Mid-Term Study Guide
Mid-Term Study Guide Pols 1101
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Date Created: 10/31/15
POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 1 Chapter 10 The Congress Every state in the Union is guaranteed two senators in the Senate and at least one representative in the House lJS59minrequirementsrerrnr9i9fiireinhnrenny iJHananrequirementsrerrnrnfniiireznhnrenhy One must be at least 30 years old One must be at least 25 years old 0 A citizen of the US for at least nine year A citizen of the US for at least seven years A resident of the state he or she wishes to A resident of the state he or she wishes to represent represent Elected every 6 years by the citizens in their Elected every 2 years by the citizens in their congressional state congressional districts i125 Censn 5 02 nrennini Qenrusl The census captures population growth and population shift every ten years In response to these figures Congress allots a certain number of seats in the legislature to each state The official count of the population of a district state or nation which includes recording of stats such as age sex occupation and property ownership Renpnnrtinnrneni The process by which every ten years the decennial census captures nationwide population growth and population shift In response to these figures Congress allots a certain number of seats in the legislature House of Representatives to each state 435 seats The states then decide how to redraw their congressional district lines to accommodate their seat allotment The method of equal proportions name of the method used to reapportion seats in Congress after each census 339 2010 census Texas benefitted the most from population changes as the state s congressional delegation in the House grew from 32 representatives to 36 representatives a gain of four seats By contrast New York and Ohio lost a total of four seats in the House Redistricting The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population gerrymandering This occurs when politicians deliberately draw congressional district lines for electoral advantage 0 v Partisan This takes place when state legislatures draw district lines to guarantee that a political party will win seats in Congress Ex Oklahoma had 6 seats in the House of Representatives Republicans held five seats and Democrats held one This is because the DemocrajcicC9ntrgled Oklahoma State Legislature redrew the congressional district lines to form only 5 districts The disadvantaged were the republicans 339 Incumbent Those who currently hold political office This takes place when state legislatures draw district lines in a way that guarantees that the current officeholders will win reelection Ex California in the 2002 midterm elections No incumbents were defeated 339 Racial This takes place when state legislatures draw district lines in a way that will increase the likelihood of a racial or ethnic minority candidate winning the seat Ex North Carolina s 12th Congressional District was drawn in 1992 as a minoritymajority district with a 64 percent African American population and minority candidate Melvin Watt went on to win his bid for the district s seat in Congress that year POLS ewBibesemeaaLawmeteQy rti9eandP95ketyetql Only a member of Congress may introduce a bill 01 The bill be dropped in the Hopper a wooden box kept in the front of the chamber 02 The bill is then numbered and printed by the Clerk of the House 03 Under the guidance of the Speaker the bill is then sent to the appropriate committee for review and discussion 04 The committee chair considers the bill and directs it to the relevant subcommittee 05 From here the subcommittee chair reviews the bill and schedules public hearings to invite witness testimony on the bill before members of the committee engage in a markup session to edit and revise questionable provisions of the bill 06 After a vote is taken by the subcommittee the bill returns to the full committee for hearings markups and a vote If passed by the full committee the bill is quotreportedquot to the full chamber of the House 07 It is processed through the Rules Committee a body unique to the House and given a quotrulequot the parameters for debate on the House floor including time limits and allowable amendment activity 08 The Speaker s office then schedules the bill for debate on the House floor If the bill is passed by the full House after debate and amendment it is sent to the Senate for approval The House of Representatives STUDY GUIDE 2 The Senate 01 Many of the stages are the same but the climate of the Senate is unique 02 Bills are introduced on the Senate floor during the quotMorning Hour 03 From there as in the House a bill is directed to committee and subcommittee 04 The Senate lacks a Rules Committee however so once a bill is brought to the Senate floor any amendment may be debated and added A bill can be defeated by a filibuster 01 The president has ten days not including Sundays to act on legislation that has been passed by Congress 02 During this tenday period the president has several options 03 He can sign the bill in which case it immediately becomes law and is sent to the federal bureaucracy for implementation 04 