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test 3 study materials

by: Jennifer Notetaker

test 3 study materials Biol 1110-005

Jennifer Notetaker
General Biology
James Robertson

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General Biology
James Robertson
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Notetaker on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 1110-005 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by James Robertson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 10/31/15
BIOLOGY TEST 3 STUDY GUIDE Vocab DNA 9 double helix wcomplimentary base pairing existing strands serve as templates for building new strands Grows on 3 prime end 9 Elongates in 5 to 3 direction Gene 9 length of DNA that codes for a specific protein figure 153 Chromosome 9 long piece of DNA 9 contains many genes Genome Chromatid 9 each replicated version replicated DNA strand sister chromatids Condensed Chromatid 9 when DNA needs to be moved eg electric cord Uncondensed Chromatid 9 when DNA needs to be used Homologous chromosomes 9 2 similar but slightly different not identical Chromosomes are very similar and have same genes May have different alleles for those genes Humans are diploid organism s 9 cells have both Centromere 9 inside the chromosome what attaches sister chromatids Allele s 9 different versions of the same gene Often given abbreviations or symbols such as Bb the capital letter generally represents the dominant and the lower case generally represents the recessive gene Each cell has two alleles for each protein however the products are not always equally obvious Wild type 9 refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature 39H39 The norma type of allele Dominant allele 9 the allele that expresses its phenotypic effect even when the heterozygous with a recessive allele Masks the recessive allele Recessive allele 9 produces is characteristic phenotype only when it is paired with an identical allele Masked by the dominant allele Homologous chromosomes 9 have nearly identical info chromosomes from mom amp dad Diploid 9 2 homologous groups 2n Diploid organism 9 two sets of chromosomes might have 2 different alleles Identical homozygous Different heterozygous Haploid 9 1 set of chromosomes in go through meiosis l amp Gamete 9 haploid reproductive cellsex cellsperm or egg Each sex cell has exactly V2 of the total number of chromosomes Fertilization 9 fusion of two gametes Zygote 9 result of fertilization Somatic Cell 9 regular body cell nonsex cell Independent assortment 9 gametes have 1 of each chromosome but which homologous pair each gamete gets is random Cell Theory All life is made up of one or more cells All arise from different cells How does 1 cell become 2 o Duplicate all parts 0 Evenly divide into 2 cells 0 Grow back to normal size 0 How you can go from a zygote to a person 0 DNA in all cells is the same 0 Cell cycle 9 figure 123 o 61 9 grow in size duplicate some organelles make more cytoplasm do the business of being a cell eg liver cells do what liver cells do I Many cells stop at this stage stem cells I 61 checkpoint 9 won t progress until chemical s have been answered 0 Am large enough are there sufficient nutrients around do other cells want me to divide is there room for me 9 if yes then proceeds to S phase 0 S 9 replicate DNA but does not divide yet DNA synthesis I Replicate all chromosomes I Uncondensed chromosomes o 62 9 grow a little more in size duplicate the rest of the organelles get ready for mitosis I Last chance to fix damaged DNA 0 M 9 divide nucleus amp cytoplasm I Cytokinesis step where cytoplasm is divided 61 S 62 9 all interphase 9 DNA uncondensed Primase 9 makes short RNA primer short complimentary binding to DNA bidirectional Leading Strand Synthesis 0 Doesn t require primase proceeds wout interruptions Lagging Strand 0 DNA polymerase I replaces the ribonucleotides wdeoxy nucleotides moves slower How double helix is opened amp stabilized o Topoisomerase 9 untwists the helix 0 Helicase 9 unzips the helix 0 Single stranded DNA binding proteins SSBP 9 stabilize the separate strand 8 prevent them from snapping back into a double helix keeps it single stranded Figure 158 0 Once the double helix is opened 0 Two different strands appear I Leading 9polymerase figure 1510 Lagging 9 primase needed 9 has helicase and SSBP 0 DNA polymerase must move from 5 to 3 Mutations 0 DNA polymerase can make a mistake can be repaired by proofreading 0 Something can damage DNA can be repaired b nucleotide excision repair 0 Eg Chemicals radiation smoking UV light 0 Proofreading 9 erases mistakeseIf correct 0 Only happens during replications 0 Nucleotide excision repair 9 DNAse enzyme that removes damaged section 0 Fixes mutations resulting damage to DNA if not repaired quickly can