New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Test 3 Study Guide: Anth 196

by: Jordan Butcher

Test 3 Study Guide: Anth 196 Anth 196

Jordan Butcher

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Going through the regular flashcards first will help you understand the primate flashcards better! Good luck studying everyone! *I know that the preview hasn't loaded. If you've seen my previou...
Biological Anthropology
Dr. Joshua Linder
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Biological Anthropology

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr

This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Butcher on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 196 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Joshua Linder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 316 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at James Madison University.

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr


Reviews for Test 3 Study Guide: Anth 196


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/26/16
Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: Biogeography of primates Asia, Africa, Madagascar, and South America Where are primates found? the upper and lower canine meet sharpening the canines Canine Honing Process old world monkeys and apes (not including humans) active at any time of night or day; no specific sleeping/active patter Cathemeral n Diurnal active during the day and sleep at night Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: different kinds of teeth like canine, premolars, molars, incisors Heterodonty i.e. mammals same teeth Homodonty i.e. shark pouched mammals Marsupials i.e. Kangaroo egg laying mammals Monotremes i.e. Platypus and Ant Eaters Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: Nocturnal active at night and sleep during the day baby develops inside the womb and the placentanourishes the offsp ring Placental Mammals i.e. primates, elephants, lions Plesiadapiforms first group of mammals/primates found 55 million years ago Rain forests only cover about __% of Earth's surface but hold more than 50% of the Earth's land _________ and __________ 6%; plants and animals Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: few trees with lots of grass Savanna driest out of rainforest and woodland substrate: ground Terrestrial quadrupedalism shorter tails and longer limbs Three ways food can be distributed even i.e. leaves clumped i.e. fruit random i.e. insects incisors and canines: harvesting and puncturing What are the four types of teeth and (front teeth) their function? premolars and molars: crushing and chewing (back teeth) Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: What era is primate evolution confined to? Cenozoic (around 65 million years ago) hair, live birth, nurse young, heterodont dentition, warm blooded, r What makes a primate a mammal? elatively large brains smaller trees than a rainforest Woodland less rain than a rainforest Apes (and humans) have Y-5 molars where the letter "Y" can be dra Y-5 wn and there are 5 cusps Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: substrate: branch arboreal quadrupedalism shorter/bent arms and legs to get closer to branch long tail helps for balance binocular stereoscopic vision see depth/3D buttresses give the tree support carbohydrates source of energy in the form of simple or complex sugars Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: an adaptation is necessary to process complex sugars complex sugars i.e. plant material crowns leafy, green, fruit part of the tree dermatoglyphs finger prints chance of dying decreases when the number in your group increas dilution effect es Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: dueting "singing" together to mark their territory only found in that place endemic i.e. humans to Earth i.e. lemurs to Madagascar eat vertebrates faunivore hard to catch, search for, and hunt easy to digest food female reproductive success is most influenced by these three fact protection ors: mate quality Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: - eat leaves - MOST PRIMATES: need special adaption to digest (multi chambered stomach and large intestine) folivore - sharp cusps on molars - hard to digest - easy to find because they are everywhere - eat fruit - EVERY PRIMATE - low and round cusps frugivore - easy to digest - high in sugar and energy - seasonal - have to have a good memory to find them term of pregnancy gestation i.e. humans carry a baby for (about) 9 months grade: look the same grade vs clade clade: share a common ancestor Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: eat seeds gramnivore seasonal, small, hard to open high in protein, energy, and fat when humans stop being capable of having children so that they ca n help with their offsprings’ offspring grandmothering non-human primates can have children up to death grouping pattern composition of social group - eat gum - hard to digest - must injure the tree to extract gumnivore - high in carbs and energy - claw-like nails and teeth that stick out so that their nose doesn't g et in the way Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: habituation introduce humans to an animals' environment males who kill othermales’ offspring and then matewith the females infanticide of the slain infants - eat insects - MOST PRIMATES insectivore - high in protein - easy to digest - hard to catch because they're fast and small - sharp teeth to pierce exoskeleton time between offspring interbirth i.e. about a year for