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Date Created: 01/22/15
Final Exam Study Guide Introduction to Management Spring 2014 Eean Crawford 41 amp 48 Managing Human Resources Human Resource Management Process of attracting developing and keeping a quali ed workforce Human Capital Potential of workforce captured in their knowledgeskimotivation People Centered Practices Protection ofjob security Rigorous hiring process Employee empowerment Compensation linked to performance Comprehensive training Reduction of status differences Sharing of key information General model of Human Resources Compensation amp Rewards Recruitment amp Selection Desired Performanee gt Performance Appraisal amp Management I Training and Development Recruiting Technique Success Search Methods Corporate Web Sites 70 General joblisting sites 67 ClassifiedAds 53 Referrals 52 Headhuntersagencies 35 PWNE Ways Candidates found jobs Referrals 25 General joblisting sites 17 Headhuntersagencies 17 Classi ed Ads 15 Corporate Web sites 6 PWNE Recruiting Tips quotGetting the right people on the busquot Use social networks of existing employees and friends Use personal contact Target target target what is desired performance Quali cations Where will nd people who t 0 Carefully proofread all ads Characteristics of Good Training Clarify objectives use them to select methods Maximize similarity between the training and the job Convey general principles Provide variety of examples Provide practice and feedback Use questions to guide attention and encourage active thought Development options Designed to be better employees not just good at one speci c thing Educa on Assessment and feedback Work experiences Relationships Managers as teachers 1 Explain basic concepts TELL 2 Demonstrate performance SHOW 3 Solicit practice WATCH 4 Provide constructive feedback ENCOURAGE Job Descriptions amp Speci cations 0 List of duties responsibilities and quali cations Developed via job analysis 0 Workcentered o Workercentered 0 Hybrid Structured amp Unstructured Interviews Structured Interviews interviews in which all applicants are asked the same set of questions usually including situational behavioral background and jobknowledge questions Advantage is that comparing applicants is much easier because all asked same questions Situational how an applicant would respond in a hypothetical situation What would you do if Behavioral what they did in previous jobs that were similar to the job for which they are applying In your previous jobs tell me about Background ask applicants about their work experience education etc Tell me about the training your received at jobknowledge ask applicants to demonstrate their job knowledge Give me an example ofHow did you handle it Unstructured lnterviews interviews in which interviewers are free to ask the applicants anything they want Appraisal Options Performance Appraisal the process of assessing how well employees are doing their jobs 0 Evaluating employee performance relative to standards 0 Objective Measures best 0 Subjective ratings Graphic Rating Test worst rating an employee on a scale of 1bad 5terrific BOS better Behavioral Observation Scale EffectiveIneffective behavior 0 Used for 4 purposes 1 Making administrative decisions 2 Providing feedback for employee development 3 Evaluating Human Resource programs 4 Documentation purposes Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC Bona Fide Occupational Quali cation BFOQ an exception to employment law that permits sex age religion and the like to be used when making employment decisions but only if they are quotreasonably necessary to the normal operation of that particular businessquot 0 Example A Baptist church hiring a new minister can reasonably specify that being a Baptist rather than a Catholic etc is a BFOQ lt39s unlikely that the church could specify race or national origin as a BFOQ Training objectives and methods 0 lmpart Information and Knowledge lms and videos lectures planned readings 0 Develop Analytical and Problem Solving Skills Case studies coaching and mentoring group discussions 0 Practice Learn or Change job Behaviors Onthejob training roleplaying simulations and games vestibule training o lmpart the Top 3 quot Computer based Terminating Employees 1 Give employees a chance to change their behavior 2 Counsel the employee 3 Fire only for a good reason Wrongful Discharge a legal doctrine that requires employers to have a jobrelated reason to terminate employees Employee Turnover Functional loss of poor performing employees who voluntarily choose to leave the company Dysfunctional loss of high performing employees who voluntarily choose to leave the company 410 amp 415 Motivating Ch 13 Motivation Set of forces that initiates directs and make people persist in their efforts to pursue a goal Individual Motivation amp Performance Equation Performance Ability x Motivation x Situational Constraints Ability quotcan doquot Motivation quotwill doquot Needs Theories Alderfer ERG Theory 0 3 fundamental needs all have to varying degrees Existence basic needs to stay alive food water etc Relatedness social connected known loved Growth competent able to learn new things BECOMES MORE MOTIVATING OVER TIME McClelland Needs Theory 0 Different people motivated by different needs Af liation Achievement Power Maslow39s Hierarchy of Needs Theory People are motivated by 0 Physiological food and water Safety physical and economic Belongingness friendship love social interaction Esteem achievement and recognition Selfactualization realizing your full potential OOOO Job Characteristics Skill Variety Task