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Exam 3

by: Natasha

Exam 3 Biol 202

GPA 3.9
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Schoenfuss, Heiko

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This is a study guide for exam 3. This will be 70 question exam. 20 review questions from the first two exams and 50 questions on the new material. Make sure you bring your student ID with you t...
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Schoenfuss, Heiko
Study Guide
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natasha on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 202 at St. Cloud State University taught by Schoenfuss, Heiko in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at St. Cloud State University.


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Date Created: 10/30/15
Biol 202 Lecture 12 and 13 Muscular Tissue Muscle Functions 1 Movement of bones of uids e g blood a Move something like food in your digestive tract b Blood traveling through the body 2 Maintaining posture and body position a Not having us move at all 3 Stabilizing joints a Helps us not move to much 4 Heat generation especially skeletal muscle a Body shivers When you are cold to warm you up b Sweats When you are hot 5 Other functions a Protects organs b Forms values stomach to your small intestine c Controls pupil size d Arrector pili contracts causing goosebumps Muscular System 0 Muscles are responsible for all different types of body movements 1 Skeletal muscles see in lab 2 Cardiac muscles heart 3 Smooth muscles eternal organs Skeletal muscles Cardiac Muscles Smooth Muscles Striationsnonstriated Striated Striated Nonstriated Type of nucleus Multinucleate Single nucleus Single nucleus Voluntaryinvoluntar Voluntary Involuntary Involuntary y Where it is found Most are attached Heart Walls of hollow by tendon to bone organs Characteristics of Muscles 0 Muscle cell means the same thing as muscle fiber muscle cellmuscle fiber 0 Muscle cells are longer than they are Wide elongated 0 Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments 0 The Sliding Filament Theory how muscle cells shorten 0 Muscles share terminology 0 Prefix myo refers to muscle 0 Prefix mys refers to muscle 0 Prefix sarco refers to esh 0 Muscle comes from mus which is Latin for small mouse contracting your muscles makes it look like a mouse is under your skin How do muscle form Myoblasts are how muscle form They fuse together to form syncycium Syncycium is a very long muscle fiber that has multiple nuclei Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle 0 Cells are multinucleate 0 Nuclei are just beneath the sarcolemma 0 Sacrolemma is a specialized plasma membrane that surrounds the entire cell 0 Sarcoplasmic reticulum is a specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum 0 Sarcromere O Contractile unit of a muscle fiber muscle cell 0 Structure between two Z discs 0 Organization of the Sacromere 0 Thick filamentsmyosin filaments composed of protein myosin and has ATPase enzymes 0 Thin filamentsactin filaments composed of the protein actin 0 Myosin filaments have heads extensions of cross bridges 0 Myosin and actin overlap somewhat 0 Myofibril O Bundles of myofilaments O Myofibrils are aligned to give distinct bands I I band llght I band dlrk The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction 0 Activation by nerve causes the myosin heads to attach to the bindings sites on the thin actin filament 0 The myosin heads then bind to the next site of the thin filament 0 This continued action causes a sliding of the myosin along the actin 0 This results in the muscle shortening contracting This is like a tug a way neither structure changes in length The rope is the same length just at the person s feet A relaxed sarcomere is 26 micrometers in length A contracted sarcomere is 16 micrometers in length Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity 0 Excitability responsiveness or irritability ability to receive and respond to a stimulus 0 Contractility ability to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated sets muscle apart from all other tissue types 0 Extensibility ability to be stretched or extended 0 Elasticity ability of a muscle to recoil and resume its resting length after being stretched Skeletal Muscle 0 Each muscle is served by one artery one nerve and one or more veins 0 Enterexit near central part and branch through