humans Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: special kind of terrestrial quadrupedalism wherein the African Apes knuckle walking such as gorillas and chimps walk on their knuckles find food locomotor modes avoid predators find mates mating system number of sexual partners that individuals have hierarchial structure (within group competition) negatives of living in a group easier for predators to detect you infection and disease spread faster Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: olfactory relating to sense of smell tapping on the wood to hear the hollow spaces percussive foraging used by the Aye Aye Lemur born in that group and stay in that group “love for your home land” philopatry i.e. male philopatry: males stay and females leave dilution effect predator detection positives of living in a group bigger group will usually outcompete a smaller group easier to find a mate protection from infanticide Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: two bones fused together to form a circle postorbital bar all primates have this prehensile tail when the tail is used as a fifth limb for suspensory movement nose sticks out like a dog prognathic for animals that relying heavily on smell vs sight proteins essential for growth and basic bodily functions Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: wet nose rhinarium i.e. Lemurs, Lorise, and Galagos From top to bottom: emergent layer canopy layer structure of the rainforest (different layers) understory layer immature layer herb layer layer that underlies something substrate for most primates: branch for humans: ground long arms and short legs suspensory sometimes a long tail is used as a fifth limb Test 3: ANTH 196 Study this set online at: sympatric species species found in the same geographical location primates that jump vertically from tree to tree vertical clinging/leaping these primates have long legs and short arms Test 3: ANTH 196: Primates Study this set online at: 040780 *prosimian & strepsirhine type of Lemur Madagascar Aye Aye nocturnal Dental Pattern 1:0:1:3/1:0:0:3 percussive foraging insectivorous *haplorhine & anthropoid Great Ape like the chimps Bonobo sex is a stress reliever multi-male, multi-female/fission fusion females are dominant OLD WORLD MONKEYS, APES, & HUMANS *anthropoid & haplorhine Africa and Asia Catarrhine Dental Formula: 2:1:2:3 substrate: arboreal and terrestrial downward facing nostrils *haplorhine & anthropoid catyrrhine: old world cheek pouched Cercopithecine frugivore low/round cusps Asia and Africa i.e. Baboon, Mandrill, Macques Test 3: ANTH 196: Primates Study this set online at: 040780 *haplorhine & anthropoid Africa fission fusion Chimpanzee male philopatry frugivore, colobines & males invading territory sometimes go to war Great Ape *haplorhine & anthropoid catyrrhine: old world monkey Colobine folivore sharp/high cusps multichambered stomach Asia and Africa *prosimian & strepsirhine rhinarium: wet nose no postorbital wall tooth comb=canine grooming claw on 2nd toe Galagos tapetum lucidum: reflect light to see at night/low light aka Bushbabies dental formula: 2:1:3:3 Africa fast moving nocturnal vertical clinging insectivorous *haplorhine & anthropoid one male, multi-female Gorilla heram polygonous infanticide folivore Test 3: ANTH 196: Primates Study this set online at: 040780 *haplorhine & anthropoid Howler Monkey platyrrhine folivor hyoid bone: speech (humans), howling (monkey) *prosimian & strepsirhine rhinarium: wet nose no postorbital wall tooth comb=canine Lemurs grooming claw on 2nd toe tapetum lucidum: reflect light to see at night/low light dental formula: 2:1:3:3 endemic to Madagascar *haplorhine & anthropoid i.e. Gibbons and Siamang long arms and short legs Lesser Apes suspensory locomotion dueting monogomist Asia *prosimian & strepsirhine rhinarium: wet nose no postorbital wall tooth comb=canine grooming claw on 2nd toe Lorise tapetum lucidum: reflect light to see at night/low light dental formula: 2:1:3:3 Africa and Asia slow moving insectivores nocturnal Test 3: ANTH 196: Primates Study this set online at: 040780 *haplorhine & anthropoid usually have twins other females may help raise the 2nd child Marmosets & Tamarians infanticide is low because they are promiscuous gumnivore platyrrhine polyandrous *haplorhine & anthropoid dispersed social system Orangutan fruitivore Asia Great Ape *haplorhine & anthropoid Owl Monkey platyrrhine NEW WORLD MONKEYS *haplorhine & anthropoid South America Platyrrhine Dental Formula: 2:1:3:3 substrate: arboreal prehensil tail nostrils face outward Test 3: ANTH 196: Primates Study this set online at: 040780 *promisians & haplorhines nocturnal with no tapetum luidum Tarsiers rotate head like an owl insectivorous vertical clinging *haplorhine & anthropoid China highest altitude of primates (>10,000ft) Yunnan Snub Nosed Monkey **in class: picture of the monkeys sitting in the warm water becaus e they live in the snowy mountains Primate Trends: • Post orbital bar • Grasp with hands and feet • Opposable thumb and big toe • Emphasis on vision (for most) • Large brain compared to body size • Increased complexity of brain Reasons for dispersal of females: • Large, frugivorous, female primates tend to take their dependent offspring away from the group for less competition for food • Small, nocturnal, female primates ten to disperse from the group to avoid predation When females are dispersed, males can: Roam and find scattered females Pair-up with a single female Possible grouping patterns and mating systems:


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.