Alternatively he can veto reject the bill in which case it returns to Congress f Congress can muster up a twothirds majority vote in support of the legislation it can override the president s veto If not the bill fails 05 If the president neither signs nor vetoes the bill it automatically becomes law once the ten days are up 06 An exception to this rule occurs if Congress adjourns before the end of the ten day period If the president has not signed the bill before Congress adjourns the bill does not become law and is effectively vetoed This is known as a pocket veto Presidents can strategically use the pocket veto to kill legislation without suffering the public backlash that might be incurred by an outright veto The President Vetoes are more frequent in times of divided government when one party controls the presidency and the other controls Congress The president derives the veto power from Article 1 of the Constitution POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 3 The committee chairs manage the actual process of writing a bill which is called Markup US Senate Filibuster and Cloture Filibuster is a tactic used to delay or prevent action on a bill by extending debate on it Filibusters can only be ended by the procedure of cloture So while it only takes a simple majority to pass a bill in the Senate without 60 senators in support of the bill there is no stopping a potential filibuster SENATOR Cloture is a legislative procedure used in the Senate to bring an end to debate It requires 60 votes to invoke cloture and end a Filibuster E9IiticaRarmMaiQritvBarty Agenda gatrgl House of Representatives Party Leadership Senate Party Leadership A A President of the Speaker of the Senate House Presi ent Pro Tempore L 44 Majority Leader Minority Leader Majority Leader Minority Leader V V Majority Whip Minority Whip Majority Whip Minority Whip V V V V o VicePresident role and when does the vp vote President of the Senate the Vice president who rarely presides over the Senate only voting in the event of a tie He generally assists the president in managing the federal bureaucracy and executing public policy on a daytoday basis 0 Speaker of the House Is a typically a member of the majority party The Speaker has powers both administrative and legislative Also second in line after the vice president 0 Who is currently the speaker of the houseJohn Boehner o Majority Whip Members of Congress tasked with enforcing party discipline and ensuring the presence of other members of the party when votes are taken on the floor of each chamber His primary task is to count votes on important pieces of legislation and making the party members vote along with their party quotWhipping them into line 0 President Pro Tempore The senator who constitutionally serves in the vice president s absence usually the most senior senator of the majority party The Majority Party sets the agenda according to their priorities and they control the referral of legislation to congressional committees This entails a significant amount of power since a bill s survival depends on referral to a favorable committee They bring bills to vote that are important to them The majority party through the vehicle of the Rules Committee further controls the extent to which a bill can be debated on the floor of the House A bill may be sabotaged on the House floor if left open to unlimited debate The Minority Party doesn t have the right to set anything but they can make their life difficult for the Majority Party especially the Senate with the Filibuster They select the speaker of the house and committee chairs Party leaders also control the legislative process in order to accomplish policy goals By controlling the committee assignment process the majority party guarantees that each committee panel will protect the party s interests in legislative hearings and markups POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 4 The majority party also controls the selection of committee chairs further protecting the party s interests as legislation is shepherded through committees When presented with a piece of legislation a chair can choose to work on it or sit on it thereby serving as an arm of the party apparatus inside the committee meeting room Unified Government The situation occurring when the same party controls the Senate the House of Representatives and the White House Divided Government The situation occurring when one party controls the White House and another party controls the Senate the House or both angrestsi9nangmittees 0 v Conference Committees A temporary committee composed of members from both the House or the Senate responsible for working out the differences between the chamber versions of a bill They only form at the end of the legislative process 0 O 0 Standing CommitteesThe Rules Committee A permanent committee of the House or the Senate that reviews and reports legislation to the full chamber They handle the daytoday business of Congress The House has 19 and the Senate has 16 House Rules Committee VVV 0 O 0 An institution unique to the House of Representatives that reviews all bills except revenue budget and appropriations bills coming from a House committee before they go to the full