connective tissue sheaths 0 Every skeletal muscle fiber is supplied by nerve endings that control its activity 0 There is a huge nutrient and oxygen need 0 Generates large amounts of waste which the veins take away Triad Relationships 0 T tubules conduct impulses deep into muscle fiber every sarcomere 0 Integral proteins protrude into intermembrane space from T tubule and SR cistern membranesact as voltage sensors 0 SR foot proteins gated channels that regulate Ca2 release from SR cisterns Sarcoplasmic Reticulum 0 Network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum surrounding each myofibril most run longitudinally 0 Pairs of terminal citers form perpendicular cross channels 0 Functions in regulation of intracellular Ca2 levels stores and releases calcium T Tubules 0 Continuations of sarcolemma 0 Lumen continuous with extracellular space 0 Increase muscle fiber s surface area 0 Penetrate cell s interior at each A bandI band junction 0 Associate with paired terminal cisterns to form triads that encircle each sarcomere Nerve Stimulus to Muscles 0 Skeletal muscles must be stimulated by a nerve to contract 0 Motor Unit 0 One neuron 0 Muscle cells stimulated by that neuron 0 Brings info to individual muscle fibers 0 Neuromuscular junctions association site of nerve and muscle 0 Synaptic cleft gap between nerve and muscle 0 Nerve and muscle do not make contact 0 Area between nerve and muscle is filled with interstitial uid Transmission of Nerve Impulse to Muscle 0 Neurotransmitterchemical released by nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse O The neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is acetylcholine 0 Neurotransmitter attaches to receptors on the sarcolemma 0 Sarcolemma becomes permeable to sodium 0 Sodium rushing into the cell generates an action potential 0 Once started muscle contraction cannot be stopped Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle 0 Muscle fiber contraction is all or none 0 Within a skeletal muscle not all fibers may be stimulated during the same interval 0 Different combinations of muscle fiber contractions may give differing responses 0 Graded responses different degrees of skeletal muscle shortening Types of Graded Responses 0 Twitch 0 Single brief contraction 0 Not a normal muscle function 0 Happens every so often 0 Not in control of it 0 Tetanus not the medical condition 0 One contraction is immediately followed by another multiple contractions O The muscle does not completely return to a resting state 0 The effects are added 0 Unfused incomplete tetanus 0 Some relaxation occurs between contractions O The results are summed 0 Contracts relaxed contracts etc 0 Fused complete tetanus O No evidence of relaxation before the following contractions O The result is a sustained muscle contractions O No relaxation in between Muscle Response to Strong Stimuli 0 Muscle force depends upon the number of fibers stimulated 0 More fibers contracting results in greater muscle tension 0 Muscles can continue to contract unless they run out of energy 0 Muscles shake when fatigued over time addition nutrients needed to sustain it 10152015 Energy for Muscle Contraction 0 Initially muscles used stored ATP for energy 0 ATP bonds are broken and release energy preloaded like a door open with a spring you touch it and it closes 0 Only 46 seconds worth of ATP is stored by muscles 0 After this initial time other pathways must be utilized to produce ATP Direct Phosphorylation 0 Muscle cells contain creatine phosphate CP 0 CP is a high energy molecule 0 After ATP is depleted ADP is left 0 CP transfers energy to ADP to regenerate ATP 0 CP supplies are used up in about 20 seconds 0 Cell phone battery ATP when it is low you can plug it into a charging stick CP but eventually you need to recharge if from the wall Aerobic Respiration 0 Series of metabolic pathways that occur in the mitochondria 0 Glucose is broken down into carbon dioxide and water releases energy 0 This is a slower reaction and requires continuous oxygen Anaerobic Glycolysis 0 Breaks down glucose with NO oxygen 0 Glucose is broken down into pyruvic acid and produce some ATP 0 Pyruvate acid is converted to lactic acid 0 Lasts about 3060 seconds 0 Lactic acid produces muscle fatigue 0 Huge amounts of glucose are needed Muscle Fatigue and Oxygen Debt 0 A muscle cannot contract when it is fatigued 0 A common reason for muscle fatigue is oxygen debt 0 Oxygen is needed to