Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide ARH 358
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacquelyn Stinson on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 358 at University of Oregon taught by Lord C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see History of Design >1 in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Art History Midterm Study Guide 1 Test date Nov 2 2015 VOCABULARY TERMS Renaissance dis geno imitation of the most beautiful things of nature most ideal elements organized representation involving the eye and hand described by Vasari The Independent Group in the 1950s the idea of pop culture and consumerism developed This group was the head of this new trend It was composed of architects designers etc Their ides contrasts Pevsner s ideas and the concept of disgeno This group also put on the exhibition This is Tomorrow in 1956 in London Pattern Book These books were part of industrial design They helped speed up the production and lower the cost of products Patterns were published for everyone They were not intended for a specific object or field Hard Porcelain Hardpaste porcelain is expensive and luxurious It developed in China but was produced in Germany by the Meissen Porcelain company They used local materials of the nation Block book Combines illustration and text in a single wood block Woodblock Wood carved out of a block and the surface is inked to create a print Shift away from the hand painted technique and speeds up production Engraving Another method used to speed up production Gauged out pieces of metal The portion that is removed is what is inked More Durable surface metal Sharpest lines are from the earlier additions quality matters Engraved printing allows for more detail approximation of lines Lithography Developed by Alois Senefelder in 1796 Not a carving process like woodblock and engraving Based on grease and water Fine grade stone slab preferably limestone with semi absorbance surface is greased Flat surface with paper laid on it and pressure to transfer ink onto the paper King s Roman Regularized typography commissioned under King Louis XIV in 1692 It does not depend on the handcraft of cutting or carving Based on mathematical order and made with drafting instruments Produces clear and readable print with darklight and thickthin types They begin to replace the art of the calligrapher Jobbing Printing technology advances allow for huge editions of newspapers magazines and commercial advertising Printing made easy which allowed for mass production and advertisements SLIDE IMAGES Historiography of the early stages of study of modern design Disgeno imitation of the most beautiful things of nature most ideal elements organized representation involving the eye and hand described by Vasari Giorgio Vasari 15111574 author of the rst artists biographies 0 provided a key Renaissance definition of the role of the designer Primarv Ideas of Design 1 elements of an object and the organization of elements elements are common in the study of design 2 conception state preliminary Charles Le Brun tapestry for Gobelins Louis XIV inspecting the Gobelins Factory 1 663 75 Connected to design culture of its day Royal sponsorship of Design and production of luxury commodities in Europe King Louis XIV helped define the fashion for France 0 Gobelin s factory founded in 1662 was for modern production and went through constant innovation and renovation for design 0 Tapestries were a symbol of wealth Le Brun was known for creating cartoons as a basis for the tapestry designs Weavers then produced the tapestries based on his cartoons Not only were they crafted carefully but they also muf ed sound and cut down on drafts o This image is significant as there was a monarchial role in production in France It shows LouiX XIV s inspection of the tapestries Sevres porcelain production in France Francois Boucher gure group I 75 7 Royal sponsorship of Design and production of luxury commodities in Europe Cost effective but high end porcelain S vres was created not shortly after Meissen in Germany There is a rise of nationalism at this time Francois Boucher was a French Rococo court painter court with an emphasis on playfulness romantic quality and charm favored by the French court Boucher was under direct patronage to the mistress of the king most sophisticated woman in France Boucher was her favorite artist Proves that highest quality was a national interest same quality of charm found in the figurines as well as paintings Page of Matthew Boulton Pattern Book showing silverplate goods ca 1 780s Manufacturing innovations from Boulton o Boulton revolutionized the metal industry in England small scale objects not mass production 0 New technology around the same time water power 1761 0 James Watt developed the Steam Engine which Boulton uses in his factory 0 Sheffield Plate method used by Boulton that fuses silver over copper He used it on buttons and other objects in his factory It make things cheaper than solid silver 0 Pattern books chose a product and pattern from a book to speed up production and lower cost 0 Boulton also streamlines production 0 He increases production uses new machinery and low cost materials Josiah Wedgewood AgateWare Vases I 770s What ideas shape Wedgewood s designs and market Wedgewood was a key figure in the ceramic production in England Science and art come together creamware 1770 look like porcelain but can withstand heat and cold looks expensive but is cheaper 0 He perfects a mechanical process that contrasts and by passes the hand thrown production that his parents used making pottery with a hand wheel I Perfected the new technique of repeating and casting molds of clay that then hardens into a durable material I He also adopted a way of transferring the printing