Diversity Exam 2 Study Guide
Diversity Exam 2 Study Guide 210
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Friday October 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/30/15
Diversity of Life I Exam 11 Study Guide Intro to Fungi What are some of the characteristics used to define fungalness heterotrophic absorbers spores mycelium chitin detritivore haploiddiploid Nutrition How do fungi obtain energy and nutrients Reproduction What is the modes of fungal reproduction What part of the life cycle is characterized by fusion of nuclei Major propagules of reproduction Pasmogramy Ka ryoga my Evolution of Fungi been understood for long time but are still poorly understood not a great fossil record no hard features to be preserved Rhynie chertancient sedimentary depositFungi have been around since Devonian Period earliest fungi aquatic agellated capable of swimming organisms similar to Chytridiomycota 3 other phyla and Chytridiomycota mostly aquatic 10005pecies found in wetlands or wet soils Earliest known divergence from choano agellate ancestor only fungi Coenocytic multinucleate cell which comes from multiple nuclear divisions without their accompanying cytokinesis mycelium lacks partitioning 1 longtube only known fungi showing alteration of generations also seen in plantsalgae contains both gametophyte and sporophyte Zvoomvcota terrestria 1000 species and are mainly saprobes coenocytic mycelia mainy characterized by sexual aso does asexual reproduction by Shows cases of both sexually selffertilizing and Heterothallism How can sexual reproduction be advantageous How could reproducing asexually be advantageous Ascomycota sacfungi argest group of fungi 35000 species myceium is septate but functionally coenocytic What is its sexual mode of reproduction Asexual many are dimorphic homo and heterothallic Basidiomycota mast familiar 25000 species central role in decomposing plant litter myceium is septate clampconnections spores are external Which fungus phylum is responsible for huge amounts of frog deaths globally This fungus is responsible for damage done to American chestnut It also has more benevolent applications such as for making penicillin The quotrustsquot and quotsmutsquot are part of which phylum Why should we care Fungal Biodiversity over 98000 species described BUT many are invalid around 13 70000 known fungal species primary source of extrapolation is using ratio of fungi plants started as 61 ratio but there is a lot of variation in that often uses assumption that fungi s geographic range is the same as the plants with changing elevation means changing ratios Arctic vs rainforest Phylum Basidiomycota Basidiomycetesmushrooms conks and spores What is the synapomorphy of Basidiomycota obigate plant parasites Clamp connections found at each septation maintains n n condition for each cell where the spores are produced Basidia Cystidia Basidioles variety of shapesimportant taxonomicaIy Types of Basidia can be single celled forked at tip or multiple septations Basidium develooment karyogamy n n fuse to form 2n Meiosis Meiosis produces 4 nuclei of 2 different genetic types in basidium Hapoid nuclei migrate into tips of basidiospores works to maximize reproductive potential Poisonous Mushrooms How do you tell if a mushroom is edible or poisonous Why are mass poisonings more frequent in Europe How many different kinds of mushroom poisoning are recognized Group Amanitin poisoning Common in NYS Basidiocarps of Amantia Gaerina Lepiota most frequently Amanita phaloides quotdeath ca pquot and Amantia virosa quotdeath angelquot has been used as method of death Characters for Identi cation Universal veil volva balllike cap at bottom remnants of universal veil left as scales on cap Partial veil ring connects cap to stipe White cream or free gills don t connect to stipe Toxicity Data LD50 When injected into mice phalotoxins are 10X more lethal than cyanide LD5o 2mgkg When taken orally there is no effect Why Amatoxins much more toxic when eaten l LD5o 01mgkg Amatoxin Effects attacks cell nucleus and bind to RNA polymerase II enzyme transcribes DNA to mRNA Why is this create a problem Antidotes and Treatment 1st step in poisoning cases is to determine if amatoxins are present Meixner Test determines how high levels of toxicity are How Consumption of A virosa and A phaloides 4 distinct stages atent period 624hrs typically 12hrs vioent vomiting diarrhea and abdominal pain lasting 24hrs brief remission of symptoms Honeymoon period collapse of kidney and liver function with secondary effects on heart and brain which leads to coma and death 68 days after consumption What can be done major problem is delay in onset of symptoms and con rming the correct diagnosis treatment consists of removal of toxin from system charcoal haemodialysis increase excretion rate toxin levels are higher in urine than blood support systems electrolyte and uid balance maintain blood sugarlevel Grouo ll Gvromitrin Poisoning Gyr0mitra escuenta accounts for about 2 4 of all fatal mushroom poisonings precursor