Exam 3 Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Notetaker on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 161-22 at La Salle University taught by David Rothblat in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views.
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Date Created: 10/31/15
Exam 3 Study Guide Cell junctions Points of contact between cells Hemoptysis blood cell production Ex Spleen Goblet Cells produce mucus and are single cell glands Fibroclasts Make connective tissue Chondrocvtes Cells that build cartilage Osteocytes Help maintain bone Osteoblasts Formbuild bone Also bring down blood calcium levels Osteoclasts Breakdown bone Also raise blood calcium levels Cell Connections Found on lateral and basal surfaces of cells Types desmosomes hemidesmosomes tight junctions and gap junctions Functions form permeability layer bind cells together and provide mechanism for intercellular communication They also dictate if things can pass through tissues Tight Junctions Encircle the cell joining it to surrounding cells Prevents passage between two cells Are the strongest and found in the stomach intestinal and urinary tract because we don t want stuff leaking between cells Has zipper like complementary grooves and ridges Hemidesmosomes Fibers that connect cell to basement membrane Desmosomes Patch between cells holding them together Connect cell to cell s cells spanned by laments terminating on protein plaque cytoplasmic laments also attach to plaque anchor for laments ln uterus heart and epidermis Gap Junctions Ring of transmembrane proteins form water lled channel IFor cell communication ls in embryos and smoothos muscle heps small solutes pass from one cell to another cell Features of Epithelial Tissue Many cells are tightly packed together itte to no extracellular matrix avascular doesn t have capillaries many cell junctions are present next to a free or apical surface Attaches to a basement membrane and has a free surface It avascular but does have nerve supply mitosis occurs often Classi cation of Epithelial Tissue Classi ed according to shape of cell and how many layers thick they are Simple vs Strati ed Epithelium Simple Contains one layer of cells Names by shape of cells Strati ed contains more than one layer Named by shape of apical cells Can be keratinized or nonkeratinized Glandular Epithelium Gland A single cell or a mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion Endocrine No open contact with exterior produce hormones Is in glandular tissue that secretes directly into the blood stream Exocrine Open contact maintained with exterior ducts They secrete the product locally and are in epithelial tissue Structural Classi cation uniceluar single cells Multicellularcomposed of many cells that form a distinctive microscopic structure or macroscopic organ sweat glands oil glands salivary glands Method of Secretion Types Merocrine Gland cells of the gland produce secretions by active transport or produce vesicles and the vesicles empty the contents into the duct through Main thing is secretion in duct Apocrine Gland Secretory products are stored in the cell near the lumen of the duct and then part of the cell breaks off lost part of the cell Holocrine Gland Secretory products are stored in the cells of the gland Cells die fall off and are secreted Secretion is cell and product Features of Connective Tissue has few scattered cells has a lot of extracellular matrix and bers amount of bers differentiates between tissues Loose and dense are based on ber arrangement Are found in every organ Performs variety of important functions Ces do not cover or line don t have free surfaces Extracellular Matrix s located in the spaces between connective tissue cells Made of bers ad ground substance Fibers Provide strength and support to a tissue Are in collagen bers elastic bers and reticular bers Functions of Connective Tissue Enclose organs as a capsule and separate organs into layers Connect tissues to one another Tendons and ligaments Support and movement of bones Store cushion and insulate fat Transport blood Protect cells of the immune system Cells of connective Tissue Adipose or fat cells adipocytes Common in dermis of skin rare in some cartilage Mast cells Common beneath membranes along small blood vessels Can release heparin thins blood histamine dilates blood vessels due to allergies and proteolytic enzymes in response to injury White blood cells leukocytes Respond to injury or infection Macroohages Phagocytize or provide protection Fixed stay in position in connective tissue Wandering move by amoeboid movement through the connective Ussue Platelets Fragments of hematopoietic cells involved in clotting Undifferentiated mesenchvme stem cells Have potential to differentiate into adult cell types Protein bers of the matrix Collagen Most common protein in body strong exible inelastic Reticular Fill spaces between tissues and organs Fine collagenous form branching networks Elastic Returns to its original shape after distension or compression Resemble coiled springs Most common molecules are called the ground substance and include Hyaluronic acid polysaccharide Good lubricant Vitreous humor of eye Proteoglycans protein and polysaccharide Protein part attaches to hyaluronic acid Trap large amounts of water Adhesive molecules hold proteoglycan aggregates together Chondronectin in cartilage osteonectin in bone bronectin in