KINE 2000 Exam 3 Study Guide
KINE 2000 Exam 3 Study Guide Kine 2000
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tamar Turner on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Kine 2000 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Espinosa in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Intro to exercise and sports science in Kinesiology at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
KINE 2000 Exam 3 Study Guide 03/26/2016 ▯ Chapter 9: ▯ Clicker Questions: ▯ -Who was the first to devote a significant portion of his or her career to sport psychology? Coleman Griffith ▯ -Personality research in sport has shown that successful and less successful athletes do not typically differ in traits but rather in their use of cognitive strategies and coping mechanisms. True ▯ -Most of the stress associated with physical activity participation is based on: fear of failure and fear of evaluation ▯ -The presence of spectators helps young athletes concentrate better when they are learning skills for the first time. False ▯ -What do sport psychology and exercise psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on? The study of human thought, emotion, and physical activity ▯ -What is the state of bodily energy or physical and mental readiness? Arousal ▯ -In what decade was sport psychology recognized as an academic sub- discipline? 1970s ▯ ▯ What is sport and exercise psychology? ▯ -Sport and exercise psychology involves the study of human thought, emotion, and behavior in physical activity ▯ -The ABCs of Physical Activity ▯ Affect: Emotions ▯ Behavior: Actions ▯ Cognitions: Thoughts ▯ Exercise psychology: focuses on the psychological aspects of fitness, exercise, health, and wellness ▯ Sport psychology: focuses on psychological aspects of competitive sport participation ▯ Translated: understand why people do the things they do ▯ ▯ Mental Skills ▯ -50-90% of the game for an elite athlete is mental ▯ ▯ Sport Psychology Consultant ▯ -Kinesiology-trained practitioners of sport and exercise psychology focus on education or the teaching of mental skills to enhance the performance or personal fulfillment of individuals involved in sport or exercise ▯ ▯ Clinical or Counseling Psychologists ▯ -Licensed practitioners who provide psychotherapy and consultation for individuals with clinical conditions such as depression, phobias, or anorexia nervosa. Theses may include athletes and exercisers ▯ ▯ Personality ▯ -Personality types in sport ▯ No set of traits exists for an athletic personality, but successful athletes posses more positive self-perceptions and use more productive cognitive coping strategies than less successful athletes do. ▯ -Personality types in exercise ▯ No set traits exists for an exercise personality, but persistent and consistent exercisers are more self-motivated and confident in their physical abilities than sedentary people ▯ ▯ -Effects of sport on personality ▯ Sport in itself does not build character; moral development and prosocial behaviors must be modeled and created in the structure of the program ▯ -Effects of exercise on personality ▯ Exercise has been shown to produce several benefits including enhanced self-concept and psychological well-being and decreased anxiety and depression ▯ ▯ Motivation ▯ -A complex set of internal and external forces that directs and energizes our behavior in sport and exercise. ▯ -All humans, regardless of their individual goals, are motivated to feel competent and self-determining. ▯ -Intrinsic and extrinsic ▯ -Using extrinsic reinforcers (rewards) to enhance motivation ▯ ▯ Motivational Processes ▯ -Arousal: a state of physical and psychological activation or readiness ▯ -Anxiety: a negative response to a stressful situation characterized by apprehension and feelings of threat ▯ -Stress: a process in which individuals perceive an imbalance between their response capabilities and demands of the situation ▯ ▯ Burnout ▯ -Stages ▯ Feelings of mental, emotional, and physical exhaustion ▯ Negative moods and feelings (depression, despair) and a negative change in responses to other people ▯ Lack of accomplishment ▯ Disillusioned with involvement; occurs when personality characteristics interact with life stressors ▯ -Adaptation and staleness ▯ -Entrapment: lack of enjoyment ▯ -Preventing burnout ▯ Challenge ▯ Variety of activity ▯ ▯ Sport and Exercise Psychology Is… ▯ -A young science, developed in the last four decades ▯ -Related to sport and exercise performance, excellence, and enhancement ▯ -Related to the adoption and maintenance of physical activity behaviors for health benefits ▯ ▯ Chapter 10 ▯ Clicker Questions: ▯ -Dr. Devita’s research is the study of daily living. In particular he discussed the following research examples during his lecture: Both A & C ▯ -Most undergrad courses in Biomechanics contain all of these components except: Exercise Physiology ▯ -Physics is simply: biomechanics of moving around ▯ -Biomechanics can assist with design of equipment, artificial