get rid of accumulate lactic acid 0 Increasing acidity and lack of ATP make muscles contract less Types of Muscle Contraction 0 Isotonic contractions O Myofilaments are able to slide past each other during the contractions O The muscles shortens 0 Lifting a dumb bell the weight does not change 0 Isometric contractions 0 Tension in the muscles increases 0 The muscle is unable to shorten 0 Filling a bucket with water slowly increases the tension in your muscle as the bucket gets heavier Muscle Tone 0 Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed muscle 0 Different fibers contract at different times to provide muscle tone 0 The process of stimulating various fibers is under involuntary control Effects of Exercise on Muscle 0 Increased muscle use results in 0 Increase in muscle size 0 Increase in muscle strength 0 Increase in efficiency 0 Muscles become more fatigue resistant Exercise Muscle Injury and Muscle Regeneration 0 Exercise results in myofibril injury 0 In ammation occurs at the injured site 0 Regenerated fibers replace the injured tissue area Biol 202 10202015 The Muscular System Characteristics of Muscle Contractions All muscles consist of sarcomeres Each muscle and contraction is different 0 The length of sarcomere at the time of contraction can differ o The speed of sarcomere contraction can differ o The sarcomere arrangement can differ o The arrangement of sarcomeres across the entire muscle can differ Any contractile motion is because sarcomeres are contracting Skeletal muscles contract when you speak swallow food lift something move around and stand still The length of sarcomere at the time of contraction can differ o The normal working range for a sarcomere is 1 micrometer I EL 2 z I D Tension percent of maximum 6i a Normal 40 lrerlge ED V f 39 l 12 u lT39l lll tim 21mm 22um 126um 36mm Decreased length Increased length r Optimal m resting lengthm i a a maximum amount of possible over lap b running our of over lap room c strongest tension 100 d more overlap e weak pull because they are barely overlapping The speed of sarcomere contraction can differ The slower the force the more you can generate Sprinter high velocity of contraction and a low force Power liter needs a to have power over a long period of time The sarcomere arrangement can differ Parallel help with force think of horse power Series lined up end to end All or nothing response The number of sarcomeres arranged in a line determine the degree of shortening Wide receiver in football is tall so he can move someone back He has more sarcomeres in his muscles than a short football player The arrangement of sarcomeres across the entire muscle can differ 0 ow Figure Tag Arrangement of muscle bers in muscles of different shape A Straplilte m ECiE B spindlewslmpad muscle 3 fanshaped muscle D pennate muscle bipennate muscle mu ltipemate muscle segmented muscle and mdmmm from Byte W 0 Small and j 39lli msing Textbook of Veterinary anatomy Phiiade hia Smmalers Company I981 J straplike for bigger so they contract fast less sarcomeres at the ends Muscles gets a shorter surface are powerful pulls muscle lots of surface area available determined by length E F pennate run in an angle not a straight line More sarcomeres can t think of a parking lot parking parallel vs parking at an angle segmented Red versus White Muscle Fibers Long distance 0 Lots of red muscle bers 0 Slow 0 Need lots of blood oxygen and glucose 0 Middle distance 0 Mix of red and white muscle bers Sprinter 0 Fast 120 sec 0 White muscle bersless blood vessels Muscle Anatomy amp Physiology can Differ Among Human Populations Xhosa world class runners for long distance 37 min for a 10K 0 Compared Xhosa to Caucasian runners of the same ability 0 During work outs the athletes were monitored and compared 0 A muscle biopsy was taken Xhosa had more enzymes to break down lactic acid than Caucasians had Lactic acid can lead to fatigue so Xhosa are better off genetically to be long distance runners 1 02 22 0 1 5 Muscle Fatigue and Oxygen Debt 0 A muscle cannot contract When it is fatigued 0 A common reason for muscle fatigue is oxygen debt 0 Oxygen is needed to get rid of accumulate lactic acid 0 Increasing acidity and lack of ATP make muscles contract less Types of Muscle Contraction 0 Isotonic contractions O Myofilaments are able to slide past each other during the contractions O The muscles shortens 0 Lifting a dumb bell the weight does not change 