for decoration into his work This decorative transfer by passes the hand painted process I Wedgeworth created a model that was successful economically and fashionable Easy to break down the steps into sections Labor process is divided up separation by skill design separate from molding and molding separated from decorative everything based on a set mold or standard design this becomes a popular way of production at this time there is really no connection back to the creative process 0 Ethuria Wedgewood s factory that opened in 1769 named this because he was in uenced by the Etruscian s pottery he was inspired by antique pots o Showroom on James St and Partner with Thomas Bently examples of him being a good business man AgateWare Vases I Imitation of natural polished stones I Body of the vases are made of ceramic illusion I There is a clever development of glazing Story of Blessed Virgin Block Book I400s Modern typography design crucial to Industrial Revolution typographythe text its process and how it appears An example of mechanically reproducible text combining illustration and text in a single woodcut block Printing and Typography as an Agent 0 Typography and printed materials have everything to do with the increase of information ow that parallel the industrial revolution 0 Accelerated production of consumer goods Printing has to do with readability and the expression to the viewer 0 Layout and spacing of letters really matter O JOhann Technical drawing of woodcut printing involved carving into the wood it is the surface left intact that is inked 39 Shifts away from the hand painted methods wood cut print allows production to speed up Gutenberg Bible 145056 Modern typography design crucial to Industrial Revolution Johann Gutenberg published the first bible printed with moveable metal type in 1450 56 Gauged out passage in metal type is what is inked Engraving Gauged out pieces of metal The portion that is removed is what is inked Durable surface Sharpest lines are from the earlier additions quality matters Engraved printing allows for more detail approximation of lines Honore Daumier The Bill Poster mialIQth century lithography How are advances in printing linked to development of modern consumerism fashion and appearance of department stores in 19th century Posters begin to be produces as street posters instead of an art piece Lithography is a major factor in the development of graphic art Printing materials responded to and stimulated demand for growing number of consumer goods Machines made it possible to print this way everything accelerates and change can happen faster Styles do not stay around as long there is a turnover in styles Middle class can participate in design movements Gobelins is the beginning of the industrial revolution All Iron printing press development in England 1800 0 Advertising is being supported 0 Economic support of newspapers and magazines come from advertisements o All stages of process have to be done by hand 0 Production of metal presses 1St technological advancement I The page that is being printed on can be larger Steam Powered cylinder printing press Fredrick Koenig 1810 0 Moves paper automatically right over typebed o Inked with rollers 0 An automatic process is added not by hand like the iron printing press 0 Advancement in the amount of pages per hour printed begins to advance Modern fashion is born fashion magazines allow people to be aware of this 0 Changing trends 1819 shopping mall opened in Paris near the Louvre New department stores open in 1840 Before this it was common to go to specialized shops Make and sell become divided So selling is grouped together Meets demand of consumer goods Stage of production separate rather than the objects themselves London Streets in the 1800s 0 People are bombarded with the printing advertisements O O O O o This is a generational change that shows how important literacy becomes 0 This is not intended for slow reading or concentration but used to capture your attention quickly Daumeir prints I comics to express the power of printing is a satirical way satire is common in lithography I Demonstrates the working class and words about the freedom of the press and the monarchy being knocked down by the power of the press Cast Iron Garden designed by German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel c1824 created from 4 main cast iron pieces Design Reform in the early 19th century What was innovative about this furniture 0 High end furniture production in Europe changing political scene so cheaper material and production Constructed from 4 cast iron units skillful union of material function and style Easily assembled Does not stimulate earlier styles or reference the past Clever line of production Papier mache chair is the opposite of this focused on the aesthetic and the function is not met Schinkel benefits from seeing others experiment and then moves forward with it o This furniture design is an example of distilling objects to their essential elements 0 Ornamentation does not take the stage and therefore they become timeless 0 function dictates aesthetics 0000 O 0 Michael Thonet Gilded Laminated and SteamedBent Wood Chair 184346 Design Reform in the early 19th century What was innovative about this furniture 0 Another example of form following function and the creations of timeless furniture Steamed wood furniture with organized lines 1830 in Koblenz Germany Sturdy elegant and affordable Durable furniture with graceful lines and organic form It is also comfortable Marketed in various ways posted advertisements Thonet has in uence on the Art Nouveau Movement OOOOOO Watercolor of Biedermeier interior ca 1 828 Design Reform in the early 19th century What were the concepts behind Biedermeier design 0 Biedermeier is the most simplified and