House They decide how debate happens the House 0 v Joint Committees A committee composed of members from both the House or the Senate with jurisdiction over specific issues of mutual interest v Special CommitteesSelect committeeAd Hoc committee A temporary committee organized around a specific purpose This committee is usually investigative in nature and lacks the authority to review legislation A party will appoint a member to a committee based on considerations of constituency as well as considerations of the member s party loyalty personal expertise electoral needs demographic profile and seniority Delegateglmgre qusel A model of representation calling for members of Congress to serve as the mouthpiece of their constituents in the legislative process As a delegate a member is expected to directly reflect constituent sentiment Iruste9slmme enatel A model of representation calling for members of Congress to protect the interests of their constituents As a trustee a member is expected to use hisher best judgment in making legislative decisions Earmatssl39rk3arrelprqgrams The congressional direction of money to be spent on specific projects or programs benefiting targeted communities Members of Congress use earmarks to fund projects for their constituents at home POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 5 Ex Giving government jobs patronageor indirect employment through government contracts for programs within a Congressman s district writing recommendation letters Chapter 11 The Presidency 1125 latestlent requirements terms9f9ffic9ar1d limits 9 terms 39 Must be a naturalborn citizen of at least 35 years of age 39 Has resided in the United States for at least 14 years The term length of the president and vice president is limited to 4 years and limited to 2 terms The president can be removed from office on impeachment The first step in the process of removing an official from public office by force It occurs when a legislative body votes to bring charges against the official for and conviction of treason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors EresidentialAppgintments The authority vested in the president to fill a government office or position The president needs the Senate to confirm who he appoints to assist him in the Executive Office the president does not need the Senate to confirm who he appoints to assist him in the White House Office Positions filled by presidential appointment include those in the executive branch and the federal judiciary commissioned officers in the armed forces and members of the independent regulatory commissions The president is served directly by he white house staff which is made up mostly of trusted policy and political advisors called special assistants SEPIQFEEYQEQQEHFEPJDEIPQPEFFNEDIEHQWAPPPjDIQQ gt There are 15 executive departments with jurisdictions gt Cabinet secretaries chief administrators of the major departments of the federal government are appointed by the president and approved by the Senate gt The one exception is the attorney general who is responsible for the Department ofJustice gt Secretary is at the top of the hierarchy of authority W1vfeyndsrssreatedaweasre i9ency3 Having learned from the failure of the Articles of Confederation s weak executive yet still fearful of the tyrannical power of a king the Founders conceived of an executive with limited power The Framers fears about aspects of the presidency 1 The fear of a president using bribery or force to ensure his reelection 2 The fear of the president using the militia to overpower the state governments 3 The fear of the president being corrupted by or corrupting the Senate Power to Declare War Article Section 8 Clause 11 of the United States Constitution sometimes referred to as the War Powers Clause vests in the Congress the power to declare war As a result the president cannot declare war without their approval However as the Commander in Chief of the armed forces many presidents have sent troops to battle without an official war declaration ex Vietnam Korea insumhent The person holding an office who runs for office again is called an incumbent They usually have an advantage Qhallengers POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 6 A politician running for an office that he does not hold at the time of the election Challengers run against incumbents or in openseat elections PresidentExpressedngwersdmnliednewestandllelegateplpgwers gt Some are specifically granted to him by the Constitution these are known as expressed powers gt Some are not expressly stated in the Constitution but have been interpreted by presidents as necessary to faithfully execute the laws and to protect and defend the Constitution these are known as implied powers gt Other powers are delegated to the president by Congress in order to implement legislation these are known as delegated powers POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 Sutu39t i Hi Im stitutn ntil Check or Pun17 Executive Orders Resp msilnhty Pi ns g r Execu ve Execute laws Expressed Pending budgetary support by Congress all33339 Implied Pending budgetary support by Congress L EEM departmem Expresed Requires Senate con rmation ggtdbudgets Delegated