0 Isometric contractions 0 Tension in the muscles increases 0 The muscle is unable to shorten 0 Filling a bucket With water slowly increases the tension in your muscle as the bucket gets heavier Muscle Tone 0 Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed muscle 0 Different fibers contract at different times to provide muscle tone 0 The process of stimulating various fibers is under involuntary control Effects of Exercise on Muscle 0 Increased muscle use results in 0 Increase in muscle size 0 Increase in muscle strength 0 Increase in efficiency O Muscles become more fatigue resistant Each muscle has at least two attachment sites 0 Origin attachment to an immoveable bone axial lnsertion attachment to a moveable bone appendicular Some muscles end at a tendon and then the tendon attaches to the bone Types of Muscles 0 Prime mover a muscle with the major responsibility biceps Antagonist muscle that opposes or reverses the prime mover triceps Synergist muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation o Fixator a muscle that stabilizes the origin of a prime mover it holds us in a particular position Turtle We think either the prime mover or the antagonist work That they cannot work at the same time Well when you stand all muscles are contracted in your legs to keep you standing You need more stability around your vulnerable knee Naming the Skeletal Muscles Direction of the muscle bers 0 Rectus straight stand erect you stand straight Relative size of the muscle 0 Maximus largest maximum 0 Location of the muscle 0 Named after bones temporalis 0 Number of origins o Triceps three heads tri means three tricycle Location of the muscles origin and insertion o Sterno on the sternum Shape of the muscle 0 Deltoid triangular Actions of the muscle 0 Flexor and extensor exes or extends a bone Anterior Muscles Pectoralis major insertion humerus Pectoralis minor Shoulder multipennate isometric xator muscle Deltoid muscle maintain position of your shoulder Posterior Muscles Lumbar vertebral column connective tissue because there is no space for muscle attachment Facial Musculature Circular muscles 0 Orbicularis oculi close your eyes 0 Orbicularis oris mouth Levator labii superioris upper lip Masseter biting force Zygomaticus major and minor smiling Depressor anguli oris pulling down angle mouth Smiling what muscles contract 0 Zygomatic major and minor Labator labii superioris Depressor labii inferioris Depressor anguli oris Orbicularis oris Corrugated supercilii OOOOO Neck Musculature Muscles are long Straplike Not an issue of force but of quick movement want them long Nervous for a class speech drop your shoulders to open up the larynx Trunk Muscles External oblique angle down Internal oblique angle up Transversus abdominus across abdomen Rectus abdominus straight up and down 8 pack because connective tissue Biol 202 Articulations Articulation or joint that is the connection between two or more bony structures Articulations are classified in two ways 0 Functionally what they do 0 Structurally elements that make up joints Functional Classification of Articulations 0 Synarthroses immoveable articulations or joints that do not move 0 Ex Found where you want strength and no movement like the skull 0 Amphiarthroses slightly moveable articulations 0 Ex Want a little bit of exibility like in the pelvic symphysis during birth 0 Diarthroses freely moveable articulations 0 Ex They are complex and like the knee and elbow Structural Classification of Articulations 0 Fibrous articulations 0 Usually synarthrotic and have simple connections 0 Fusion in the skull you want no movements 0 Cartilaginous articulations O Synarthrotic to amphiarthrotic 0 Synovial articulations O Freely moveable diarthrotic and complex Fibrous Articulations 0 Bones that are united by fibrous tissue 0 For example 0 Sutures O Syndesmoses I Allows more movement than sutures I Distal end of the tibia and the fibula O Dense connective tissue I Collagen fibers run parallel to each other I Few nuclei I Tear one slow lengthy incomplete healing Cartilaginous Articulations 0 Bones that are connected by fibrocartilage 0 For example 0 Pubic symphysis O Intervertebral articulations 0 Fibrocartilage 0 Few nuclei 0 Intervertebral disks pubic symphysis menisci 0 Herniated disk injury 0 Starts pressing outward on spinal cord painful 0 Surgery or bedrest strengthen back muscles 0 Surgeryremove the disk to get rid of pressure and