Identity Task Signi cance experienced meaningfulness of work Autonomy experienced responsibility of work outcomes 0 Feedback knowledge of work results Goal Setting 0 Goals work best when 0 Are dif cult and speci c 0 Person is committed to pursuit 0 Person has con dence in attainment 0 Feedback is provided 0 Task is fairly well learned Latham amp Baldes Study 0 The 2 years prior to the company setting a GOAL the percentage of weight carried on each trip was declining Once they set a GOAL however there was a drastic increase in performance meaning a drastic increase in the amount of weight increase each trip 0 Seven years after the goal was set the performance was STILL sustained Equity Theory a theory that states that people will be motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly Inputs contributions employees make to the organization Outputs what employees receive in exchange for their contributions to the organization Referents other people with whom they compare themselves to Outcomeinput Ol Ratio an employee39s perception of how the rewards received compare with the employee39s contributions to that organization Underreward occurs when a referent39s Ol ratio is better than your Ol ratio Overreward occurs when a referent39s Ol ratio is worse than your Ol ratio Fairness Theory 0 Three perceptions of fairness o Distributive this is equity theory 0 Procedural 0 Interactive 0 Relevance for managers 0 Efforts to be fair multifaceted 0 Being perceived as fair helps avoid serious problems at work Greenberg Model Refers to theft in the work place as a reaction to a temporary pay cut Reinforcement Theory the theory that behavior is a function of its consequences that behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently and that behaviors followed by negative consequences or not followed by positive consequences will occur less frequently Reinforcement the process of changing behavior by changing the consequences that follow behavior Reinforcement contingencies causeandeffect relationships between the performance of speci c behaviors and speci c consequences 0 Positive Reinforcement reinforcement that strengthens behavior by following behaviors with desirable consequences 0 Negative Reinforcement reinforcement that strengthens behavior by withholding an unpleasant consequence when employees perform a speci c behavior Expectancy Theory the theory that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance that good performance will be rewarded and that they will be offered attractive rewards Valence the attractiveness or desirability of a reward or outcome Expectancy the perceived relationship between effort and performance lnstrumentaity the perceived relationship between performance and rewards GoalSetting Theory the theory that people will be motivated to the extent to which they accept speci c challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement 422 amp 424 Leading Leadership Inspiring in uencing guiding others in a common effort What should we be doing Management Planning organizing controlling and allocating resources in a common effort What could we be doing better Leadership Theories Trait Theories The search for universal characteristics of leaders 0 Traits common to leaders Drive motivated highneed for achievement Desire to lead HonestyIntegrity Selfcon dence Emotional stability Cognitive abilities smart able to process large amounts of complex info can see trends where others can39t Knowledge of business HEIGHT Research has shown that taller people have a positive correlation with being good leaders Behavioral Style Theories o WWII studies of the patterns of leader behaviors leadership styles rather than leader traits 0 Today generally referred to as Initiating Structure 0 quotJob centered leadershipquot quotConcern for productionquot Consideration quotEmployee Centered Leadershipquot quotConcern for peoplequot Situational Theories study Fiedler s in the book key concept 0 General logic No particular leader is the best in all situations Leaders should adapt or be matched to the situation 0 Hersey amp Blanchard 4 situations Telling Selling Participating Delegating Also named Lifestyle of Leadership Employees go through a careerlong cycle where they mature and continue to take on more and more responsibility 0 Transformational Theories o Idealized in uence role model Inspirational motivation meaning Intellectual stimulation questions Individual consideration listens Provide meaning by telling stories Can it be learned Yes Does it matter Yes 0000 General Leader Behaviors from Ohio State study 0 High concern for people 0 High concern for production Barling et al study 0 Did an experiment with bank branch managers of a regional bank in Canada 0 Before any training measured everyone s transformational leadership and bank branch performance 0 Half the managers were randonmly selected to receive transformational leadership training in a oneday workshop they were taught principles of transformational leadership roleplayed practiced got feedback and had four followup sessions over the next month 0 The other half received no transformational leadership training 0 Did it help 0 Yes branches whose managers received the transformational leadership training was signi cantly higher than that of the branches whose managers were in the control group 429 amp 51 Communication and In uence Chapter 15 Estimated prevalence of email and meetings 0 Average meetings per day 3 Total amount of time 128 min spent in meetings each day 0 Average time in meetings 53 minutes 0 More meetings per day more tired Nonverbal behaviors amp effects