller Lyer illusion Ponzo illusion face inversion effect surface re ectance lightness constancy color constancy color adaptations and afterimages waterfall illusion Ebbinghaus illusion Fictions Kanizsa Triangle illusory motion s Helmholtz s classical theory WE LEARN THOURHG NURTURE AND EXPERIENEC AND WE MAKES INFERENCES MIN 54 What is the Gestalt approach Be familiar with the organizational processes 88 8 Put a greater emphasis on the role of innate structures nature in perceptive eXperience and that sense perception cannot be broken down into individual parts but rather only understood as an examination of the whole perceptive eXperience When you listen to music you hear whole melodies not just individual notes This is a result of the organization of information in the brain The brain organizes info in this holistic fashion because it is most economical What is Gibson s theory of ecological optics Note how it is re ected in instances of perceptual constancies 89 8 Ecological optics is the idea that perception should be understood by understanding an individual s surrounding environment that the perceived stimuli not the mechanisms by which you perceive stimuli that should be studied Perceptual constancies or stable properties of the environment are how people learn about the environment while object s shape and size vary depending on distance certain features never change You pick up on these features because they were important for human survival What questions must a unified theory of perception address Pg 89 8 What are the physiological mechanisms involved in perception What is the process of perceiving or how do we put together the info from many sources to arrive at a perceptual interpretation of the world What are the properties of the physical world that allow you to perceive Gibson said that the world makes available certain types of info and you innate perceptual structures are prepared to recover this info 10 11 12 13 14 15 Fill in the blank The critical task of perception is to discover invariant or stable properties of your environment despite the systematic variations in your retinal impressions of them 89 What are size constancy shape constancy and orientation constancy a Size constancy the idea of when a person moves forward and back they are able to maintain the idea that the shape of the object does not change even though the apparent size of the object does change b Shape Constancy is the idea that when a person moves around an object say in a circle one s orientation relative to the object is changing and so the object may look like a different shape but we know that it does change shape Most of perception is judgments of relativity You encode ratios not actual lengths c Orientation Constancy this is the idea that we can perceive the ture orientation of an object regardless on what our orientation is to the object If we are lay on our sides we don t question if the sky is to our right hand side as opposed to where it really is above us 1 What is the recognition by components theory for object recognition NO e What are geons NO f What are some problems with this theory NO Fill in the blank Object identification is a contexts and eXpectations affect object recognition NO What is the difference between top down and bottom up processing Bottom up processing occurs when the representations are derived solely from information in the sensory inputs Bottom up is when information from previous knowledge say memory or motivations or expectations affects perceptual representaions What is the problem of inverse optics NO process How do Marr reader pg 83119 important 101106 What are David Marr s three levels of analysis What questions are being asked at each level a Computational level What is the goal of the computation why is it appropriate and what is the logic of the strategy by which it can be carried out in my words what is the goal or point of doing the operation i IN CASH REGISTER EXAMPLE WHAT IS COMING IN TO THE SYSTEM WHAT IS GOING OUT THINGS LIKE ADDITION RULES TOTAL COST VALUE OF ITEAMS THESE ARE THE THINGS COMING IN AND GOING OUT OF THE CASH REGISTER b Algorithm and representational Level How can this computational theory be implemented In particular what is the representation for the input and 16 17 18 19 20 output and what is the algorithm for the transformation How will this goal be achieved i THE CASH REGISTER MIGHT TAKE ALL THIS THE INFO IN THE COMPUTATIONAL LEVEL AND c Hardware level How can the representation and algorithm be realized physically where will it be calculated Be able to recognize analysis at the different levels to a cognitive science problem such as adding 36 47 sound localization etc What is the difference between a representation and a process in the algorithmic level a Representation is the symbolic system for representing in the input or outputs e g numbers letters emojis b The algorithm is the order and operations that will be done given an input to create an output Fill in the blanks Trying to understand perception by studying only neurons is like trying to understand bird ight by studying only Feathers What is this sentence trying to say a You are just studying the substance not the function of the substance that gives way to ight Why do we need to take care when making inferences about cognitive function from neuropsychological evidence a Because we need to make sure that we can separate the function from the substance that is doing the functioning Make sure that what ever you are doing it can be replicated in another substance and that it is not just neuron specific Say that we discoved that color consciousness is located in neuron F5 but that does not say