Requires congressional approval i iise wcuuve Implied Limited to matters involving policy execution and enforcement executive Implied Limited to instances involving national security Legislative quoteto legislation Expressed Can be overridden by Congress Deliver State of the Ex med Serva informational and persuasive rather than declarative Union address p purposes gigg ol a om Expressed Requires congressional approval Convene and adjourn Ex ed Can convene only under extreme circumstances can adjourn Congress p only given congressional con ict over adjournment JudKnal 3316 to Expressed Requires Senate con rmation to Expressed Requires Senate continuation Prd ns and Expressed Prospect of reelection limits its practice Dmbnmm gmgdors Expressed Requires Senate con rmation Receive ambassadors Expressed No constitutional check Enter into treaties with foreign nations Expressed Requires Senate rati cation Eg g ggtgecu ve Implied Execution may require congressional approval Serve as head of state Implied Role is merely symbolic Military 333 commander Expressed Requires congressional authorization to engage troops Public Opinion presem he public None No institutional check on power Egg ghe mammal None No institutional check on power Political Party L g g m pan None No institutional check on power Egg ghe party None No institutional check on power SymbOIic head at he None No institutional check on power 133quotquot Executive orders are declarations issued by a president that relate to the organization of the federal bureaucracy the execution of federal legislation and the enforcement of federal court decisions POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 8 They do not require the approval of Congress but they can be ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court or repealed by subsequent administrations Presidents have often used executive orders to meet their obligation to quotfaithfully execute the laws of the na on E2lt99utiverivi9g9 President Eisenhower was the first to use to the actual term quotexecutive privilege 0 Executive privilege the act of withholding information from congressional judicial or public scrutiny 0 Executive privilege clearly represents an implied executive power given that it is found nowhere in the Constitution Legislatiyeliqwers The president s legislative responsibilities include the power to veto legislation and the ability to shape the legislative agenda through the State of the Union address Judicial Powers Article II section 2 establishes the president s power to nominate justices to the Supreme Court and other federal courts created by Congress 0 v Pardons The exoneration of both the crime and the associated penalty 339 Reprieves The exoneration of the penalty associated with a crime but not of the crime itself 0 v Amnesty A pardon that is issued to a group of people who are not in compliance with the law Qie9matic9y9rs The ability to enter into treaties with foreign nations but he must obtain the consent of twothirds of voting senators They are at liberty to negotiate executive agreements with foreign nations Executive agreements do not require congressional approval 0 The president is constitutionally entitled to receive foreign dignitaries and to appoint US ambassadors The president s responsibility to act as our symbolic head of state in representing the government of US throughout the world E ct9r 99geWhatdetermineshgwmanytmmeaghstateandhmmanxint a gt Each state receives a number of electoral votes equivalent to its number of senators and representatives for a total of 538 electoral votes gt The votes are apportioned the same way congressional districts are every ten years by the Census A candidate needs 270 electoral votes to become president gt 23rd amendment District of Columbia is allocated 3 electors and treated like a state for purposes of the electoral college gt 538 is the sum of the nation s 435 Representatives 100 senators and 3 electors given to the District of Columbia Senators Representatives Electors POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 9 Chapter 12 The Judiciary C9l1ttcteat99hxnameinIhe 9nstitutign Article 3 of the Constitution established only the Supreme Court the rest of the federal judiciary was created by congress determining the number ofjustices The size of the Supreme Court is not determined by the Constitution federalggytt ystem 1 The federal court system is separate from the other branches of government 2 The federal courts are HIERARCHICAL with the supreme court at the top and the lower courts all the way down 3 The federal courts are able to perform judicial review over laws passed by congress and state legislatures and over executive actions 4 The federal judges are appointed for life and their salaries cannot be reduced 925 SHPIQEUE EQUIP The Constitution grants the Supreme Court two types ofjurisdiction a set of cases that they re authorized to decide that can make civil laws 0 v Original jurisdiction Trial courts This is fixed by the Constitution refers to the Court s ability to hear a case for the very first time Cases between the federal government and one of the 50 states 0 Cases involving foreign ambassadors Cases brought by citizens of one