Nonverbal Body language facial expressions Intonation and Pitch of voice 0 60 body language facial expression 0 30 tone of voice 0 10 is what your actually saying Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal feedback from managers affects employee behavior 0 POSITIVE Smiles head nods eye contact 0 NEGATIVE Frowns head shaking no eye contact eye rolling Positive feedback builds good interpersonal relations Tips on Communicating through Email Be clear and concise Use subject line effectively Rarely use graphicsattachments Never assume privacy lnform recipient about replying Always include your name and other relevant information Business email should read like a business letter headerclosingproofed Types and outcomes of in uence 0 Resistance 0 Compliance 0 Acceptance Cultural Differences United States 0 Rational persuasion 0 Exchange 0 Ingratiation China 0 Rational persuasion Ingratiation CoaH on Exchange Giftsfavors 0000 Perception Process and Problems Communicationthe process of transmitting info from 1 person or place to another Managers spend 80 of their day communicating Perception is the process by which individuals attend to organize interpret and retain info from their environments Key part of communication People are exposed to a variety of informational stimuli emails direct convos rumors over lunch stories about the company in the press video broadcasts Perception lters the personality psychology or experiencebased differences that in uence them to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli Perception Process 0 Attention Organization Interpretation Retention Attention o the process of noticing or becoming aware of particular stimuli 0 Because of perceptual lters we attend to some stimuli and not others Organization 0 The process of incorporating new information into your existing knowledge 0 Because of perceptual lters we are more likely to incorporate new knowledge that is consistent with what we already know Interpretation 0 The process of attaching meaning to new knowledge 0 Because of perceptual lters our preferences and beliefs strongly in uence the meaning we attach to new info Retention 0 The process of remembering interpreted info o Retention affects what we recall and commit to memory after we have perceived something In short because of perception and perceptual lters people are likely to pay attention to different things organize and interpret what they pay attention to differently and nally remember things differently Consequently even when people are exposed to the same communications they can end up with very different perceptions and understandings Perception Problems Selective amp Closure As limited processors of info we cannot possibly notice receive and interpret all of this info As a result we attend to and accept some stimuli but screen out and reject others Selective perception o The tendency to notice and accept objects and info consistent with our values beliefs and expectations while ignoring or screening out inconsistent info Closure o The tendency to ll in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don39t know is consistent with what we already know Perceptions of Others Attribution Theory the theory that we all have a basic need to understand and explain that causes of other people39s behavior In other words we need to know why people do what they do 0 We used 2 general reasons to explain people39s behavior 0 Internal attribution which behavior is thought to be voluntary or under control of the individual 0 External attribution which behavior is thought to be involuntary and outside of the control of the individual Defensive Bias the tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having a dif culty or trouble committed by workers 0 Example Seeing someone of the side of the road xing a at tire You think quotWhat rotten luck must be having a bad dayquot 0 When we identify with the person in a situation we tend to use external attributions to explain the person39s behavior 0 For instance since at tires are common it39s easy to perceive ourselves in that same situation and put the blame on external causes such as running over a nail Fundamental attribution error the tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people39s actions to internal causes committed by managers 0 Example Accidents in the workplace initially blame the worker or employee for the accident that occurs 6080 of accidents in the workplace are immediately blamed on the worker in reality only 3040 of accidents show that workers are responsible for the accident 0 In other words when investigators examine the possible causes of an accident they39re much more likely to assume that the accident is a function of the person and not the situation SelfServing Bias the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves internal causes and attributing failures to other or the environment external causes The Communication Process Communicationthe process of transmitting info from 1 person or place to another 0 Managers spend 80 of their day communicatino 1 Senderthinks of a message he or she wants to convey to another person is how the process begins 2 Encoding the message This means putting the message into a verbal or symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver 3 Decoding the message This is the process by which the receiver translates the verbal or symbolic form of the message into an understood message 4 Feedback to sender This is a return message to the sender that indicates the receiver39s understanding of the message Feedback makes senders aware of possible miscommunications and enables