brous connective tissue Loose Connective Tissue Areolar in capillaries and the skin Contains elastic bers collagen reticular and all ve types of cells s loose packing material of most organs and tissues also known as stroma Adipose predominant cells are adipocytes lnside is one giant vacuole of lipids s located everywhere in us Reticular Is in spleen and lymph nodes Forms superstructure of lymphatic and hemopoietic tissues Spaces between cells contain white cells and dendritic cells Dense Connective Tissue Dense means many bers Regular Collagenous ln tendons and ligaments Tendons connects bone to muscle and ligaments connect bones to bones Has abundant collagen bers that resist stretching Regular Elastic in ligaments in vocal cords Colagen bers give strength but elastic bers are more prevalent Irregular Collagenous In the lower layers of the skin and scars Protein bers arranged in a randomly oriented network lrregular Elastic ln walls of arteries Bundles and sheets of collagenous and elastic bers oriented in multiple directions Cartilage is avascular with no nerve supply Heals slowly is in joints composed of chondrocytes located in matrix surrounded spaces called lacunae Ground substance proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid complexed together trap large amounts of water Type of components determines by components of the matrix Hyaline Cartilage is the cartilage on ribs and the nose embryonic skeleton involved in growth that increases bone length Found in areas for strong support and exibility Function supports and reinforces cushions and resists stress Fibrocartilage found in intervertebral discs knees Located where a great deal of pressure islocated Function Tensile strength with ability to absorb shock Elastic Cartilage Found on external ears and epiglottis Function Maintains shape of structure while allowing exibility Bone Hard connective tissues composed of living cells osteocytes and mineralized matrix Matrix gives strength and rigidity allows bone to support and protect other tissues and organs osteocytes located in lacunae gtSpongy bone Trabeculae of bone with spaces between Looks like a sponge and is found inside compact bone gtCompact bone Arranged in concentric circle layers around a central canal that contains a blood vessel Found on periphery of bones Blood Matrix Plasma the liquid part without bers is formed by other tissues moves through vessels Formed elements red cells white cells and platelets Hemopoietic tissue is aqueous forms blood cells the two types of bone marrow are yellow and red Membranes Are at sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body Two types 1 Epithelial Membranes Mucous membranes Serous membranes on organs Cutaneous membranes Skin 2 Synovial Membranes Found in knee joints and makes synovial uid Muscle Tissue Consists of bers that provide motion maintain posture and produce heat produce heat by shivering which is rapid constriction of muscles Skeletal Muscle Function moves the body and is under voluntary control Location attach to bone or other connective tissue They have many nuclei and are striated and unbranching Cardiac Muscle Function Pumps blood is under involuntary control Location the heart striated and have a single centrally located nucleus the bers are branched has intercalated discs that are junctions between two different cells and connect the two cells together The junctions re gap junctions Smooth muscle Location In hollow organs such as the stomach and small and large intestines Function Regulates the size of organs forces uid through tubes controls the amount of light entering the eye ls involuntary and squeezes substances through the hollow body organs They aren t striated and have a single nucleus Have fusiform and the arrangement is even Nervous Tissue Two kinds of cells Neurons store memories control emotions Neuroglia Support cells nourishment provide immune function Neurons have a cell body dendrite and axon Neurons carry sensory and motor info and perform integrative functions Neurons Have the ability to produce action potentials Parts of a neuron Cell Body Contain nucleus Dendrite Cell process receive impulses from other neurons can be many per neuron Axon cell process conducts impulses away from cell body usually only one per neuron They can have multiple dendrites but only one axon usually bigger and starts a triangular shape area Moves only in one direction Creates membrane potential by keeping sodium out and potassium in Action potential is when the gates open up to allow sodium to rush in and it becomes positive Gates open up for potassium to rush out and it becomes negaUve Neuroglia Supports cells of the brain spinal cord and nerves Nourishes protects and insulates neurons Tissue Repair Tissue repair the process that replaces worn out damaged or dead cells Epithelial cells are replaced by the division of stem cells or undifferentiated cells Not all connective tissue cells have the ability to repair Muscle cells can perform limited repair Some nervous cells can perform limited repair others cannot Fibrosis the formation of scar tissue Aging Aging slows the process of tissue repair Younger bodies 1 A better nutritional state 2 A better blood supply to tissues 3 A faster metabolic rate Disorders Disorders if epithelial tissue are usually speci c organs Example skin cancer Disorders of connective tissues are usually autoimmune in nature Examples Lupus egxema