state against citizens of another state Federal case involving two or more states v Appellate Jurisdiction Supreme Courts I This refers to the Court s ability to hear cases quoton appea from a lower court This can be adjusted by Congress In other words Congress can expand or restrict the types of cases the Court can hear on appeal as it did with the Judiciary Act of 1789 Most of the cases heard by the Supreme Court fall under its appellate jurisdiction HEW many 5 l RENE 99 ills 995 Currently there are 9Supreme Court justices on the United States Supreme Court The number ofjustices is set by Congress and has varied from five to 10 There have been nine justices since 1869 4 riteriaf9r19235919beheardFameu ypteme 99rt There must be an actual case or controversy involving two adversarial parties The parties involved must have standing Cases that are moot case is already solved do not qualify for consideration by the Court Cases that are not ripe did not occur yet do not qualify for consideration by the Court 99 F WhichQQHIthasthefewestgasespex year gt The US Supreme Court around 8000 Judicial Review This allows the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of any federal or state law check and strike down those that conflict with Constitution In other words the ability of the Court to examine laws compare them with the POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 10 Constitution and strike them down if there s a conflict This is the Supreme Court s most notable and notorious power gt Judiciary act of 1789 Established the basic threetiered structure of the federal court system gt Marbury v Madison 1803 President John Adams appointed William Marbury federalist as a justice of peace for the District of Columbia The commissions were approved by the Senate and signed by the President President Adams Secretary of State failed to deliver Marbury s commissions Upon entering office President Jefferson 0 DemocraticRepublican felt that there were already too many Federalists in the judiciary and instructed his Secretary of State James Madison to not deliver the commissions to Marbury He failed to deliver commission before midnight Midnight Judges Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to issue a writ 9f mgndgmus basically a court order compelling the Jefferson administration to deliver his commission Despite wanting his fellow Federalist William Marbury to become a judge Chief Justice Marshall was hesitant to rule in his favor because he worried that President Jefferson would simply ignore the Supreme Court s decision thus effectively rendering the judiciary an inferior branch of government This case presents three questions for the court39s consideration 1 Does William Marbury have the right to his commissions The answer is yes 2 Does the law permit the courts to grant him his rights The answer is yes 3 Does the Supreme Court have the authority or jurisdiction to enforce delivery of commission for a government official The answer is no Marshall justified his ruling in favor of Madison and the Jefferson administration by finding that the portion of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that allowed the Supreme Court to issue writs of mandamus was unconstitutional since it represented an attempt by Congress to expand the Court s original jurisdiction The Supreme court could have been able to issue a writ of mandamus to enforce Marbury s commission Marshall writes quotTo enable this court then to issue a mandamus it must be shown to be an exercise of appellate jurisdiction Ihe ylepffqur In order for a case to be granted a writ of certiorari it must receive the votes of at least four justices of the nine This is called the Rule of Four The Rule of Four is a longstanding custom designed to protect the rights of the minority If a sizable minority of the Court wishes to hear a case then the Court will grant a review A writ ofcertiorari is an order to the lower court to deliver the records of a case to the Supreme Court for review feder 99rty tem 339 Levels The federal court system consists of three tiers gt At the bottom are the federal district courts also called trial courts 94 district courts gt In the middle are the federal appeals courts also known as the circuit courts of appeal gt At the top is the Supreme Court 339 Judges terms All federal judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate They serve for life unless they retire or die or in rare cases removed by the process of impeachment The senate confirms the removal ofjudges by a majority vote Crimina9ffenss usualhig9t9which 99rt POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 11 Criminal cases involving federal laws can be tried only in federal court but most criminal cases involve violations of state law and are tried in federal district courts or state courts Wheteevsereein ewfeelerelJedgeeeleeieleeseee The justices can pick and choose among the cases that come to them but they are not able to initiate them they cannot choose the cases which enter the judicial system The court must wait until a case makes its way through the court system and is bought to the Supreme Court on appeal Once the case appears in the Supreme Court s pool of cases