fuse it with bone I Less mobility I Less shock absorber Synovial Articulations 0 Articulating bones are separated by a articulation cavity 0 Synovial uid is found in the articulation cavity 0 Freely moveable and complex 0 Examples I Plane joint in wrist I Hinge joint elbow I Pivot joint radius and ulna I Condyloid joint metacarpals I Saddle joint thumb I Ballandsocket joint shoulder 0 Hyaline cartilage 0 Left over from embryonic endochondral ossification O Cartilage on the outer edge or articular cartilage ReVieW Elastic cartilage Ears and larynx Not found in any articulations Knee Articulation synovial joint Bursa uid filled pillow or cushion Pat pad cushion Articular capsule fibrous joint capsule and synovial membrane Joint caVitysynovial uid lubricant Meniscus fibrocartilage and acts as a cushion ACL anterior cruciate ligament Location of pain Above the knee in amed bursa over exercise Behind the knee arthritis Pain inside damaged meniscus Pain under the knee bursa under the patella ligament Gender Differences in the PelVis Male pelVic angle that is less than 90 Female pelVic angle that is greater than 90 0 Articulation With the femur begins more laterally than the male 0 Greater Q angle The PelVic Articulation Deep joint socket With Acetabulum accepts the head of the femur Standing upright ligaments are twisted at a 90 degree angle Bend forward the ligaments are straightened You do not pop out your hip unless you are in a bad car accident or Bo Jackson The Shoulder Articulation 2nd most vulnerable after the knee joint Complex lots of ligaments and tendons 0 Tendon Sheath keeps friction low bun around a hot dog 0 Weak joint so vulnerable to injury 0 Clavicle articulates with the manubrium and the sternum 0 Can tear or ligaments can collapse The Elbow Articulation 0 Lever arm system 0 Moves in one axis 0 Flexion and extension The Temperomandibular Articulation 0 Hear your jaw popping it could be a little in amed 0 Surgery can deepen grove for the mandible to sit in Adduction is movement towards the body Abduction is movement away from the body Types of Synovial Articulations 0 Gliding joint 0 Hinge joint 0 Pivot joint 0 Ellipsoidal joint 0 Saddle joint 0 Ball and Socket joint In ammatory Conditions Associated with Joints 0 Bursitis the in ammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow of friction high degree of friction in a short period of time 0 Tendonitis the in ammation of tendon sheaths 0 Arthritis the in ammation or degenerative diseases of joints 0 Over 100 different types 0 Most widespread crippling disease in the US we do not have other diseases different parts of the world have Clinical forms of Arthritis 0 Osteoarthritis 0 Most common chronic arthritis 0 Normal aging process 0 Rheumatoid arthritis 0 Autoimmune disease immune system attacks the joints 0 Symptoms begin With in ammation of joints on both sides of your body 0 Leads to deformities 0 Gouty arthritis 0 The in ammation of joints caused by deposition of urate crystals from the blood 0 Usually can be controlled With diet 0 Can result from an unbalanced diet Study Guide Review the Power Point and book for more information on things you do not understand Terms to know Dermskin Ectooutside Endoinner Mesoin between Ectoderm outside your body Mesoderm muscular tissue and most skeletal tissues Endoderm lining inside your mouth Osmosismovement of WATER across a membrane Diffusionmovement of molecules not water across a membrane Benign tumor that does not spread Malignant tumor that can move to other parts of the body Apicaltop of cell Basolateral side and bottom or cell Cytoplasmmaterial between plasma membrane and the nucleus Cytosollargely water with dissolved protein salts sugars and other solutes Cytoplasmic organelles metabolic machinery of the cell Inclusionschemical substances such as glycosomes glycogen granules and pigment The hydrostatic properties of the cytoplasm help maintain the shape like water in a balloon The Cell Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann purposed the cell theory 0 The cell is the unit of structure physiology and organization of living things 0 The cell retains a dual existence as distinct entity and building blocks of an organism 0 All cells come from preexisting cells The cell theory has since expanded and says 0 All metabolic events occur Within a cell The phospholipid bilayer is not homogeneous It has a polar head and a nonpolar tail It contains 