is gyromitrin which becomes hydrolyzed to monomethylhydrazine MMH boiling point is 875 C lower than water lRocket Fuel quotAll or nothingquot very thin line depends on individual susceptibility Symptoms Toxin acts at cellular level toxic to central nervous system gastrointestinal tract and liver Treatment Group III Orellanine Poisoning Cortinarius orelanus C orelanoides C rainierensis Symptoms Poand 1957 132 people poisoned 19 died deaths from kidney failure 23 weeks after onset of symptoms atent period 10 17 days intense thirst burning and dryness of mouth abdominal pain nausea vomiting kidney failure 100200g enough to cause total kidney failure Group IV Coprine Poisoning Toxicity mushrooms not toxic except when Symptoms What is the chemical mechanism for this particular poisoning Group V Muscarine poisoning PSL Syndrome stimulates endocrine glands Symptoms PSL constriction of pupils drop in blood pressure blurred vision sow heart rate or may actually stop muscle spasms treated with intravenously administered atropine Group Vl lbotenic AcidMuscimol Poisoning Symptoms Group Vll PsilocybinPsilocin Poisoning characterized by dark purple spores Group VIII GastroIntestinal Irritants previous 7 types relatively well understood few fungi involved and clearly identi ed as containing speci c toxins which cause wellde ned sets of symptoms Contrastingly Group VIII is a handful of miscellaneous taxa Only common feature is Symptoms most common vommiting diarrhea abdominal cramps cear up spontaneously in 34hrs little to no info on involved toxins Majority of fungal taxa in this group can be bought at your local grocery store occasional fatalities reported for nearly all of them Summary Fatalities are usually associated with which groups 50 of all serious mushroom poisonings and 95 of all fatalities caused by 1 genus Amanita 4 basic patterns of poisoning emerge Toxins that cause extensive cell destruction overt symptoms only following delay Amantin Group IOrellanine Group II MMH Group III Toxins causing symptoms either when absorbed or when appropriate substrate enters the system Coprine Group IV Toxins acting on CNS causing symptoms immediately Muscimol Group V Psiocybin Group VI Undetermined toxins acting in alimentary canal Groups V VII RUSLS Smuts and World Trade Uredinomycetes Uredinales quotRUSTSquot 5000 species 140150genera Ustilagniomycetes Ustilagninales quotSMUTSquot 12005pecies 50genera All are parasites on plants often causing damage to many cultivated crops high eco importance Heterothallic needs 2 compatible individuals to reproduce Obligate Biotroph cannot complete life cycle without host plant saprobically Teliospore site of karyogamy fusion of 2 nuclei technically part of the basidium Teiospore germinates produces a short germ tube of determinate growth lPromycelium site of meiosis and formation of sterigmata and basiodiospores Distinguishing Characteristics ack basidiocarp cank puffball production of sori circular dots or stripes often seen on underside of leaf no known clamp connections basidiospores form on septate basidia ife cycles very complex with usually 2 different hosts and 5 different spore types Uredinales Rust fungi may produce as many as 5 different sporeproducing stages 0 I II III IV in life cycle Heteroecism 2 taxonomically different host plants needed to nish life cycle seen in most rusts Alternate host vs Primary host Autoecism entire life cycle completed on 1 host species Describe the 5 maior stages of the rust life cvcle and the purpose of each stage Fungi can infect plant through the stomata very vulnerable spot special cell site where fungi will build up pressure at to penetrate the plant See Raven Biology of Plants for detailed description of life cycle Life Cycle Pattern of Uredinales 1 Macrocyclic forms 2 Demicyclic forms 3 Microcyclic forms Remember Heteroecious amp Autoecious Examples of distantly related hosts Heteroecious Puccinia gramnis O and l on barberry bushes dicot II and III on various grasses monocot Cronartium ribcola blister rust 0 and l on white pines gymnosperm II and III on currants amp gooseberries angiosperms Uredinopsis 05m undae O and l on balsam r gymnosperm II and III on cinnamon fern Ustilaginales Smuts No sex organs monokaryons nonpathogenic but dikaryon is pathogenic Heterothallic mating of compatible spores Teliospores History of Plant Quarantine France 1960 No Barberry planting Most of Europe suffered from Plasmopara grafted grape vines USA one of the last countries to enact federal legislation 1912 despite previous devastating introductions chestnut blight What event happened to tip the US over the edge Conclusions Knowledge of fungal biodiversity fundamental to making wellinformed decisions KNOW NAMES Ascomycota Laboulbeniales group Dr Weir studies only group of fungi that are found on insecthosts easily seen on integument of insect easy to spot stable taxonomy and thought to be monophyletic large systematic collections globally available Roman Thaxter studied parasitic moth fungi described 23 of world s fungi