LING 200 Midterm 1
LING 200 Midterm 1 LING 200
Popular in INTRO LING THOUGHT (VLPA/I&S,QSR)
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ART H 214
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angel Lee on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to LING 200 at University of Washington taught by Laura McGarrity in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 261 views. For similar materials see INTRO LING THOUGHT (VLPA/I&S,QSR) in Art at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/31/15
LING 200 Midterm Exam Review Sheet I Introduction A Essential Terms and Definitions Term Definition Descriptive v Prescriptive Grammar Descriptive grammar describes the rule that governs what people do or can say in their language Prescriptive grammar prescribes the rule governing what people should say to be considered correct Linguistic competence v performance Linguistic competence Knowledge a speaker has about their native language Linguistic performance Observable realization of one s linguistic competence in one s speech Design Features Discreteness When larger complex messages can be broken down into smaller discrete parts Arbitrariness When there is no connection bn the form of signal and its meaning Cultural Transmission Some aspect of communication system that is learned from other uses Displacement Ability to communicate about things not present in space or time Interchangeability When the user can both transmit and receive messages Productivity When users can create infinite of novel utterances that others can understand B Concepts 1 Identify a given rule as prescriptive v descriptive Prescriptive grammar is not natural and reflects value judgments Descriptive grammar is intuitive and makes no value judgments 2 Compare and contrast linguistic competence and linguistic performance Linguistic competence a It is largely hidden and unconscious b Consists of lexicon and mental grammar Linguistic performance a Used by linguists to study unconscious knowledge 3 Identify which design feature is is not exhibited given a scenario from an animal communication system There are 3 features shared by all communication systems mode of communication semanticity pragmatic function There are 9 required features of a language these are listed in decreasing likelihood mode of communication semanticity pragmatic function interchangeability cultural transmission arbitrariness discreteness displacement and productivity Phonetics A Essential Terms and Definitions Term Definition International Phonetic Alphabet IPA for English consonants IPA Standardized set of symbols used for representing all possible human speech sounds Uses one to one correspondence between symbol and sound PEHEE atquot A r39ticulatiinn Bilabial Lahio litter Alveolar livenJ Faltutall Circle Glottal dental entail palatal 5 3 P k 5 F i iw ff E E I a a E antler of Articulatium quotlasa39l W 3 Lateral Appfeaimant 3 EEI WE Approximam 3 7 Glam m y i Eta L fo icelca Articulatory description of consonants Voicing Describes what is happening at the larynx Categories Voiced vibrating vocal folds Voiceless vocal folds spread apart Place Describes where in vocal tract constriction is being made Categories Bilabial both lips Labiodental lips and teeth Interdental between teeth Alveolar behind tip of tongue Postalveolar front of the hard palate Palatal center of the hard portion of the roof of the mouth Velar soft palate Glottal produced at larynx Manner Describes how the air is being modified as it makes its way through the vocal tract Categories Stop full obstruction in oral cavity with velum raised or closed Fricative partial obstruction with turbulent noisy air Affricate stop followed by fricative Nasal air passes through nasal cavity with velum lowered or open Liquid construction but with no turbulence Flap very rapid construction and release Glide slightly more constriction than vowel Articulatory description of vowels Tongue Height Categories High Mid Low Tongue Advancement Categories Front Central Back Tenseness Categories Tense Lax Lip Rounding Categories Rounded Unrounded met Cuntm Bitch l 7 3 U 2 a an i a 1 a q TE I HH39 Tennaa Entanvllh E has alumna E iuuuu 1 t31mmu nd putL131 39I Diphthong v monophthong Diphthong Two vowel sounds Monophthong One vowel sound Midsagittal Vocal Tract Alveolar Ridge Lips I B Concepts 0 c 5 Hard Palate got back Tongue omi roidw Glottis Velum Soft Palate Find and label Vocal folds Glottis Larynx Alveolar ridge Palate Velum Uvula Pharynx Oral cavity Nasal cavity 1 Identify the IPA symbol given an articulatory description and vice versa p voiceless bilabial stop b voiced bilabial stop t voiceless alveolar stop d voiced alveolar stop k voiceless velar stop g voiced velar stop P voiceless glottal stop f voiceless labiodental fricative v voiced labiodental fricative e voiceless interdental fricative 6 voiced interdental fricative s voiceless alveolar fricative z voiced alveolar fricative I voiceless postalveolar fricative 3 voiced postalveolar fricative h voiceless glottal fricative tl voiceless postalveolar affricate d3 voiced postalveolar affricate m voiced bilabial nasal n voiced alveolar nasal n voiced velar nasal l voiced alveolar lateral liquid J voiced alveolar retroflex liquid vv voiceless bilabial glide w voiced bilabial glide j voiced palatal glide r flap Syllabic consonants m quotpossm n quotbuttw I quotlittlequot J quotladdgquot Vowels i high front tense unrounded I high front lax unrounded U high back lax rounded u high back tense rounded e mid front tense unrounded e mid front lax unrounded a mid central lax unrounded A mid central lax unrounded 3 mid back lax rounded o mid back tense rounded ae low front lax unrounded a low back lax unrounded Diphthong aI quotbitequot aU quotdoubt DI quotb2quot 00 0h eI quotbait Phonology A Essential Terms and Definitions Term Definition Phoneme v Allophone Phoneme contrastive abstract mental units that are unpredictable Allophone noncontrastive phonetic units that are predictable Basic v Restricted Basic occurs everywhere else Restricted outcome of a phonological rule Contrastive v Complementary Distribution Contrastive Distribution when sounds can occur in same phonetic environments Complementary when sounds never occur in exact same phonetic environment but in mutuallyexclusive Distribution environments Contrastiveness v Noncontrastiveness Contrastiveness when interchanging letters change the meaning of a word Noncontrastiveness allophones of same phoneme Etc Minimal