Exam #2 Study Guide
Exam #2 Study Guide DEP 4014
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kharla Notetaker on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to DEP 4014 at Florida International University taught by Erin Hedemann in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 213 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Parenting in Psychlogy at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 10/31/15
Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 6 Becoming aParenl Developing Embryo and Things That Affect Development 0 On average pregnancies last 40 weeks from the first day of the woman s menstrual period though a period of 38 to 42 weeks is considered normal 0 Advantages to planning for pregnancy means the woman can adjust such things such as alcohol consumption fitness level medicine intake and weight 0 Prenatal vitamins that include folic acid help avoid neural tube defects in the baby 0 Minimizing stress and preparing for changes helps psychologically 0 Potential dangers resulting from unplanned pregnancies primarily involve exposing the embryo to harmful substances known as teratogens o Teratogens include I Environmental chemicals like herbicides I Drugs like alcohol nicotine prescriptions and over the counter medications I Health factors like diabetes I Infections especially STDs I Physical agents especially xrays Teratogen effects depend on factors such as how far along the pregnancy is the type and dose and how long the embryo or fetus was exposed to it Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Alcohol is one of the most commonly used teratogens resulting in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders FASD 0 Spectrum because there is a continuum of permanent birth defects 0 Estimated to occur in 1 of births Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is one of the most severe FASDs and is characterized by o Abnormal facial features such as craniofacial abnormalities 0 Growth deficiencies 0 Problems with the central nervous system as well as brain damage and cardiac issues 0 It may lead to inappropriate sexual behaviors and future substance abuse in the future 0 Other areas affected by FAS include 0 Attention span 0 Communication 0 Hearing 0 Vision 0 Learning 0 Memory 0 No set amount of alcohol causes FASD many children born to alcoholics 60 to 70 show no signs of FAS but they are still likely to show some signs of damage due to alcohol Chromosomal and Genetic Conditions Annually about 120000 neonates in the US 3 of births are born with a birth defect aka a genetic disorder 0 There are more than 4000 identified chromosomal and genetic disorders 0 Genetic defects include abnormalities both at the chromosomal and genetic levels 0 The most common are 0 Down syndrome 1 in 800 0 Heart defects 1 in 100 to 200 Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Orofacial defects such as cleft palate 1 in 700 to 1000 Chromosomal problems arise when there is an issue in number or structure Down syndrome occurs when there is an extra 21t chromosome Klinefelter syndrome results when there is an extra X chromosome in males making their sex chromosome pair XXY Turner syndrome results when a female has only one X chromosome Cri du chat syndrome results when just a portion of chromosome 5 is missing Other genetic issues include 0 Dominant inheritance when either parent has the faulty gene I A form of dwarfism called achondroplasia and a connective tissue condition called Marfan syndrome 0 Recessive inheritance inherited only when both parents pass the faulty gene I TaySachs disease fatal nervous system disorder and cystic fibrosis 0 Xlinked inheritance when sons inherit a genetic abnormality via their mother s X chromosome I Hemophilia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy o Multifactorial inheritance when there is a combination of more than one faulty gene or both genetic and environmental causes I Cleft palate heart defects and neural tube defects Some disorders or potential birth defects may be identified during pregnancy using amniocentesis blood tests chorionic villus sampling CVS or ultrasound Risks of Being an Older Parent Increases the risk of birth defects such as low birth weight or Down syndrome In extreme cases there may even be still births Parental age is also a risk factor for schizophrenia result of quotde novo mutations in sperm Both maternal and parental ages are linked to an increased likelihood of autism In general parents may experience infertility problems while mothers may suffer from endometriosis or placental defects Birthing Techniques Frequent and regular contractions begin around 40 weeks Average labor lasts 12 to 14 hours for the first child but is often shorter for following children Vaginal childbirth is divided into three stages 0 Stage 1 Labor I Cervix dilates 10 cm 0 Stage 2 Pushing and delivery 0 Stage 3 Expulsion of the placenta Bradley method aka husbandcoached childbirth uses relaxation techniques and deep breathing exercises tries to avoid pain medications as much as possible Lamaze Similar to Bradley method except it s neutral on pain medications Two types of pain medication 0 Analgesics injected or given intravenously to relieve pain without total loss of feeling 0 Anesthesia given through injection and temporarily cuts off pain sensations in an area I Epidural is a longerlasting procedure Cesarean Csection delivery major surgery used to avoid issues such as hypoxia shortage of oxygen to baby or anoxia total lack of oxygen to baby f 2 Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide Infertility and Infertility Treatment Infertility affects 20 of couples In women common causes of infertility include