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Psych study guides

by: Theint Myint

Psych study guides PSYCH 101

Theint Myint
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.8

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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Theint Myint on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Bowman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.


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Date Created: 03/26/16
Psych  101  exam  1     • Reactance:  occurs  when  people    try  to  pressure  us  into  doing  things  their   way     • People  only  encode  the  important  things  when  putting  info  into  their   memory   • Representativeness:  basing  decision  on  a  stereotype   • Danger  of  relying  on  anecdotes:    emotional  content  interferes  with  critical   thinking     • Humanistic  perspective:  emphasize  free  will,  self  actualization  and  belief  that   humans  are  naturally  positive     • Salient  events:  unusual,  unexpected  or  intense     • Naturalistic  observation:  do  NOT  get  involved  in  the  situation     • Example  of  positive  correlation:  more  hours  spent  studying  decreases=   grades  decrease     • Strong  relationship:  .90+     • Independent  variable:  variable  that  manipulated     • Human  brain  functions:  either  extremely  emotional  OR  highly  logical,  but   NOT  at  same  time     •  Case  study:  perform  an  in  depth  study  of  one  persons  behavior     •  neurons  SEND  messages  at  their:  terminal  buttons   • myelin  sheath:  covers  axon  of  most  neurons     • neurotransmitters:  send  only  2  types  of  messages     • “quiet  areas”  of  the  brain:  integrate  info  from  other  areas   • re-­‐uptake:  process  that  prevents  over  stimulation  of  neurons     • somatic  nervous  system:  voluntary  muscle  movement     • spinal  cord:  part  of  central  nervous  system   • afferent  messages:  inbound  to  the  brain     • hindbrain:  area  of  brain  that  controls  basic  functions  that  keep  you  alive     • cerebellum:  looks  like  cauliflower,  part  of  the  brain  that  sooths  out  the   movements  of  the  left  and  right  brain     • hypothalamus:  maintain  homeostasis     • corpus  callosum:  connects  the  left  and  right  hemisphere  of  brain     • occipital  lobe:  eyesight     • frontal  lobes:  speech,  planning,  motor  control     • left  hemisphere  of  brain:  language,  math  and  thought  process     • neuroplasticity:  brains  ability  to  reassign  old  functions  to  new  areas     • transduction:  covert  physical  stimulation  into  neural  impulses     • sense  of  balance  located  in:  inner  ear     • absolute  threshold:  smallest  amount  of  stimulus  you  can  detect     • eyes  have:  more  rods  than  cones     • rods:  responsible  for  peripheral  vision     • females:  more  sensitive  to  touch     • kinesthetic  sense:  aware  of  body’s  posture  and  what  it’s  doing     • gustatory  cells:  taste     • nerve  deafness:  loud  noise  that  break  hairs  in  cochlea  and  you  cant  hear   anymore     Psych  101  Exam  2       1. Classical  conditioning:  based  on  pairing  a  meaningless  event  with  a   meaningful  event     2. You  have  been  classically  conditioned  to  attack  people  when  they  say  “hi”.  In   this  case,  “hi”  is  the  :  conditioned  stimulus.  (  the  word  “hi”  is  your  STIMULUS   that  you  are  CONDITIONED  to  attack  to  when  you  hear  it)     3. Classical  conditioning   a.  works  best  when:  the  neutral  stimulus  is  presented  just  before  the   unconditional  stimulus     b. the  thing  that  has  no  meaning  to  the  organism=  neutral  stimulus     4. after  learning  has  occurred,  the  neutral  stimulus  becomes  the:  conditioned   stimulus     5. when  driving,  you  always  slow  down  when  you  see  a  motorcycle  behind  you,   even  if  it’s  not  a  cop.  This  is  an  example  of:  stimulus  generalization     6. the  law  of  effect:  responses  that  make  you  feel  good  will  be  repeated  while   others  will  not     7. negative  reinforcement:  occurs  when  you  remove  something  bad  from  your   life   8. example  of  fixed  interval  schedule:  getting  scored  every  3  weeks     9. example  of  an  interval  schedule:  understanding  you  need  to  push  the  button   for  the  elevator  or  cross  walk  (  there  is  a  specific  time  you  can  walk  on  the   crosswalk,  so  you  must  wait)     10.  the  schedule  of  reinforcement  that  produces  a  behavior  that  is  the  most   resistant  to  extinction  is:  variable  ratio     11.  you  train  a  wild  animal  to  perform  tricks.  A  few  years  later  the  animal   attacks  you.  The  wild  animal  is  showing:  instinctive  drift     12.  store  visual  information  in  the  ICONIC  part  of  the  sensory  memory  system     13.average  short  term  memory  holds  7  chunks  of  information  in  sensory  memory  only  lasts  4  seconds  at  most     15. sematic  memory   a. past,  present,  future.     b. Facts  (  like  the  speed  of  light)     16.Simple  rehearsal:  repeat  info  over  and  over  to  try  and  put  it  into  long  term   memory     17.Procedural  long  term  memory=  NOT  conscious     18.Encoding  failure  theory:  failing  to  remember  something  because  it  was  never   put  in  your  long  term  memory     19.Proactive  interference:  remembering  ABC  but  not  XYZ   20.  