Chapter 5 lntegumentary System Parts of the lntegumentary system are the skin nails glands blood vessels muscles and nerves Functions of lntegumentary system Maintains body integrity Maintain temperature convert inactive vitamin D into its active form Used to stimulate calcium absorption in GI system provides sensory info maintains homeostasis Protection of Skin Against abrasion Desduamation sloughing off of bacteria Glandular secretions bacteriostatic kill bacteria and skin contains cells of the immune system Acts as a barrier to diffusion of water Nais protect ends of digits self defense Hair on head is an insulator and protection against light and abrasion most of heat is lost on top of head Eyebrows keep sweat out of the eyes Eyeashes protect eyes from foreign objects Hair in nose and ear against dust bugs etc Protects melanin against IV radiation Protects against microorganisms and other foreign substances Physiology of integumentary System Sensation Pressure temperature pain heat cold touch movement of hairs There is a hair follicle which is a nerve around hair which why you can tell if an ant is on your arm Temperature Regulation Sweating and radiation gtSweat causes evaporative cooling Water from sweat removes heat energy from you gtSweating causes vasodilation and shivering causes vasoconstriction gtArterioles in dermis change diameter as temperature changes More or less blood ows through the dermis Skin Layers Epidermis Super cial layer of epithelial tissue Found in strati ed squamous tisse Dermis Deep layer of connective tissue that has structural strength Also has a dermal papillae which gives you ngerprints Found in dense irregular ssue Subcutaneous Tissue hvoodermis Is not part of the skin It is loose connective tissue that connects skin to underlying structures Found in adipose tissue The Epidermis Has four types of cells Keratinocytes Produce keratin a tough brous protein that provides protection Melanocytes Produce the pigment melanin ntraepidermal macrophages made in bone marrow and ght infection Are involved in immune responses They are also known as langerhan cell Tactie epithelial cells sensation of touch Five Layers of Skin from deep to super cial Stratum basale Stratum spinosum Stratum granulosum Stratum lucidum only present in thick skin such as palms of hands and soles of feet 5 Stratum corneum gtUUl 39 Epidermal Cells Desquamate cells of the deeper layers undergo mitosis and as they move toward the surface older cells slough off Keratinization Process of turning epithelial cells into keratinized cells it puts keratin in the cell Stratum Basale Singe layer of cells on basement membrane Cells in this layer Keratinocytesundergo mitosis to replace epidermis Melanocytesdistribute melanin trough cell processes gtMelanin is picked up by keratinocytes Merkel cells are touch receptors and form merkel disc Stratum Spinosum Contain several layers of keratinocytes gtThey appear spiny due to shrinkage during histological preparation Contains dendritic Langerhans cells gtLangerhans are immune cells gtMacrophages from bone marrow gtHelp protect body against pathogens by presenting them to the immune system Stratum Granulosum 3 to 5 layers of at keratinocytes Contain keratinohyalin granules that combine with laments of cytoskeleton to form keratin Produces lipid lled vesicles that release gtForms a barrier between surface cells and deeper layers of the epidermis gtCuts off surface strata from nutrient supply Stratum Lucidum Thin translucent zone only in Keratinocytes are packed with eleidin a precursor to keratin Cels have no nucleus or organelles Stratum Corneum Up to 30 layers of dead scaly keratinized cells the surface cells ake off or exfoliate Types of Skin Thin hairy skin Covers all body regions except the palms palmar surfaces of digits and soles Thick hairless skin covers the palms palmar surfaces of digits and soles Skin Pigment Melanin is produced by melanocytes in the stratum basale Skin Color Is determined by 3 factors pigments blood circulating through the skin and thickness of the stratum corneum Pigments Melanin provides protection against UV light Is a group of chemicals derived from aa tyrosine It is colored brown to black sometimes yellow or reddish gtMeanocvtes Processes extend between keratinocytes Carotene Yellow pigment from vegetables Accumulates in stratum corneum in adipose cells of the dermis and in subcutaneous tissue Blood circulating through the skin mparts reddish hue and increases during blushing anger in ammation Cyanosis blue color caused by decrease in blood oxygen content Thickness of Stratum Corneum Meanosomes are produced by the golgi apparatus of the melanocyte Then the Melanosomes move into melanocyte cell processes The epithelial cells phagocytize the tips of the melanocyte cell processes Then the melanosomes are transferred to the epithelial cells Skin Pigments Albinism A congenital disorder characterized by the absence of pigment in the skin hair and eyes eyes turn red due to a defect of an enzyme involved in the production of melanin Vitiligo a chronic disorder that causes depigmentation patches in the skin The cause is not known and it is an autoimmune disease White patches appear on different areas of body aundice Turn yellow from having liver problems It is due to billy rubin You can get rid of it with UV radiation The dermis s composed of connective tissue containing collagen and elastic bers