early menopause endometriosis uterine tissue is growing outside the uterus fallopian tube damage hormonal issues and ovulation disorders In men common causes of infertility include genetic defects hormonal problems impaired delivery of sperm low sperm concentrations overheating of testicles and problems in producing healthy sperm Beyond the use of drugs to regulate ovulation embryologists have developed many techniques to help assist parents with serious fertility problems 0 Have a 10 to 28 success rate There are three basic techniques 0 Intrauterine insemination IUI Most common Frozen sperm from either the husband or a donor are placed directly into the uterus via a catheter I Can be used ifthe husband s sperm count is low or if it carries a genetic defect o In vitro fertilization IVF Sperm and egg are combined in a petri dish A standard procedure when the fallopian tubes are blocked The fertilized egg or several at times is then transferred into the woman s uterus There are several variations I Gamete intrafallopian transfer GIFT inserting egg and sperm into fallopian tube I Zygote intrafallopian transfer ZIFT fertilization occurs similarly to IVF resulting zygote is transferred to fallopian tube I lntracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI one of the newest a single healthy sperm is chosen and injected into a single egg Once fertilization is confirmed generally four fertilized eggs are inserted into the woman Surrogacy involves a second woman who either contributes the eggs carries a fertilized egg to term or both Fertilization is done via IVF procedures Chapter 7 Key Terms and Concepts Neural Development neurogenesis synaptogenesis synaptic pruning myelination Brain triples in size during first 5 years Neurogenesis occurs in the womb and involves the formation of neurons and glia with an average of 250000 created per minute over the nine months Synaptogenesis occurs mostly after birth and involves the process of forming synapses between neurons with 18 million created per second between the 2 months of gestation aka second month of being in the womb and 24 months Synaptic pruning begins at about 2 years of age and continues into adolescence and involves the process of making the brain more efficient by getting rid of the synapses that are no longer used an average of 20 billion per day Myelination begins in the ninth month of gestation with considerable growth over the first two years slowing down throughout adolescence The process during which axons are sheathed by myelin so they can conduct electrical impulses ParentInfant Bond and Attachment In addition to breast feeding and responding to crying other ways parents engage include bathing protecting and sheltering Infants begin learning fundamental principles of social interaction via social caregiving f 3 Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Include turntaking synchrony reciprocity and complementarity Mothers observed to be responsive and successful in addressing their infant s needs in a timely manner were classified as being securely attached 0 On the other hand mothers who did not respond promptly or had a harder time comforting their infant were said to be insecurely attached either avoidant or resistant Warmth has been recognized as the most fundamental dimension of effective parenting 0 Better thought of as a dyadic or relational construct it reflects the quality of the relationship 0 Parental separation anxiety is a result of a warm parentinfant relationship 0 A parent feels an unpleasant emotional state of concern and apprehension when they are separated from the child 0 Characterized by feelings of guilt sadness and worry Temperament and Its Effects 0 An example of a child effect is how a newborn affects the behavior of those around them 0 Thomas and Chess presented one view on temperament that did not hold up to scientific scrutiny Categorized as follows 0 Difficult low rhythmicity low adaptability negative mood high intensity 0 Easy opposite of difficult 0 Slow to Warm Up when the child reacts more like a difficult child at the start 0 An infant s temperament affects the parents and their quality of parenting 0 Parents of distressed fearful or sad infants report more depressive symptoms lower levels of efficacy and stress 0 Parents of infants with positive temperaments believe they re more efficacious in parenting Thomas and Chess also proposed the construct of goodness of fit 0 Since there is no one style fits all type of parenting parents should modify their behavior in order to provide a better fit to the child s behavior 0 A poor fit between infant and parent could lead to more behavior problems later as a toddler Recent research suggests three general factors 0 Effortful control focused with low intensity pleasure o Negative emotionality responding to soothing with anger sadness or fear 0 Surgency extreme energy level paired with highintensity pleasure There is also the differential susceptibility hypothesis which states that only the children with certain characteristics will respond to certain types of parenting o In this case children with negative moods are more influenced by parenting that children with other temperaments A child s temperament at 4 months can predict their temperament at 14 months 0 Inhibited children are timid shy and fearful o Uninhibited children are bold outgoing and social Socialization Socialization is the process by which children are taught the skills values and behaviors needed to function competently 0 At its core are the goals that parents have for their children which vary across cultures but tend to include prosocial behavior and broad cultural values f 4 i Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 