Forgetting  how  to  ride  your  bike  is  a  deficit  in  your  procedural  knowledge     21.example  of  the  effect  of  state  dependent  learning:  if  you  are  hungry  when  you   study,  to  improve  your  recall  you  should  be  hungry  when  you  take  the  test     22.recognition  retrieval:  like  picking  out  a  person  from  a  police  line  up     23.if  you  attempt  to  solve  a  problem  by  using  a  rule  that  always  leads  to  the   correct  solution,  you  are  using  an  algorithm     24.reason  by  analogy:  considering  your  current  problem  as  similar  to  a  past  one     25.trial  by  error  approach:    like  guess  and  check,  no  real  pattern     26.functional  fixedness:  occurs  when  you  use  something  the  same  old  way     27.phonology:  rules  that  govern  the  pronunciation  of  words     28.linguistic-­‐  relativity  theory:  claims  that  language  influences  cognition     29.when  there  is  only  one  correct  answer  to  a  problem  we  need  to  engage  in   convergent  thinking     30.know  how  to  calculate  IQ     31.  know  how  to  calculate  %     a. ex:  if  you  have  an  IQ  of  115,  you  are  smarter  than  __(84%)___  of  the   population.  Know  how  to  get  that  84%   32.aptitude  test:  measure  ability  in  a  particular  area  or  line  of  work     33.fluid  intelligence:  DECLINES  with  age     34.down’s  syndrome:  developmental  disability  caused  by  a  random  genic   abnormality     35.mental  retardation:  old  term  to  describe  people  who  score  at  least  2   deviations  BELOW  the  mean     36.about  90%  of  developmentally  disables  people=  classified  as  mildly  disabled   37.if  your  IQ  is  2  standard  deviations  ABOVE  the  mean,  you  are  intellectually   gifted       Psych  101  Exam  3     1. Frontal  lobe=  awareness     2. If  you  need  to  be  flexible  in  your  thinking,  such  as  applying  expectations  to   rules,  you  should  be  in  controlled  processing     3. Automatic  processing  is  faster  than  controlled  processing     4. Our  basic  tendency  is  to  be  in  automatic  processing  whenever  possible     5. Research  reveals  that  the  most  common  theme  of  daydreams  are  failure/   success  experiences   6. As  we  get  older,  our  daydreams  tend  to  become  less  negative     7. Hypothalamus  controls  circadian  rhythms   8. It  takes  about  90  minutes  to  go  from  sleep  stage  1-­‐4  and  back  to  stage  1   9. Alpha  waves:  if  you  are  awake  and  relaxed  (in  a  state  of  automatic   processing)    an  EEG  of  your  brain  would  reveal  this  pattern     10.Hypnagogic  state:  drowsy  state  of  awareness  between  being  asleep  &  awake     11.Know  the  different  stages  of  sleep.       a. Ex:  stage  1:  the  lightest  sleep     b. Ex:  stage  4:     i. exhibit  all  delta  waves  ,     ii. most  likely  to  occur  only  in  the  first  half  of  our  sleep  period     iii. nightmares   12.REM  sleep  INCREASES  as  we  sleep  throughout  the  night     13. Older  you  get=  need  LESS  overall  sleep     14.According  to  Freud,  the  real  meaning  of  dream=  random  stimulation  of  brain   cells     15.  Those  who  experience  narcolepsy  suffer  from  dyssomnia   16.parasomnia=  abnormal  disturbances  of  sleep     17.agonist  drug=  enhances  effects  of  a  neurotransmitter     18.decreased  sensitivity  to  drugs  because  of  repeated  use:  tolerance   19.drugs  (like  marijuana)  that  produce  euphoria  and  perceptual  distortions:   hallucinogens   20.textbook  says  the  most  common  dream  theme  for  students=  being  chased     21.the  age  of  viability=  point  you  have  an  even  better  chance  of  surviving   outside  the  womb  if  born  prematurely     22.  proximodistal  means  that  prenatal  development  will  follow  the  patter:  from   the  center  of  your  body  out  to  your  fingers     23.sequence  of  development:  zygote—embryo—fetus     24.according  to  Piaget   a. assimilation  =  when  we  fit  new  info  into  existing  mental  categories     b. object  permanence  occur  in  the  sensorimotor  stage     25.attachment=  mot  strongly  influenced  by  contact  comfort     26.most  children  show  the  securely  attached  level  of  attachment  to  their  mother     27.  ambivalent-­‐  strong  opposite  emotions     28.adolescence:  less  parental  influence,  more  peer  influence     29. males  who  experience  puberty  early  will  experience  the  MOST  social  benefit     30.according  to  Kohlber,  at  the  preconventional  state,  we  determine  what  is   moral  by  seeing  how  an  act  affects  individuals     31.know  Erickson’s  early  stages  of  social  development     a. ex:  industry  vs  inferiority  –  compare  self  to  peers     32.Know  Erickson;s  psychosocial  theory  of  development     a. Ex:  generativity  vs  stagnation-­‐  individual  makes  a  contribution  to  the   world     33. As  we  age:   a. Crystallized  intelligent  basically  stays  the  same     b. Less  fluid     34.Disengagement  theory  of  aging     a. Ex:  believing  successful  aging  involves  a  natural,  slow  graceful   withdrawal  from  many  life  roles            


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