the justices can then select it over the other cases DECIDING A CASE gt Must meet the four criteria gt Then case can follow two paths to the Supreme Court through the Court s original jurisdiction the less common path or through its appellate jurisdiction the more common path gt Anyone seeking an appeal must file a petition for a writ of certiorari def an order to the lower court to deliver the records of a case to the Supreme Court for review with the Supreme Court clerk within 90 days of the lower court s ruling gt Once petition is file law clerks for each of the justices evaluate the petitions Each petition is reviewed by one clerk who summarizes the case and makes a recommendation to the justice gt Memos are then reviewed by each of the justices who decide individually which cases to add to the list of cases to be discussed discussion list by all the justices Each justice sends the list to the chiefjustice gt Any case that does not make it onto the discussion list is automatically denied a granting certiorari gt Justices vote on which case to try in a closeddoor conference It must receive votes of at least four justices see Rule of Four eneterielEeyrteey The practicepresidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work Amicus Curiae A type of brief filed by a quotfriend of the court or someone who is not directly involved in the case at hand Interest groups often file this type of brief to provide information to the Court to assist in its decisionmaking process Meietitygpinien A written opinion that establishes the decision of the Court offers a legal rationale for that decision and sets a precedent for future related cases It takes 5 out of 9 justices to render a majority opinion C9r1cerring gainien An opinion that agrees with the conclusion but not the reasoning of the majority opinion of the Court Qiseeetinggpinien An opinion that disagrees with the conclusion of the majority opinion of the Court Precedent Prior cases whose principles are used by judges as the bases for their decisions in present cases Jediciehiesephy POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 1 2 339 Judicial Activism Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values and overturn precedent The courts should play a more active role in instituting social and political reforms especially by striking down laws found to be unconstitutional according to modern interpretations 0 v Judicial Restraint Justices of the Supreme Court should base their decisions on the literal text of the Constitution and the precedents established by the rulings of previous courts They must call for judges to respect the roles of the other branches of federal and state government to refrain from invalidating federal and state law whenever possible and to respect stare decisis or the principle of deferring to precedent Stare Decisis quotLet the decision stand The rule of precedent The practice of basing judicial decisions on precedents established in similar cases decided in the past 9licit9rgenerallchieilawxerl A presidential appointee and the thirdranking office in the Department ofJustice The solicitor general is in charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government They screen out a lot of petitions because those cases don t raise a lot of federal law questions or have already been decided in other cases Chapter 14 The Bureaucracy Byreaysrasy A set of procedures and structures used by government to administer policies and programs Whether in government at federal state local levels or outside of government in corporations or nonprofit organizations serves several important functions Federal Bureaucracy The executive departments president vice president and cabinet department agencies bureaus and offices are collectively known as the federal bureaucracy 1 Implement laws that congress writes 2 Make amp Enforce their own rules regulations 3 Settle disputes through process called administrative adjudication Strategyterredygingthesize91mgfederalgqumment Devolution It delegates the responsibility for implementing federal programs to state and local governments The idea behind this is that state governments can better and more efficiently provide services at the local level Privatization Shift of responsibility Government services public contractors are provided by private contractors sl1eetw9rk The relationship between a clienteleoriented department the clientele it serves and the congressional committee sharing jurisdiction with the department Iron Triangle Sometimes the issue network can develop into a powerful alliance between the three ron Triangle a term describing the coordination among congressional committees bureaucratic agencies and interest groups Sepgilto y temlliatr9riageV t ml1 2 l The expansion of the federal government during the election of president Andrew Jackson was due to the spoils system This describes an informal practice in which a political party would awards government positions to its supporters in exchange for their continued support Ih r93restsiveEr 1 91929l POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 13 gt The period in the late 19th and early 20th centuries marked by a social movement calling for sweeping reforms