It s a bidirectional process that begins at birth parents socialize their infants and vice versa Synchrony 0 When both individuals attend to the same thing are responsive to each other and may share emotions Discipline 0 Defined as training in order to act in accordance with rules 0 There s a wide spectrum of ways to discipline a child from distracting reasoning or prohibiting behaviors to lecturing them ignoring them putting them on time out or spanking albeit a very small percentage of parents do this Psychological control such as shaming also begins to arise during the toddler years 0 Effective pa rents work strategically known as proactive or preemptive pa renting in order to avoid some of the conflicts o Involves a host of factors to consider such as I The nature ofthe misdeed I The nature of the child eg temperament I The features of the actual disciplinary response eg the content of the message and how it s said 0 There are 5 common mistakes in using discipline effectively 0 Inadvertently reinforcing the wrong behaviors by giving them attention 0 Forgetting to reward the behavior they want to see 0 Overreacting 0 Giving long verbal explanations about the misbehavior 0 Getting into a coercive cycle Structuring Structuring refers to the degree to which parents provide a predictable organized environment for a child 0 Important for young children since it provides them with a sense of stability predictability and security children are less likely to misbehave in an environment of this nature 0 Known as the A Antecedents in the ABC Model 0 There are many ways to structure an environment 0 Deciding when where and what the child eats 0 Sleeping practices such as where the child sleeps when their bedtime is and how consistently that bedtime is enforced 0 Setting limits on the child s behaviors and desires that are dangerous inappropriate unhealthy or generally incompatible with the goals and values the parents have 0 Social and environmental interactions to better promote positive relationships 0 In addition structuring may help avoid serious injuries or even death Emotion Regulation 0 Emotion regulation begins in infancy and is closely linked to attachment Toddlers have some ability to regulate their emotions temper tantrums result from the inability to regulate those emotions Children unable to regulate their emotions are at risk for developing two general types of behavior problems f i Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 lnternalizing eg fear and sadness I Nervousness withdrawal disorders include depression anxiety and OCD o Externalizing eg aggression and acting out I Disobedience fighting disorders include ADHD CD ODD Though based in neurophysiological responses to the environment they also result from parenting practices behavioral traits and the quality of the environment while considering the parentchild relationship and the context of the situation 0 Parents help their children regulate their emotions in at least 4 ways 0 Modeling parents model how to deal with emotions eg some get angry some control their temper o Labeling this helps children begin to identify their emotional states 0 Teaching strategies specifically teach children how to manage distress delay gratification and control impulses o Emotional climate climate includes attachment relationship family expressiveness of emotion and parenting style Media Influences 0 We do not know the longterm implications of young infants and children being exposed to quotscreen time 0 That includes computers phones tables and television screens 0 The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children under the age of 2 not be exposed to any sort of visual technology project Exposing them to so much screen time often leaves little time for important developmental activities namely talking and nonverbal exchange 0 Media influence also takes the form of blog posts parenting magazines and lay theories 0 Most of the suggestions found here especially on the internet have no scientific backing whatsoever as those posting them do not have a background in research Chapter 8 Key Terms and Concepts Daycare o 61 of children younger than 5 are in some type of nonparental childcare arrangement 0 Relative care is the most common which is when the child is in the care of a grandparent or other relative Independent of the quality of the child center children who spent too much time in a daycare were likely to develop externalizing problems such as aggression and disobedience High quality daycares helped children develop a better vocabulary and were shown to help lower income children in terms of school readiness 0 There is no effect on attachment Discipline Parental use of discipline peaks when children are 3 to 6 years old 0 Spanking falls under coercive discipline which is when a parent forces a child to behave in some way via punishment 0 Spanking is associated with one positive outcome that parents seek immediate compliance Spanking does not promote positive parentchild interactions since parents are spanking from their perspective f Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Child tends not to think about what they did wrong but rather the negative emotion associated with the punishment 0 Children spanked frequently exhibit lower levels of moral internalization and poorer mental health adjustment 0 There are other negative outcomes associated with spanking such as mental health problems anxiety depression and in rare cases child abuse when the intensity of spanking escalates out of control 0 The positive parenting approach is an extension of the authoritative approach 0 At its core is to get the parent and child to adopt a cooperative relationship 