0 75 Phospholipids 0 5 Glycolipids 0 20 Cholesterol Membrane proteins have six functions 0 Transport 0 Receptors for signal transduction 0 Attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix 0 Enzymatic actiVity 0 Intercellular Joining 0 Cellcell recognition How will you remember the six functions proteins Transport through the plasma membrane can happen in a few ways 0 Simple Diffusion 0 More molecules outside the cell then inside the cell the outside molecules go to the inside 0 Nonpolar and lipid soluble substances 0 Passive 0 Facilitated Diffusion 0 Specific channels that are somewhat selective O Glucose Amino Acids and ions 0 Carriers 0 Large molecules 0 Can be passive or active Usually it is passive SodiumPotassium Pump 0 It moves against the concentration gradient 0 It is vital to our nervous system 0 Sodium moves outside of the cell 0 Potassium is being pumped into the cell Vesicular Transport moves large amounts of particles across the plasma membrane 0 Exocytosismoves substances from the inside of the cell to the outside 0 Endocytosis large substances can enter the cell 0 Phagocytosis pseudopods eat substances and bring them into the middle of the cell Do you know the di erences Cell junctions stabilize the cells that need to be held in place 0 Tight Junction 0 Gap Junction 0 Desmosomes Where are these found and what do they do Cytoplasmic Organelles 0 Some organelles have their own membrane Mitochondria 0 Membrane bound organelle 0 Power house of the cell 0 Turns ADP into ATP 0 Contains its own DNA and RNA Ribosomes 0 Lack a membrane 0 Located on the Rough ER 0 Some oat freely Endoplasmic Reticulum 0 Rough ER that contains ribosomes 0 Smooth ER catalyzes reactions Golgi Apparatus 0 Packages vesicles for exocytosis 0 Sit of maturation of proteins Peroxisomes 0 Maintains health of cell 0 Looks like a little bubble 0 Detoxifies the cell Lysosomes 0 Get rid of harmful small organisms by digesting them 0 Breakdown molecules Nucleus 0 Contains DNA 0 Ribosomes are produced 0 Has its own plasma membrane 0 Centrioles are close to the nucleus O Responsible for cilia and agellum Nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus The cytoskeleton 0 Microtubules 0 Microfilaments 0 Intermediate filaments Tissues Tissues have four primary types 0 Epithelium 0 Connective tissue 0 Nervous tissue 0 Muscle Tissues serve functions 0 Protection outerskin in your elbow and knee 0 Absorption allows oxygen into the bloodstream 0 Filtration filters kidneys 0 Secretion cells dump things into the environment Why are these functions important Naming epithelial tissues 0 Simple or stratified 0 Squamous cuboidal or columnar 0 Other special features ie goblet Know the location and function of the following epithelium Simple Epithelium 0 Simple squamous epithelium 0 Simple cuboidal epithelium 0 Simple columnar epithelium 0 Pseudostratified epithelium Stratified Epithelium 0 Stratified squamous epithelium 0 Stratified cuboidal epithelium 0 Stratified columnar epithelium 0 Transitional epithelium epithelium Make sure to always name the epithelium fully Four types of membranes 0 Mucous membranes 0 Serous membranes 0 Cutaneous membranes 0 Synovial membranes How will you remember the four types of membranes Two types of glands 0 Endocrine glands secrete hormones 0 Exocrine glands salivary glands in the mouth Excretion includes 0 Apocrine mammary gland 0 Merocrine fuses Within the cell 0 Holocrine Whole cell is secreted Connective tissue fibers 0 Collagen most common 0 Reticular limited honeycomb structure 0 Elastic stretch and still retain shape Connective tissue characteristics 0 Connective tissue can be well vascularized 0 It can also be avascular 1 One element of the extracellular matrix is the ground substance a Contains water With proteins and polysaccharide molecules 2 Fibers Which are produced by cells a Collagen fibers b Elastic fibers c Reticular fibers Connective Tissue Types 0 Bone osseous tissue 0 Living tissue 0 Lacunae 0 Protect and support the body Hyaline cartilage 0 Most common cartilage and rubbery Elastic cartilage O Elasticity to it 0 Found in ear and voice apparatus Fibrocartilage 0 Very compressible 0 Found in knee and elbow joints Dense connective tissue 0 Collagen fibers and fibroblasts O Tendonmuscle to bone 0 Ligamentsbone to bone 0 Like a rope strength in one direction Areolar connective tissue 0 Also known as loose tissue 0 Soft and pliable 0 Contains all