specimens for Ascomycetes 1300 Ascomycetes and Basidiochetes Compare and contrast Ascomycota and Basidiomycota primary morphological character distinguishing asco s gt MVcelial ascochetes Woronin bodies rounded granular body bounded by a double membrane possibly used to plug pores of hyphae in case of injury to prevent further damage Important in Human Affairs plant pathogens apple scab powdery mildews chestnut blight Cryphonectria parasitica Dutch elm disease Ophiostoma Animal interactions ringworm Athlete s foot global disease Pneumocystis pneumonia in immunecompromised individuals HIV Industrial mycology Fermentation Medical mycology Antibiotics Chestnut Blight 1905 Bronx before the disease American chestnut was the dominant tree in eastern hardwood forest made up 1 tree out of every 4 in a stand BIG dbh 34ft and height 100150ft ranged from S Maine to Georgia and west to Ohio Kentucky More chestnuts were used for lumber than any other hardwood utility poles furniture railroad ties Disease could have been transported by woodpeckers as well as invasive insects Advantages straight grained easy to work with rapid growth rate decay resistant important source of food for people wildlife harvest and collect chestnuts to be stored or sold Introduction of Crvohonectaria major ec0102icaleconomic disaster probably introduced from Japan anywhere between 18761904 in 50 years it ravaged 36million hectares turned the mighty chestnut into a minor understory shrub current restoration project Transgenics see Dr Powell Asexual Reproduction What are the different modes of asexual reproduction Ascomytes use Soredia algal cells with hyphae wrapped around them found only in lichens Sexual Reproduction 2 compatible nuclei brought together in 1 cell by 2 morphologically similar gametangia making contact with fusion cell I ascus no longlived dikaryotic phase Morphologically differentiated gametangia antheridia and ascogonia trichogyne no fusion cell and dikaryotic stage may be persistent fusion of somatic hyphae somatogamy longlived dikaryotic phase nn Filamentous Ascomycetes typically develop functional sex organs Ascogonium ascogenous hyphae and crosiers enclosed in asocarp cleistothecium closed structure perithecium askshaped has exit spot where ascospores are shot out apothecium open disc ascostroma develops inside organism plant cavity mycelial or ascospore stages generally overwinter Conidial states anamorphsz The Good The Bad and The Ugly be able to provide examples of each Discomycetes incredible diversity ascocarp apothecium traditionally divided into operculate open lid and inoperculate closed lid recent inclusion of lichenized forms many saprobic some mycorrhizal some even predatory on mainly invertebrates Apothecium hymenium layer of asci lining disk surface composed of clavatecylindrical asci usually with interspersed paraphyses hypothecium is thin layer of interwoven hyphae below hymenium excipulum is eshy part of ascocarp Ascus Types unitunicateoperculate only in apothecial ascocarps unitunicate inoperculate no operculum but special elastic ring mechanisms found in peritherical and some ascocarps prototunicate no active sporeshooting mechanism mainly in cleistothecial ascocarps or hypogeous possibly evolved from unitunicate bitunicate double wall diverged long ago very different from other Ascomycetes j ackinthebox inner wall blasts through outer wall Loculoascomvcetes asci form within locules cavity in a preformed stroma correlated character is bitunicate ascus includes many plant and animal pathogens and endophytes possibly the most diverse group of ascomycetes few molecular studies to date Deuteromvcetes diversity of life cycle patterns throughout Kingdom Fungi some species of all phyla reproduce asexually and sexually ability to produce several types of spores imparts huge exibility in dispersal and survival mixed bag of asexual taxa life cycles classified into different phyla dependent on stage discovered of 30000 known ascomycetes 5000 have been connected to anamorphs thousands still considered orphans anamorphic holomorphs genetic exibility through heterokaryosis parasexual cycle mutations can arise without sexual reproduction another possible mechanism for genetic recombination never actually seen in the field only the lab Relevance of Conidial Anamorphs some grow on us literally I most prevalent fungal disease of humans mycoses caused by conidial fungi ringworm jock itch athlete s foot maj or plant pathogens Wood rot utility poles mycotoxins decomposition and recycling vital role in Carbon amp Nitrogen cycles stream ecology food chain intermediaries some stream inverts Will only eat leaves than are fungalcoated biocontrol Human uses cyclosporine penicillin Mycorrhizae Endosymbiosis mitochondria amp chloroplasts are bacteria What do plants get from fundi Viceversa Arbuscular Mycorrhizae AM arge surface area when developed allows for large amount of nutrient exchange 70 of world s plant species associate with AM fungi liverworts ferns grasses most agricultural cropsso most