It contains two regions The papillary region lies just below the epidermis The reticular region consists of dense irregular connective tissue Subcutaneous Layer Hypodermis It attaches the skin to underlying tissues and organs Sensory Receptors 1 Super cially Type cutaneous mechanoreceptors free nerve endings corpuscles of touch and hair root plexuses 2 Deep Lamellated corpuscles Sensory Cells Meissner Corpusle Touch involved in tow point discrimination and sensitivity Markel Discs Detect light touch and super cial pressure Ruffini and Organ Detects continuous touch or pressure and depression or stretch of the skin Pacinian Corpusle Detects deep cutaneous pressure vibration and proprioception Free Nerve Endings Respond to pain nociceptors and temperature Hair Composed of dead keratinized epidermal cells Genetics determines thickness and distribution Alopecia when you re allergic to your hair to it falls out Parts of the hair The shaft above the skin surface The follicle below the level of the skin A root bulb that penetrates into the dermis includes An epithelial root sheath A dermal root sheath gtGrowth of hair occurs in the bulb Hair Structure Hair grows in stages in growth and resting stages Growth cells added at base and hair elongates Resting follicle shortens and holds hair in place Regular hair loss means hair is being replaced Permanent hair loss pattern baldness most common cause Hair Color Caused by varying amounts and types of melanin Melanin can be blackbrown and red Muscles Arrector pili A type of smooth muscle The muscle contraction causes hair to quotstand on endquot Skin Glands Sebaceous oil glands are connected to hair follicles and make the hair oily Eccrine sweat glands are the most numerous Apocrine sweat glands are located mainly in hairy skin such as the top of the head Ceruminous glands are modi ed sweat glands located in the ear canal and makes ear wax Nails They are made of keratinized epidermal cells Are defense mechanisms Nail Structures Nail Root is embedded in a fold of skin and is not visible Eponychium Cuticle The stratum corneum of the epidermis Lunula The thick white part of the nail Nail bed The skin below the nail plate Nail body the transparent visible part of the nail Has the white lunula at its base Free Toe Expands past the nger or toe Hyponychium Secures nail to ngertip Wound Healing Epidermal Wound Healing occurs following super cial wounds that affect only the epidermis Examples are super cial scrapes or cuts Epithelial cells heal epidermal wounds Deep Wound Healing Occurs when an injury extends to the dermis and subcutaneous layer It damages all layers and causes scars Fibroblasts heal deep wounds Development of the integumentary system The epidermis develops from the ectoderm gtNails hair and skin glands are epidermal derivatives The dermis develops from the mesoderm Aging Wrinkles develop Dehydration and cracking occurs Sweat production decreases A decrease in the numbers of functional melanocytes results in gray hair and atypical skin pigmentation Subcutaneous fat is lost and there is a general decrease in skin thickness Nails may also become more brittle An increased susceptibility to peptic ulcers bed sores Skin Cancer Excessive exposure to sun light is the most common form of skin cancer 1 basal cell carcinoma least dangerous gtarises from stratum basale and invades dermis 2 squamous cell carcinoma gtarises from keratinocytes in stratum spinosum gtmetastasis to the lymph nodes can be lethal 3 malignant melanoma most deadly because it elastics to lungs and brain gtarises from melanocytes of a preexisting mole gtMalignant means it spreads to other areas gtABCDasymmetry border irregular color mixed and diameter over 6 mm Dermatologists doctors who treat disorders of all layers of the integumentary system Burns Tissue damage caused by excessive heat electricity radioactivity or corrosive chemicals that in the skin cells Burns are graded according to their severity First Degree Burn nvolves only the epidermis and is sunburn It only turns red Second Degree Burn Destroys the epidermis and part of the dermis lt blisters and you can treat it with Neosporin or ointment Third Degree Burns ls a full thickness burn lt destroys all three layers and turns black and chars the skin You should go to the hospital if you get a third degree burn and the treatment is sun graphs Rules of Nines Used to estimate the surface area of an adult affected by a burn How do people die when they die from burns A Infection I What are the two types of cells in blood A erythrocytes and lymphocytes I What is the difference between simple ducts and compound ducts A Simple ducts have one duct or branch and compound ducts multiple branches or ducts What are the three methods of secretion A merocrine apocrine holocrine What two types of tissues have electrical membrane potential A Muscle and nerve what is the difference between skeletal and cardiac muscle A Skeletal muscles don t branch and cardiac do Striations are more apparent in skeletal What is an autoimmune disease involving connective tissue A Lupus I How do melanocytes work They send out processes puncture epithelial and deposit melanin I How is skin color determined A amount of melanin I How do you get even skin tone A an even distribution of melanocytes Which epidermis layer has the greatest amount of mitotic ability A Stratum basale
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