0 Parents need to provide firm guidance but in a way that in theory does not involve coercive discipline Gender Identity 0 Known as the child s understanding of self children are developing a better understanding of what the quotboyquot or quotgirlquot label means as well as its consistency From ages 35 children s rigidity about genderdivided roles was present in the areas of dressup play gendertyped play and sex segregation 0 However research also found that gendertyped appearance accessories hairstyles and observed clothing decreased in rigidity suggesting flexibility Parents promote gender socialization in several ways 0 They label the child as a boy or a girl so they can learn gender identity 0 Depending on the child s cultural surroundings the parent can use examples of women and men to explain gender constancy 0 There are differences in how parents clothe their children how they equip their play areas and how they decorate their rooms I Boys have toys that promote spatialtemporal awareness I Girls have more dolls and floral furnishings Parents also hold different expectations and perceptions of their children based on their respective sex 0 Parents also engage in gender conformity pressure for this conformity tends to come from parents with traditional gender role attitudes Prosocial Behavior Prosocial behavior consists of actions considered beneficial to other individuals or society as a whole 0 Caring helping and sharing are examples that begin to emerge in as early as the 2nd year of life 0 Empathy is closely linked to prosocial behaviors children who empathize with others are more likely to behave in prosocial ways 0 Parents promote prosocial behavior and empathy is various ways 0 Emotional socialization when parents talk about emotions and help their children understand their own feelings and those of others 0 Through modeling By verbally reinforcing acts of kindness o Affective reprimands to help children understand the issue with their behavior parents first raise the child s discomfort level by changing their tone and then follow with a reprimand and explanation about the behavior 0 f 7 Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Shaming does not promote caring in children rather it fosters the avoidance of adults 0 Shamed children are likely to develop a bias toward negative selfattributions as they grow up 0 Parenting style may also play a strong role in the development of empathy o Authoritarian pa rents who were overly strict and didn t tend to reason with their children were likely to impede their prosocial development Autonomy Parents contribute to the development of autonomy by granting children a sense of control of their world 0 They can give their child a choice as to what they want to wear 0 As they grow older they allow children to solve many of their own problems 0 A challenge for parents is when to know whether they should reduce control and grant autonomy or not 0 Authoritarian parents are reluctant to give their children choices and instead prefer enforcing a rigidly structured environment 0 Authoritative parents find the correct balance with which to raise competent children use gentle nonintrusive control and provide appropriate choices Overprotective pa rents are those who refuse to give any autonomy though it may be appropriate in a case where a child has certain disabilities Patterson s Coercive Cycle 0 A coercive cycle consists of problematic interactions in which a parent and child compete to see who can gain the upper hand 0 For example I A mother requests her child to perform a certain chore 9 Child ignores 9 Mother repeats request 9 Child puts off the chore 9 Mother warns child 9 Child does not comply 9 Mother yells 9 Child yells 9 The escalation continues in terms of yelling until one of them finally gives in Coercive cycles generally aren t a good idea since it is unlikely that the parent will quotwinquot without the use of punitive or even abusive behavior 0 The cycle also undermines the parent s authority and power over the child 0 Children involved in coercive cycles are likely to be involved in delinquent behavior when they grow up Media Influences o The American Academy of Pediatrics advises that children below 2 have no screen time 0 After age 2 they limit it to 2 hours per day of quality programming and they warn against background television 0 There aren t any known benefits of screen time for infants 0 Recent studies show that there is a negative impact on executive function and school readiness by decreasing vocabulary It can also result in more aggression and selfregulation problems 0 Too much time watching television also contributes to obesity since it takes up hours a child may be spending outside or being active f 8 i Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 9 Key Terms and Concepts Siblings and Birth Order 0 Research has shown that if birth order does affect a child s intelligence it s meager at best 0 Alternative theories have been proposed to account for birthorder effects though there is no strong scientific support for any 0 Resource dilution model where the family is viewed as a conduit that dispenses resources to the children which affects their academic achievement and cognitive development 0 Confluence theory based on the idea that intelligence becomes diluted as more children are born into the family 0 Born to rebel evolutionary theory that argues that because of competitive tendencies laterborn children are more likely to reject the status quo and be reformers or creative thinkers 0 There are several important variables that influence family dynamics that these models don t account for such as gender genotype temperament how many children there are