what the neuron is doing Is there any criticism of Marr s levels Are they truly independent Do they fit neatly into 3 distinct levels a Connectionists argue that the last 2 levels representation and hardware can be one level but serial computers that run connectists model software disprove this idea and show that they are 3 independent substances Kellman amp Arterberry What do Kellman and Anterberry wish to clarify by renaming Marr s first level the ecological level min 26 a They wish to clarify that perceptive organisms observe things in the environment it has to do with what is outside of the mind The physical properties of an object are what defines its inputs into our minds e g how many air molecules are being vibrated when we hear something 2 What is perceptual constancy a That our perception of objects stays constant despite changes in light and our location to an object 3 SEE 106 THROUGH 109 FROM REVIEW TAPE 4 GIBSON PERCEPTION II Scholl amp Tremoulet 1 What is phenomenal causality a The idea that causality is perceptual and a result of one object transferring energy to anther object 2 What eVidence is there that causality is perceptual Innates with infinites 3 What was it about some displays that made people perceive objects as animate Kellman 1 What mechanisms are used to solve the fragmentation problem in our Visual system a 2 What is segmentation Why is necessary for object perception 3 What are the principles emphasized by Gestalt psychologists 4 TWO MAJOR PHONINA DISCUESS ARE a SEGMENTATION FIRST YOU HAVE SEGMENT A FIGURE FROM ITS BACKGROUND PICKING OUT OBJECTS FROM A BACKGROUND b GROUPING WE HAVE THESE FRAGMENTARY THING IN OUR VISUAL FIELD AND WE CONNECTING THEM COMBING ACROSS A CONTOURINTERPILATION SEE MIN 112 FROM TAPE c THIS IS A BROADER PROBLEM OF THE FRAGMENTATION PROBLEM Tresiman 360372 1 What are the two kinds of perceptual processing described by Treisman a In one kind certain aspects of Visual processing seem to be accomplished simultaneously that is for the entire field at once and automatically that is without attention being focused on anyone part of the Visual field In the other kind other aspects of the Visal processing seem to depend on focused attention and are done one at a time as if a mental spotlight were being moved from one location to another 2 What determines which kind of processing will be used in a particular Visual search task a Min 37 how simple properties are arranged Color and orientation brightness MENTAL IMAGERY Anderson pg 430 21 Do verbal imagery and visual imagery require the same cognitive processes a 22 Santa 1977 s experiment What did he do What did he find And what does it mean 23 Shepard amp Metzler 1971 experiments on mental rotation Which view do they support modality specific or amodal How did the other view respond 24 Brooks 1968 experiments on image scanning Which view do they support 25 What was the result of the study on the Ponzo illusion Which view does it support 26 What did the study with the ambiguous duck rabbit figure find Are people able to use mental imagery to form new interpretations of ambiguous pictures Which view do these findings support 27 How does neuroscience weigh in on this debate Also review textbook p 659 28 Distinguish between spatial and visual components of imagery how are they both involved in imagery 29 Distinguish between the 2 cognitive maps route maps and survey maps 30 Distinguish between egocentric and allocentric representations of space 31 How do physical maps differ from cognitive maps 32 Explain the map distortions study What did they do what did they find what does it mean 33 Franklin amp Tversky 1990 experiment with verbal descriptions What did they do what did they find what does it mean NEURAL NETWORKS Rumelhart What kind of problem is the hidden layer necessary to solve in a connectionist network a 242 exclusive or problem A problem where there are multiple inputs which must be processed to get a correct output For example if I only want a 1 to show up as a 0 in a 3 number pattern say 0101 but 0110 a similar input to similar output could only read the first number and not all 3 to make a decision This is useful anytime an intermidate computation between the input and output layers is nessary Which two levels of information processing do some psychologists claim are combined by connectionist modeling a What counterarguments are there for this position How would one calculate the total input to a neuron in a neural network Min 7 a Equal to the sum of the product of between each neuron that is connected to it and its weight 4 What kinds of cognitive problems are pure neural networks as described by Rumelhart unable to solve 5 IF YOU CAN DO CONNECTIONIST SIMULATIONS ON SERIAL PROCESSING COMPUTER THEN IT MUST NOT BE TRUE THAT THE HARDWARE IS NESSSARRY KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION I Rosch 1 Be familiar with the definitions of categories and concepts 2 What are concepts for 3 How can categories be formed into a hierarchy a Distinguish between superordinate basiclevel and subordinate categories b Be able to give examples e g what is the basic level of categorization for a Fuji apple Is animal a superordinate basiclevel or subordinate category c Within which of these three types of categories do items have most features in common d How did Rosch define categories To her what s special about basiclevel categories Wittgenstein KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION II THINKING AND REASONING I THINKING AND REASONING II JUDGEMENT AND DECISION MAKING BAYESIAN APPROACHES LANGUAGE EXPERTISE COGNITIVE SCIENCE AND EDUCATION
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