fibers not organized or dense O Absorb a lot of water Adipose tissue 0 Important because it keeps us warm 0 Protects organs in the body bubble wrap when you mail a package 0 Fuel storage Reticular connective tissue 0 Interwoven fibers 0 Found in lymph nodes spleen and bone marrow Blood 0 Surrounds the uid matrix 0 Can see the fibers during clotting 0 Moves nutrients and wastes around the body 0 Erythrocytes RBCs are the most common 0 Leukocytes Remember these by Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas 0 eutrophil 0 Lymphocyte 0 Monocyte 0 Eosinophil 0 Basophil Tissue repair 0 Regenerate natural turn over 0 Fibrosis scar tissue which is less exible 0 Epithelial tissue and fibrous connective tissue and bone regenerate easily because they have a good and immediate blood supply 0 Skeletal muscle regenerates poorly since it does not get good blood supply 0 Cardiac muscle nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord are usually replaced largely With scar tissue This is a problem in the heart because scar tissue doesn t contract 0 Cartilage and dense connective tissue take a long time to regenerate Integument and Glands Epithelial membranes 0 Cutaneous membrane 0 Dry membrane 0 Protective O Superficial epidermis is dead and filled With keratin O Underlying dermis is connective tissue 0 Mucous membrane 0 Lines all the body cavities that are open to the exterior of the body 0 Many types of different surface epithelium depending on the site 0 Serous membrane 0 Simple squamous epithelium Lines the body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body Secretes uid to reduce friction and prevent in ammation Peritoneum abdominal cavity Pleura surrounds the lungs Pericardium surrounds the heart OOOOO Connective tissue membrane 0 Synovial membrane 0 Contains connective tissue only 0 In knee joints not a place where epithelium can survive Integumentary system 0 Skin covers a huge surface area 0 Contains 0 Sweat glands 0 Oil glands scalp gets oily from hair 0 Hairs we have few hairs compared to animals 0 Nails The difference in thin skin and thick skin is how thick the stratum corneum picture in powerpoint Stratum comeum Stratum lacidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum vasalegerminativum Two layers in the epidermis 1 Papillary layer a Pain receptors b Nerve endings 2 Reticular layer a Blood vessels b Glands c Nerve receptors Hair Produced by a hair bulb Made of hard keratinized epithelial cells Hair follicle The dermal and epidermal sheath surrounds the hair root Arrector pilli causes goose bumps on us and hair to stand up straight in a dog Nails They are colorless because they lack melanocytes The stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed Which is responsible for growth Glands All glandular tissues come from an epithelial tissue type Glandular secretions come from processes inside the cell Glands are extremely diverse in form and function Exocrine glands the epithelial surface Endocrine glands into the blood stream Paracrine glands the interstitial space Sebaceous glands 0 Produce oils that lubricate skin and kill bacteria 0 Glands are activated at puberty Sweat glands 0 Eccrinie 0 Open from a duct and go onto the skins surface 0 Apocrine 0 Empty into hair follicles 0 Mostly water 0 Some metabolic waste 0 In apocrine it contains fatty acids and proteins 0 Helps body cool down 0 Gets rid of waste products 0 Acidic in nature to inhibit bacterial growth Skin homeostatic imbalances 0 Exposures latex gloves causes allergic reactions 0 Impetigo caused by bacterial infection 0 Psoriasis trauma infection stress trigger it 0 Burns 0 Tissue damage caused by heat electricity UV radiation chemicals 0 Dangers are dehydration electrolyte imbalance circulatory shock 0 First degree burns only epidermis is damaged 0 Second degree burns epidermis and upper dermis is damaged 0 Third degree burns destroys the entire layer of skin 0 Skin graft since the hair is completely burned away Cancer 0 Abnormal mass of cells 0 Skin cancer is the most common type 0 Basal cell carcinoma 0 Squamous cell carcinoma 0 Malignant melanoma I am a student in the class and have no idea What Will be on the test I would reVieW this and be comfortable With the material on it Also look over powerpoints and do reVieW questions from the book I uploaded a terms sheet With some of the terms I defined Good luck


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