through increasedexpanding government regulation gt The Progressive movement drew attention to the wealth disparity between the mostly immigrant labor class and the capitalists exploiting them by requiring long working hours with little pay 0 Expansion offederal regulation of commerce and labor The Meat Inspection Act the Pure Food and Drug Act 0 Pendeton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 Progressives sought to rid the bureaucratic system of political kickbacks and rewards In place of the spoils system I Required federal employees to be hired based on merit gt Some of the other Progressives priorities included prohibition of alcohol extension of voting rights to women and limitations on government corruption gt It legitimized the role of the federal bureaucracy as chief regulator of behavior in the areas of commerce and labor This new role was made possible by increasing public demand for a stronger centralized government that would address the conflicts and social crises of an expanding American population and the inadequacies of state and local regulation Ihghlsw99911193119493 gt Collapse of the global market economy leads to rocketing unemployment and poverty rates 0 This collapse exposed the inability of state local and private firms to coordinate their actions quickly in response to widespread economic hardship 1929 gt Americans turned to Democratic presidential candidate Franklin Delano Roosevelt for help electing him president in 1932 in support of his New Deal platform 0 National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 To stimulate economy Roosevelt worked with Congress to establish numerous employment and economic growth programs which sponsored the implementation of modern infrastructure 0 The New Deal included several initiatives meant to regulate industry and workplace practices Supporters of the New Deal formed labor unions to represent the interests of specific sectors of the American workforce 0 Securities Exchange Act of 1934 This created an independent agency to monitor and regulate the vulnerable stock market 0 Social Security Act of 1935 The first federally funded pension program targeting all working Americans gt New Deal reforms helped to expand the range of policies that the federal government was responsible for administering and overseeing The reforms of the New Deal did more than just regulate specific industries they also provided social services and benefits directly to American citizens and all of these services needed to be administered by a growing federal bureaucracy gt The size of the federal workforce increased considerably during the 1940s in order to implement the New Deal reforms and to prepare the nation for mobilization in World War II Ihe reat 9 i9t1l19 9l gt A series of federal government programs promoted by President Lyndon Johnson in the 19605 that aimed to end poverty and racial injustice gt The Johnson administration proposed new programs that constructed colleges and universities provided loans and grants to college students and instituted job training programs for individuals to build skills for the workplace gt Civil Rights Act of 1964 The government finally provided comprehensive federal protection against discrimination in voting employment education and access to public facilities and accommodations gt The Great Society while expanding the budget and scope of the federal government even further sought to improve the wellbeing of communities across the United States gt Voting Rights Act 1965 POLS STUDY GUIDE 2 14 gt Medicare is a federal program that provides health coverage if you are 65 or older or have a severe disability no matter your income gt Medicaid is a state and federal program that provides health coverage if you have a very low income B k ry arr19 2 This case that established the principle of one man one vote This decision created guidelines for drawing up congressional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state The Supreme Court decided that it would regularly require and oversee redistricting in order to prohibit states from using constituent characteristics such as class race or partisanship as primary factors in structuring congressional district lines Current speaker of the house who will resign Jenn399hnerBept9 entive9f9hi9 gt Leaves Capitol Hill on October 30 Runners RaulRyanBeny9icanlw ysandMeans hairman gt He does not want the job He will only serve if fractious Republicans unite behind him to replace retiring Speaker John Boehner gt Ryan represents the only potential candidate with any chance to get establishment Republicans and the Freedom Caucus to back him without acceding to all of the latter s demands DanielWebsterRepyhlisanlr epresently9fEl9ri9la gt He has received an official endorsement from the House Freedom Caucus gt I have one desire That is to have a principlebased memberdriven Congress Period That s what I want ltevin9 atthvBepuhligan Benresentiye9f aif9mia gt House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy simply didn t see a path to the 218 votes he needed to become speaker of the House so he backed out of the race gt Mini HaneyE9l9 ii29mgcrati l
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