them to continue communicating until the receiver understand the intended message Unfortunately feedback does not always occur in the workplace Noise is anything that interferes with the transmission of the intended message Sender isn39t sure what message to communicate Message is not clearly encoded Wrong communication channel is chosen Message is not receive or properly decoded Receiver doesn39t have the experience or time to understand the message Formal Communication Process 0 Formal communication channel the system of of cial channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information There are 3 formal communication channels 0 Downward communication ows from higher to lower levels in an organization O Used to issue orders down the organizational hierarchy to give members jobrelated info to give managers and workers performance reviews from upper managers and to clarify organizational objectives and goals Upward communication ows from lower levels to higher levels in an organization Used to giver higherlevel managers feedback about operations issues and problems to help higherlevel managers assess organizational performance and effectiveness to encourage lowerlevel managers and employees to participate in organizational decision making and to give those at lower levels the chance to share their concern with higherlevel authority Horizontal communication ows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level such as when a day shift nurse comes in at 730am for a halfhour discussion with a midnight nurse supervisor who leaves at 8am Helps facilitate coordination and cooperation between different parts of a company and allows coworkers to share relevant info It also helps people at the same level resolve con icts and solves problems wo involving higherlevel management Informal communication channel or Grapevine the transmission of messages form employee to employee outside of formal communication channels Arises out of curiosity the need to know what is going on in an organization and how it might affect you or others To satisfy curiosity employees need a consistent supply of relevant accurate indepth info about quotwho is doing what and what changes are occurring in the organizationquot Gossip chain one highly connected individual shares info with many other managers and workers Cluster chain numerous people simply tell a few of their f ends Managers best strategy is to embrace the grapevine and keep employees informed about the possible changes Also the grapevine is a valuable source of feedback for the manager 7595 of information owing through the grapevine is accurate Active Listening assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgmental feedback that show39s you39ve accurately heard what he or she said Clari responses by asking the speaker to explain confusing or ambiguous statements When there are natural breaks in the speaker39s delivery use this time to paraphrase or summarize what has been said Paraphrasing is restating what has been said in your own words Summarizing is reviewing the speaker39s main points or emotions Paraphrasing and summarizing give the speaker the chance to correct the message if the active listener is attached the wrong meaning to it Also shows the listener is interested in the speakers message Evaluation and criticism can take place after the message is accurately received Active listeners recognize that a large portion of the message is transmitted nonverbally Thus pay very close attention to the non verbal cues transmitted by the speaker 56 History of Management Thought Chapter 2 4 Historic Approaches of Management know main idea major people and what they are known for Scienti c Management thoroughly studying and testing different work methods to identify the best most ef cient way to complete a job 1 Frederick Taylor father of scienti c management Used thorough study and testing to identify the best most ef cient way to do a job Found that manufacturers who give their employees a 15 min break every 2 hours their performance was much better Soldiering deliberately restricting output Rate Buster someone who worked faster than the group He emphasized that the goal of scienti c management was to use systematic study to nd the quotone best wayquot of doing each task Fred Taylor s 4 Principles of Scienti c Management 1 Develop a science for each element of a man39s work which replaces the old ruleof thumb method 2 Scienti cally select and then train teach and develop the workman whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could 3 Heartily cooperate with the men so as to ensure all of the work being done is in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed 4 There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and workmen The management take over all the work for which they are better tted than the workmen while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Motion Studies Best known for their use of motion studies to simplify work eliminate unnecessary movements in work which would improve productivity Example Designing a stand that could be raised to waist height they eliminated the need to bend over to pick up each brick Turning to grab a brick was much faster than bending down to pick up a brick Motion Study broke each task orjob in separate motions and then eliminated those that were unnecessary or repetitive Henry Gantt Gantt Chart Rede ned production control and costcontrol techniques Kept track of how long things take and what shouldneeds to get done Gantt Chart 0 Visually indicates what tasks must be completed at which times in order to complete a