plants you see NOT seen in spinach broccoli seen with smaller agricultural farms that are starting to incorporate theseideas increased AM fungus diversity increased AM plant diversity ie number of species Ectomvcorrhizal Roots EM Fungi don t penetrate plant cells but colonize along roots AM and EM found in Phylums and The Hidden Half competition between multiple species of fungi seen in root systems of different species of trees Orchidsalso take sugar from fungus for further growth seeds are dependent on the fungus to get the necessary nutrients Some Ectomycorrhizal Fungi critical for Large Charismatic Megafauna Northern Spotted Owls Flying Squirrels l Truf e Fungus Introduction to Bryophytes Characteristics of Bryophytes very different from majority of other plants most primitive of extant land plants many botanists don t consider them quotrealquot plants Which part of the bryophyte life cycle is considered dominant Alternation of Generations characteristic of Plant Kingdom and algae ife cycle includes haploid gametophyte n alternating with diploid sporophyte 2n higher plants life cycles dominated by diploid sporophyte gametophyte greatly reduced nonvascular no true leaves true stems or true roots poikilohydric think poikilotherms nutritiona dependence of sporophyte on gametophyte Evolutionarv Origin of Brvoohvtes mosses liverworts and hornworts Archaeplastida green algae embryophytes see family tree green algae are close relatives of embryophytes land plants but are Qrotists not plants Embryophytes are descendants of Charophyceae a type of green algae Brvophvtelike organisms become rst land plants Ordovician 475MYA Bryophyte lineage likely diverged during the Devonian anywhere between 360 and 400MYA Are bryophytes the ancestors of higher vascular plants Features shared with Charophyceae New traits in Bryophytes for life on land both egg and sperm are protected in multicellular structures the fertilized egg Zygote 2n is retained by the parent plant for greater protection the diploid 2n sporophyte is dependent on haploid gametophyte origin of and for water conservation not all Bryophytes have these some do but is not a synapomorph y Survey of the Bryophytes Division thla of the hornwort Rosettelike thallus gametophyte ong sporophyte dehisces longitudinally found typically in moist soil Only 100 species in 6 genera Division Phyla of the liverworts 6000 species Primariy asexual repro via fragmentation and gemmae asexual propagules found in cups at tops of liverworts dispersed by raindrop splash sexual repro possible simpe sporophyte splits open 2 growth forms What is a moss Largest group of bryophytes Club Moss Spanish moss member of pineapple family Sea moss Reindeer moss lichen all of these are not actual mosses Division Bryophyta 16000 species tissue specialization still different from true leaves and true stems protonema stage eaves are spirally arranged compex sporophyte 2 growth forms verticalerect amp horizontal growth Classes within Bryophyta Andreae0psida the mosses Only 1 genus Andreaea restricted to substrate sedom see green form more reddish or black short tuft capsue splits longitudinally sporangium wait until dryer conditions for dispersal the peat mossi 1 genus network of dead and living cells contains large amounts of carbon enormous waterholding capacity drives production of wetlands Formation of peatlands role as ecosystem engineers sporophyte opens with quotpopgunquot mechanism on the operculum using lots of pressure has peat layer which are most often seen in bog wetlands where decomposition doesn t occur as readily low oxygen l makes for good preservation concentrated mostly at northern latitudes boreal regions This 1 genus makes up 12 of Earth 5 plant surface and more than 2 of all our plant diversity the true mosses make up 95 of all species of moss Synapomorphy is how does the synapomorphy respond to environmental stimuli Sporophyte is dependent on gametophyte gametophyte has placenta for nutrients obtained via diffusion I39lsee Generalized Moss Life Cycle Polytrich um Introduction to Bryophytesl Water Relations in Mosses Remember bryophytes DON T have true vascular tissue poikilohydric many mosses are desiccation tolerant resistant to decomposition mechanical damage What are some adaptations mosses have for conserving water Endohydric mosses have simple conducting tissues for water amp nutrients still not true xylem phloem Bryophyte Habitats Where are bryophytes most abundant some can tolerate severe stresses heat cold elements often successful in habitats where vascular plants which have a root system are excluded top of rocks ice very widespread alongside vascular plants opportunistic expoit transient habitats quotphotosynthetic opportunistsquot will start production even if ground is frozen if snow has melted off them What are the roles of mosses in the ecosystem Think Successional Roles Bioogica Interactions Mosses and Humans Economic importance Conservation Threats gt Know your life cycles
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