Psych study guides
Psych study guides PSYCH 101
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Theint Myint on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Bowman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
Psych 101 exam 1 • Reactance: occurs when people try to pressure us into doing things their way • People only encode the important things when putting info into their memory • Representativeness: basing decision on a stereotype • Danger of relying on anecdotes: emotional content interferes with critical thinking • Humanistic perspective: emphasize free will, self actualization and belief that humans are naturally positive • Salient events: unusual, unexpected or intense • Naturalistic observation: do NOT get involved in the situation • Example of positive correlation: more hours spent studying decreases= grades decrease • Strong relationship: .90+ • Independent variable: variable that manipulated • Human brain functions: either extremely emotional OR highly logical, but NOT at same time • Case study: perform an in depth study of one persons behavior • neurons SEND messages at their: terminal buttons • myelin sheath: covers axon of most neurons • neurotransmitters: send only 2 types of messages • “quiet areas” of the brain: integrate info from other areas • re-‐uptake: process that prevents over stimulation of neurons • somatic nervous system: voluntary muscle movement • spinal cord: part of central nervous system • afferent messages: inbound to the brain • hindbrain: area of brain that controls basic functions that keep you alive • cerebellum: looks like cauliflower, part of the brain that sooths out the movements of the left and right brain • hypothalamus: maintain homeostasis • corpus callosum: connects the left and right hemisphere of brain • occipital lobe: eyesight • frontal lobes: speech, planning, motor control • left hemisphere of brain: language, math and thought process • neuroplasticity: brains ability to reassign old functions to new areas • transduction: covert physical stimulation into neural impulses • sense of balance located in: inner ear • absolute threshold: smallest amount of stimulus you can detect • eyes have: more rods than cones • rods: responsible for peripheral vision • females: more sensitive to touch • kinesthetic sense: aware of body’s posture and what it’s doing • gustatory cells: taste • nerve deafness: loud noise that break hairs in cochlea and you cant hear anymore Psych 101 Exam 2 1. Classical conditioning: based on pairing a meaningless event with a meaningful event 2. You have been classically conditioned to attack people when they say “hi”. In this case, “hi” is the : conditioned stimulus. ( the word “hi” is your STIMULUS that you are CONDITIONED to attack to when you hear it) 3. Classical conditioning a. works best when: the neutral stimulus is presented just before the unconditional stimulus b. the thing that has no meaning to the organism= neutral stimulus 4. after learning has occurred, the neutral stimulus becomes the: conditioned stimulus 5. when driving, you always slow down when you see a motorcycle behind you, even if it’s not a cop. This is an example of: stimulus generalization 6. the law of effect: responses that make you feel good will be repeated while others will not 7. negative reinforcement: occurs when you remove something bad from your life 8. example of fixed interval schedule: getting scored every 3 weeks 9. example of an interval schedule: understanding you need to push the button for the elevator or cross walk ( there is a specific time you can walk on the crosswalk, so you must wait) 10. the schedule of reinforcement that produces a behavior that is the most resistant to extinction is: variable ratio 11. you train a wild animal to perform tricks. A few years later the animal attacks you. The wild animal is showing: instinctive drift 12. store visual information in the ICONIC part of the sensory memory system 13.average short term memory holds 7 chunks of information 14.info in sensory memory only lasts 4 seconds at most 15. sematic memory a. past, present, future. b. Facts ( like the speed of light) 16.Simple rehearsal: repeat info over and over to try and put it into long term memory 17.Procedural long term memory= NOT conscious 18.Encoding failure theory: failing to remember something because it was never put in your long term memory 19.Proactive interference: remembering ABC but not XYZ 20. Forgetting how to ride your bike is a deficit in your procedural knowledge 21.example of the effect of state dependent learning: if you are hungry when you study, to improve your recall you should be hungry when you take the test 22.recognition retrieval: like picking out a person from a police line up 23.if you attempt to solve a problem by using a rule that always leads to the correct solution, you are using an algorithm 24.reason by analogy: considering your current problem as similar to a past one 25.trial by error approach: like guess and check, no real pattern 26.functional fixedness: occurs when you use something the same old way 27.phonology: rules that govern the pronunciation of words 28.linguistic-‐ relativity theory: claims that language influences cognition 29.when there is only one correct answer to a problem we need to engage in convergent thinking 30.know how to calculate IQ 31. know how to calculate % a. ex: if you have an IQ of 115, you are smarter than __(84%)___ of the population. Know how to get that 84% 32.aptitude test: measure ability in a particular area or line of work 33.fluid intelligence: DECLINES with age 34.down’s syndrome: developmental disability caused by a random genic abnormality 35.mental retardation: old term to describe people who score at least 2 deviations BELOW the mean 36.about 90% of developmentally disables people= classified as mildly disabled 37.if your IQ is 2 standard deviations ABOVE the mean, you are intellectually gifted Psych 101 Exam 3 1. Frontal lobe= awareness 2. If you need to be flexible in your thinking, such as applying expectations to rules, you should be in controlled processing 3. Automatic processing is faster than controlled processing 4. Our basic tendency is to be in automatic processing whenever possible 5. Research reveals that the most common theme of daydreams are failure/ success experiences 6. As we get older, our daydreams tend to become less negative 7. Hypothalamus controls circadian rhythms 8. It takes about 90 minutes to go from sleep stage 1-‐4 and back to stage 1 9. Alpha waves: if you are awake and relaxed (in a state of automatic processing) an EEG of your brain would reveal this pattern 10.Hypnagogic state: drowsy state of awareness between being asleep & awake 11.Know the different stages of sleep. a. Ex: stage 1: the lightest sleep b. Ex: stage 4: i. exhibit all delta waves , ii. most likely to occur only in the first half of our sleep period iii. nightmares 12.REM sleep INCREASES as we sleep throughout the night 13. Older you get= need LESS overall sleep 14.According to Freud, the real meaning of dream= random stimulation of brain cells 15. Those who experience narcolepsy suffer from dyssomnia 16.parasomnia= abnormal disturbances of sleep 17.agonist drug= enhances effects of a neurotransmitter 18.decreased sensitivity to drugs because of repeated use: tolerance 19.drugs (like marijuana) that produce euphoria and perceptual distortions: hallucinogens 20.textbook says the most common dream theme for students= being chased 21.the age of viability= point you have an even better chance of surviving outside the womb if born prematurely 22. proximodistal means that prenatal development will follow the patter: from the center of your body out to your fingers 23.sequence of development: zygote—embryo—fetus 24.according to Piaget a. assimilation = when we fit new info into existing mental categories b. object permanence occur in the sensorimotor stage 25.attachment= mot strongly influenced by contact comfort 26.most children show the securely attached level of attachment to their mother 27. ambivalent-‐ strong opposite emotions 28.adolescence: less parental influence, more peer influence 29. males who experience puberty early will experience the MOST social benefit 30.according to Kohlber, at the preconventional state, we determine what is moral by seeing how an act affects individuals 31.know Erickson’s early stages of social development a. ex: industry vs inferiority – compare self to peers 32.Know Erickson;s psychosocial theory of development a. Ex: generativity vs stagnation-‐ individual makes a contribution to the world 33. As we age: a. Crystallized intelligent basically stays the same b. Less fluid 34.Disengagement theory of aging a. Ex: believing successful aging involves a natural, slow graceful withdrawal from many life roles
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