functional furniture 0 From Austria and Germany began in 18201850 OOOO Emphasis of materials comfort and functionality Durable simple and elegant Not as elegant but well designed Simplified neoclassical form pulls from the ideas but not directly uses in uences but abstracted O Biedermeir s signi cance does not rely on previous in uences Develop a new style for Germany and Austria that does not quote from the past and designs with the middle class in mind Shaker Bench 1 830 Design reform movement beginning in the USA How does this object fit into history of American design 0 1 Furniture produced by the Shaker Movement 19th century trend Spirituality and establishment of utopian communities Tradition of Protestant 18th century group that started with the Camisards French They went into trances when they worshipped where shaker came from 1774 they came to the US known as the Shaking Quackers They form communities in the NE and MidWest They have simple and elegant designs emphasis on beauty of material wood interior of the center family dwelling house Idea for this design came from a theology that seeks to illustrate a physical statement of the gospel they believed in Appreciation for color and grain of the wood Simple and beautiful Similar to Freegal style Shaker Bench 1830 0 Beauty of the essential lines 0 Curved line and straight line with emphasis on the wood 0 2 Furniture by America Capitalism Industrial trends 1840 Mass production of good with precise changes of parts Gun and clock manufacturing Precisely calibrated for use Specialized machines that create for master gauges to recalibrate machinery Decoration was minimal Sewing machine is an example Painting of Crystal Palace designed by Joseph Paxton London 1851 Site of the Great Exhibition sponsored by Prince Albert Design Reform Movement Great Exhibition 1851 What is the significance of the Great Exhibition for 19th century Western design At the 1851 exhibition design was approached from different ways including economic factors It was a platform to showcase industrial design but also displaced smaller objects for private consumption Precedent to the World s Fairs The design of the Crystal Palace was based on a greenhouse design Paxton was an architect who specialized in greenhouse design Made from prefabricated elements which is a modern manufacturing practice After the Great Exhibition places like this began to replace the ideas of the gothic style Nations exhibit their national pride Sportsman knife American from Crystal Palace in 1851 for the Great Exhibition with 80 blades engraved with landscape views 0 Exhibition was in London in 1851 The knife lacks the idea of function and has excessive ornamentation Has over 80 blades and instruments Shows parts of the exhibition in the ornament Early version of the Swiss army knife Augustus Pu Henry Cole Museum 0 O O O gin Interior of St Giles Cheadle England I840s Leading reformer during the design reform Pugin is the most important artistcritic of the early 19th century design What were Pugin s major ideas Pugin s goal was to combat the decay of taste His two key concepts to design are 0 1 design should be expressive of the contemporary period values and atmosphere 0 2 There should be no design element that is not an expression of the essential structure of the design This means that decoration should be an enhancement of the core structure He argues that Gothic best fit the modern age because this style is not an issue of fashion but a principal based on morality amp faith There should be a reason for the design Pugin designed the Church as a total unified environment material societal and spiritual unity Tea Services 1846 designed 184671 made Victoria and Albert Leading reformer during the design reform What were his most important contributions Cole also integrates design and form like Pugin but Cole is not against the use of machinery like Pugin was Machine helps reduce the cost but Cole pays attention to quality Cole Founded the Summerlv s Art Manufacturers The goal of the factory was to revive the practice of best art with the objects of everyday use Cole s Journal of Design 1849 First is to utility and second is the beautifyingornamentation of the utility Design is often focused on ornament rather than utility but utility is essential objects get lost too easily in ornamentation He became director of art schools in England Tea Ware graceful simple and modern The glazing emphasized the shape The goal create beauty and ornament with cheapness form and principal to not interfere with simplicity of the outlines for example the cup is deep rather than wide to help keep the tea warm relates to Etruscan pottery in the design of how the tea will be poured The innovative process of design is based on how the element will be used This is what formed the details Christopher Dresser The Art of Decorative Design I 862 Leading reformer during the design reform What did Dresser contribute to the design reform movement Dresser begins to make sense of the different ways design was approached at the Great Exhibition He focused more on original design unlike Pugin who was focused on historical elements He also has a focus on nature which makes him similar to Cole Dresser s in uences science nature Japanese culture industry and his imagination Dresser was able to critique popular trends and channel them to make a positive impact The cover of The Art of Decorative Design is important because it exemplifies the point he elaborates on in his book 0 Plant in uence is stylized and appears at 0 There is a range of form as a whole 0 Nature shown from the eye of a designer 0 There is a relationship between the text and the plant image and harmoniously relates to the outer frame Presentation is organic O
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