limbs, and orthoses for safety. True ▯ -The guiding principles and concepts of biomechanics come from which of the following subdisciplines? Mechanical physics, mechanical and biological engineering, and biology ▯ -Specialists who apply their knowledge of physiology, biomechanics, anatomy, and psychology in order to improve the movements, working environments, and training programs in the workplace are called: ergonomists or human factors engineers ▯ -Industries in the 1950s needed to know the measurements of people to design seats, cockpits, and instrument panels that fit these users. What is the study of people's physical dimensions that provided this type of information? Anthropometrics ▯ -What is the name of the governing organization for Sports Medicine in the U.S.: The American College Of Sports Medicine (ACSM) ▯ -What does the thoroughbred race horse Man of War and Lance Armstrong have in common making them great athletes: large hearts for their size ▯ ▯ What is Biomechanics of Physical Activity? ▯ -Biomechanics applies the mechanical principles of physics and engineering to the motion, structure, and functioning of all living systems ▯ -Biomechanists in the filed of physical activity study how these principles affect human movement and the structure and function of the human body. ▯ ▯ Undergraduate Biomechanics Courses ▯ Three basic components: ▯ -Neuromuscular-Skeletal Biomechanics: the study of the basic properties of the nervous, muscular, skeletal systems on a biomechanical level ▯ -Functional Anatomy: the study of anatomy on a movement and functional basis ▯ -Biomechanics: the quantitative analysis of human movement as described above – the physics and math calculations ▯ ▯ Two Main Theme of Study in Biomechanics ▯ -Function: how we produce forces to generate, maintain, or slow down movement during physical activity ▯ -Structure: how forces (such as gravity) affect our body tissues ▯ ▯ History of Biomechanics ▯ -Early beginnings: ▯ Aristotle, Leonardo da Vinci ▯ Biomechanics applications begin in late 1800s ▯ Posse and Skarstrom: first use of the term kinesiology in the United States in late 1800s ▯ 1920s and 1930s: researchers such as Ruth Glassow, Thomas Cureton, and Charles McCloy ▯ World events shape biomechanics (WWI, WWII, polio, physical therapy ▯ 1960s: conferences, organizations, gradute-level programs, Kinesiology Section (1965) ▯ 1970s: rapid expansion, sport medicine, dance kinesiology (biomechanics) th ▯ Late 20 century: continued expansion of university programs and organizations, switch from the term kinesiology to biomechanics to identify this subdiscipline ▯ ▯ Movement Analysis Model ▯ 1. Identify your question ▯ 2. State performance goals ▯ 3. Consider influencing factors ▯ 4. Understand motions and mechanics ▯ 5. Determine relevant biomechanical principles and movement techniques ▯ 6. Observe or measure ▯ 7. Assess, evaluate, and interpret ▯ ▯ Chapter 11 ▯ Clicker Questions: ▯ -Exercise physiology is the study of: acute and chronic bodily responses to physical activity ▯ -This kinesiologist was one of the first to contribute to the field of exercise physiology with his Nobel Prize-winning work on metabolism. A.V. Hill ▯ ▯ Physiology of Physical Activity ▯ -The study of acute (immediate) physiological responses to physical activity and the changes in physiological responses to chronic (repeated over time) physical activity ▯ ▯ Exercise Physiology vs. Sport Physiology ▯ -Exercise physiology studies how the body’s structures and function are altered when exposed to acute and chronic bouts of exercise ▯ -Sport physiology applies exercise physiology concepts to an athlete’s training and performance ▯ ▯ How should we approach designing a training regimen? ▯ FITT Principle Frequency Intensity Time Type ▯ ▯ Cardiovascular System ▯ -Cardiac output: heart rate and stroke volume ▯ -Blood flow distribution ▯ -Cardiorespiratory adaptions to training ▯ ▯ Respiratory System ▯ -Regulates the exchange of gases (including oxygen) between the external environment (air) and the internal environment (inside the body) ▯ -Ventilation increases rapidly at the onset of physical activity and also as a function of exercise intensity ▯ -Training can alter the efficiency of the body to move and utilize oxygen ▯ ▯ History of Physiology of Physical Activity ▯ -Early beginnings evolved from physiology ▯ Antoine Lavoisier ▯ August Krogh ▯ A.V. Hill ▯ Early laboratories (1920s-1940s) ▯ Harvard Fatigue Lab: D.B. Dill ▯ Springfield College: Peter V. Karpovich ▯ University of Illinois: Thomas K. Cureton Jr. ▯ ▯ Significant Events Since 1950 ▯ -1950s: Morris Coronary Heart Disease study in England; ACSM founded ▯ -1960s: biopsy needle: Mexico City Olympics; Medicine and Science in Sports ▯ -1970s: ACSM certification program; publications ▯ -1980s: amenorrhea related to low bone density ▯ -1990s: NIH and surgeon general’s reports ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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