become permanent amp unrepairable Apoptosis 9 programed cell death 9 if cell can t fix damage 5 Steps of Mitosis 9 figure 125 1 Prophase a Prophase l chromosomes condense 84 spindle fibers form b Crossover can occur 9 homologous genes move tightly together parts ofthe chromosomes swap places organized switch of places 2 Prometaphase a Nuclear envelope fully disintegrates amp spindle fibers contact chromosomes kinetochores protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart 3 Metaphase a Chromosomes line up in middle of cell amp there is a metaphase checkpoint to determine if chromosomes are attached to spindle fibers 4 Anaphase a Sister chromatids separate amp they are pulled to opposite sides of the cell 5 Telophase a Nuclear membrane reforms amp chromosomes become uncondensed o Cytokinesis 9 cell constricts near middle amp cell gets pinched into two cells end of M phase Cancer 0 Disease of mitosis 9 abnormal unregulated cell division 0 Normal cells have a particular function 9 cancer cells have no apparent function in the body DNA tells a cell what order to put amino acids in 9 order of amino acids is directly dictated by the nucleotide sequence in a gene Meiosis 0 Occurs in only special cells 0 Consist of two cell divisions o Meiosis l amp meiosis II that happen back to back 0 Prior to undergoing meiosis each chromosome replicates 0 During S phase 0 Meiosis o Homologous chromosomes separate 0 Parent cell contains homologous pair of chromosomes 0 Meiosis II 0 Sister chromatids separate 0 Results in 4 daughter cells 39 Contain one chromosome each o Chromosome number in each cell is reduces 0 Has similar steps as mitosis o Prophase metaphase anaphase telophase 0 Put a or a ll after the step to indicate Meiosis I homologous chromosomes vs Meiosis sister chromatids 0 Figure 137 amp 138 Genotype Phenotype What genetic info the cell has Physical manifestation of a gene characteristic Genetic info available for a gene Aa Independently Assorting Linked Genes Genes on different chromosomes sort 7 Occur on the same chromosome independently from each other i i Passing on an allele for one gene has NO influent Get packaged together into the same egg or on which allele for another gene gets passed on sperm so alleles for linked genes get passed together Crossover In One way to move linked alleles to another chromosome 0 Homologous chromosomes get really close amp parts breach off to attach to another chromosome in Figure 148 amp 1412 History of Genetics Gregor Mendel 0 Before Mendel o Blending 9 tall amp short person will produce a medium sized person disproved by Mendel 0 Acquired characteristics 9 if a person worked hard enough their offspring would have the same characteristic Eg working out to be strong disproved by Mendel 0 Male contributed characteristicsfemale was only the vessel I All characteristics inherited from father disproved by Mendel Mendel 0 Used pea plants because it was easier to control mating he needed to observe results of crosses and needed multiple offspring to observe o Pea plants are an organism that has the necessary characteristics that you can easily control and will apply to other species I In a plant the stamen 2 sperm amp the carpel egg I Pea plants selffertilize 0 Cross fertilization 9 mix sperm from one or organism to another 9 figure 141 o Monohybrid cross 9 plants differ in only 1 characteristic figure 148 I Genotype ratio 0 RR 1 o Rr 2 Rr 1 I Phenotype ratio 0 RR o Rr 12 o Rr I Punnett Square 0 Rules for doing a Punnett Square 0 The things that go across the top amp left sides are all of the possible gametes o How many genes traits are involved 0 NEVER write two ofthe same letter in the same gamete 7 Rr rr Dihybrid Cross 0 Looking at 2 different genes I Shape amp color on separate chromosomes o Unlinked 0 Can independently assort I Figure 148 RY Ry or f 7 rv7 7 l 7 RY RRYY RRYy i RRYY RRYy l Ry RRYy i ViR Ryy 7 RrYY 7 7 Rryy rY lzRRyy Rryy RrYy RrY7Y L 7 ryiiii jZRRyY Rryy RrYy rryy i I 4 Phenotypes 0 Round green 0 Round yellow 0 Wrinkled green 0 Wrinkled yellow 0 Mendel s Claim I 1St experiments crossed 2 true breeding flowers color eg purple amp white I Peas have 2 versions or alleles of each gene I Alleles do not blend together I Each gamete contains one allele of each gene 39 Males amp females contribute equally to genotype of offspring I Some alleles are dominant to others Generations o P generation parent generation 0 F1 generation offspring of parent generation 0 F2 generation 2 offspring of F1 generation The special case of gene linkage o Linked gene 0 Two or more genes that are linked I Means they are located on the same chromosome 0 Sexlinked gene I Located on a sex chromosome I If a single sex cell is linked it is on the same chromosome


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