Pair words that differ by a single sound in same position and have different meanings Near Minimal Pair differ in gt1 sound but contrastive sounds have same phonetic environment Natural classes class of sounds with common features Phonotactic Constraints Phonotactic constraints restriction on possible sounds and sequences in different word positions Borrowing words are typically altered to match native language s phonotactics Borrowing techniques Sound substitution substituting a phonetically similar sound for foreign sound not in native phonetic inventory Deletion elimination of sound Insertion addition of a sound Accent when words of one language pronounced w phonological rules phonotactics of another language Phonological Rules Account for predictable properties of pronunciation Have 3 parts A SoundS that undergo the rule B Result of the rule CD Environment where the rule applies General Schema A gt B CD quotA become B in the environment between C and D B Concepts 1 Provide minimal pairs for classes of sounds a Characteristics of sounds in a minimal pair i Constrastiveness ii Unpredictability iii Belonging to different phonemes b Sounds in minimal pair may be contrastive in multiple features or single features 2 Identify the natural class given a set of sounds and vice versa 3 Do a morphological analysis of a set of nonEnglish language IV Morphology A Essential Terms and Definitions Term TYPES OF MORPHEMES Free v Bound Free Bound Root v Affix Root Affix Prefix Suffix Infix Circu mfix Derivational v Inflectional Affix Derivational affix Inflectional affix Content v Function Morpheme Content Morpheme Function Morpheme Definition Can occur as simple words by themselves Can t stand alone must be attached to other morphemes Maybe roots or affixes Base to which affixes attach can t be analyzed into smaller parts Can be free or bound Morphemes attached to a root or affixed base Are all bound morphemes Affix at the beginning of the word Affix at end of word Affix in the middle of a root Affix around a word Form new words w new meaning andor new lexical category May or may not change lexical category Indicate grammatical roles wo changing lexical category 8 inflectional affixes s verb ed ing en s plural s er est Have some kind of semantic meaning of their own Provide info about grammatical function by relating words of a sentences Do not have substantial content of their own TYPES OF MORPHOLOGICAL WORD FORMATION PROCESSES Affixation Reduplication Alternation Suppletion Compound Blend Clipping Acronym Conversion AIIomorphy Allomorph Morphological Rules Have 3 parts Forming new words by attaching affixes Forming new words by doubling a whole word total or part of it partial Morpheme internal changes Morphological inflection indicated with phonetically unrelated forms Combo if two or more independent words to form a new one Stress patterns in compounds differs from phrases Combining parts of two words Shortening a word by deleting syllables Using initial letters of each word in a phrase title to form new pronounceable word New word with new lexical category from another without change in form Different phonetic realization ofthe same morpheme A morphemes that undergo the rule B Result of the rule CD Environment where the rule applies General Schema A gt B CD quotA become B in the environment between C and D B Concepts 1 Identify the or type morphemes in a given word a Word meaningful unit of language that can stand on its own b Complex word more than 1 morpheme c Simple word 1 morpheme d Morpheme smallest meaningful linguistic unit Content Morphemes Function Morphemes Free Morphemes Content words Function Words 0 Nouns o Determiners o Verbs o Prepositions o Adjectives o Pronouns o Adverbs o Conjunctions Bound Morphemes Bound roots Inflectionalaffixes Derivationalaffixes 2 Identify the morphological word formation process of a given word 3 Do a morphological analysis of a set of nonEnglish data a Morphological analysis compare similar forms with recurring phonetic units and meanings b Morphological productivity processes that apply freely in the formation of new words V Syntax A Essential Terms and Definitions Term Definition Grammaticality Grammatically Sequences of words that conform to the syntactic rules of language Argument v Adjunct Argument Required part of a phrase or a sentence Obligatory Limited structured Adjunct Optional expression that provides additional info Optional Limitless structureless Transitive v Intransitive v Ditransitive verbs TV transitive verb Require an object complement DO Intransitive verb Does not require an object complement DTV ditransitive verb Require two object complements DO and IDO Lexical Categories N VTV DTV SV P ADJ ADV DE T N noun may cooccur with a determiner to its left may be modified by adjectives to its left may take noun morphology DET determiner Occurs to the left of the noun to form an NP Phrasal Categories NP VP PP S NP noun phrase Consists of a noun and its arguments and adjuncts serves as the subject of the sentence may serve as the complement of a verb or as the complement of a preposition PP prepositional phrase Begins with a preposition and has an NP complement often serve as adjuncts within an NP may serve as a complement within a verb phrase or as an adjunct within a VP VP verb phrase Combines with a NP to form a S sentence can take adverbs as adjuncts Constituency Test Pronoun Replacement Constituency test for NPs where entire NPs can be replaced by a pronoun Ambiguity property of having two or more meanings Lexical When an individual word has two or more meanings Structural When a phrase has two or more meanings Phrase Structure Rules determine which syntactic categories go into a phrase and how these categories are ordered General Schema XgtYZ quotX consists of Y followed by Z Phrase Structure Trees B Concepts 1 Identify phrases in a sentence as arguments v adjuncts 2 Identify the type of phrase underlines in a given sentence 3 Match a phrase structure rules tree to possible phrase sentence it represents and vice versa 4 Match the different interpretations of an ambiguous phrase sentence to its proper tree and vice versa Note to the consumer Thank you very much for your purchase I hope this study guide has been of great use to you In addition the following below is the password to three quizlet flashcard decks quotLING 200 Terms quotLING 200 Questions quotEnglish IPA symbols password HngZOOah My username is haeinalee
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