project 0 Xaxis shows time in various units Yaxis shows tasks 2 Administrative Bureaucratic Management Max Weber Bureaucratic Management Exercising control w knowledge People w control should be in control because they are the most knowledgable and not because of political connections Weber s 7 elements of bureaucracies 1 2 3 Quali cation based hiring hired on the basis of their technical training or education background Meritbased promotion Promotion is based on experience or achievement Managers decide who gets promoted Chain of command each position reports and is accountable to a higher position A grievance procedure and right to appeal protect people in lower positions Division of labor Tasks responsibilities and authority are clearly divided and de ned Impartial application of rules and procedures rules apply to all members of organization and will be applied in an impartial manner Recorded in writing all administrative decisions acts rules or procedures will be recorded in writing Managers separate from owners owners of organization should not manage or supervise the organization Henri Fayol Administrative Management The success of a business hinged on their administrative expertise Fayol39s 14 principles of management PWFQP PWN Division of work Authority and responsibility Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination of individual interests to the general interest Remuneration Centralization Scalar chain 100rder 11Equity 12Stabiity of tenure or personnel 13nitiative 14Esprit de corps developing a sense of morale and unity among workers that encourages coordination of efforts 3 Human Relations Management Mary Parker Follet mother of management 0 Believed that integration was the best way to deal with con ict not domination or compromise Integrative con ict resolution an approach to dealing w con ict in which both parties indicates their preferences and then work together to nd an alternative that meets the needs of both Elton May Hawthorne Studies Hawthorne Studies 1924 0 Studies39 results showed for the rst time that productivity was strongly affected by workers attitudes and social relationships Chester Barnard Cooperation amp Acceptance of Authority 0 Proposed a comprehensive theory of cooperation in formal organizations 0 His de nition of an organization quotsystem of consciously coordinated activities or forces of 2 or more peoplequot 0 The extent to which people cooperate in an organization depends on how workers perceive executive authority and whether they are willing to accept it 4 Systems Management 0 System a set of interrelated elements or parts that function as a whole Systems are composed of subsystems which are simply smaller systems within larger systems 0 This creates synergy when 2 or more subsystems working together can produce more than they can working apart 0 Closed svstems systems that can sustain themselves wo interacting with their environments 0 Open svstems systems that can sustain themselves only by interacting with their environments on which they depend for their survival 0 Managers should look for connections between different parts of the organization AND the different parts of its environment Competing Values Flexibility Internal External Stability The framework that organizes different dimensions of management lnnovation create new value that never existed before between exibility and external Productivity create value by creating lots of short term results between external and stability Control re ne internal processes as greatly as possible make value by making improvements within their own processes between stability and internal Cohesion create value by getting a work force that is adaptive and as cohesive as possible between internal and exibility 1 This history of management is still very relevant today 2 It s called the competing values approach for a reason they are in direct oppositioncompetition Management by Best Seller Gurus and Best Sellers 0 Peter Drucker 1St management guru Michael Porter Bill Gates Tom Peters Jack Welch Jim Collins Henry Mintzberg etc Potential Problems Selective inclusion of anecdotal evidence 0 Can encourage simplistic quotdo it because I said soquot and quotonesize ts allquot thinking 218 Being Sociallv Responsible CSR relationship with Economic Performance 0 Business obligation to pursue policy make decisions and take actions that bene t society 0 Economic legal ethical and discretionary Does not guarantee pro tability as socially responsible companies experience that same ups and downs as other companies 225 227 Thinking Globally Internationalization Process 5 big options 4 stages vs global new ventures Stage 1 Exporting Stage 2 Cooperative contracts Stage 3 Strategic Alliances Stage 4 wholly owned af liates Stage 5 Global ventures 2 Different Types of Cooperative Contracts Licensino local company receives loyalty payment and foreigner gets to brand product 0 Franchise exports whole business right to conduct business at a certain area Characteristics of an Attractive Foreign Business Climate Growing markets choosing of cemanufacturing location minimizing political risk Preparing for an International Assignment 0 Language and cross cultural training Spouse family and dual careers 311 313 Control Budget perf Reports variance analysis 0 Budget sales budgets income statements and balance sheets 327 DesiJning Organizations LineStaff Authority Line right to command immediate subordinates in chain of command 0 Staff the right to advise but not command others who are not subordinate in the chain of command
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