in the family the spacing between those child and demographic factors like income and education 0 The bottom line is that birthorder research has failed to come up with robust effects based simply on the order that a child was born into a family 0 Though what has held true is that parents are more present receptive and stimulating with their firstborn o Sibling rivalry is a form of intrafamily conflict that is common in preschoolers and tends to continue through at least through high school sometimes well into adulthood o Evolutionary perspective states that siblings compete over scare resources such as parental attention love and material goods I By being stronger smarter and more talented than the sibling the child should then receive more parental resources 0 A social interaction perspective believes the cause of the conflict is the close proximity in which these young children live coupled with the lack the maturity or social skills that keeps them from getting along 0 A third perspective is concerned with the child s reaction to perceived differential pa rental treatment ifthey regard it as unjust they will see that as justification to retaliate against the favored child 0 Sibling relationship quality is linked to children s wellbeing 0 Children who shared a warmer sibling relationships had fewer behavioral problems 0 Where there was a bigger conflict children that lacked that warmth were more at risk for internalizing or externalizing behaviors Common discipline techniques for sibling conflict include 0 Parental control strategies telling them to stop warning they ll be punished o Childcentered strategies help children express their feelings using words 0 Passive nonintervention tune the conflict out and let the children reach a resolution themselves 0 A child s perception of the fairness of differential parental treatment makes a difference 0 Children who view it as fair have higher selfesteem and lower levels of problems than other children Sibling conflicts are recognized to be developmentally important in terms of educating children about such things as empathy negotiation modeling etc o By the time siblings reach middle childhood relationships take a positive more supportive turn f g i Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide Twins have less rivalry Academics Parents directly and indirectly influence their child s cognitive and academic achievements through 0 Their general beliefs eg expectations about achievement Behavior eg strong work ethic Teaching strategies The selection of which schoolschool district to enroll the child in Lessons and activities outside of school Their own degree of involvement I High expectations modeling encouraging and instructing Parents however can hamper academic success by labeling their children as smart o Involving scaffolding is a more effective process 0 It s important to praise their behaviors rather than their characteristics Parental school involvement promotes positive development from preschool through adolescence OOOOO Fathers Influence Identity theory states that the more important the identity is to the man the more likely he will be to engage in it Though men report valuing fatherhood they engage in less child care and interact less frequently with children than wives or partners One specific area where fathers engage in more behavior than mothers is in rough and tumble play 0 Fathers tend to play more with children mothers are more likely to provide care There are five types of fathers o Uninterested and unavailable 0 Traditional 0 Assistant parent 0 Coparent o Primarycare parent The con of this identifying process is that it fails to capture the multidimensional nature of parent involvement Studies have shown that the more support a child received from their father or father figure the more competent and less depressed they felt 0 Increasing evidence worldwide shows that if a child feels loved and supported by the father that child will function better and have fewer problems regardless of the relationship with the mother Today a good father is defined as someone who is a good provider is involved and nurtures his children and shares parenting tasks with his wife or partner equally Disciplinary Practices By middle school only about 30 of parents keep employing spanking In general discipline shifts from parental regulation to mutual coregulation and ultimately self regulation by the child 0 It s a power transfer as parents gradually allow the child to be more autonomous Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Enhanced by encouraging children to be more independent and responsible develop their own ideas and opinions and actively partake in family decision making 0 How effective parenting is results from a twostep process of internalization 0 First the child has to clearly grasp and understand the parents behavioral expectations and standards 0 Second the child needs to accept those standards and behave accordingly I When their behavior is deviant the behavioral standards must be backed up with consequences 0 Parents have to do a lot in order to increase the likelihood that their children will abide by these standards 0 First they can be responsive to the child s needs 0 Second they should be sure that the children consider the standards and their consequences if they are broken to be fair and legitimate Monitoring 0 One index of relationship quality s positive synchrony o Indicated by relationships that are engaged harmonious interconnected reciprocal responsive and when there is a shared effect ie when both a parent and child laugh 0 Having a quality relationship helps parents with monitoring 0 Defined as the parental awareness of a child s whereabouts and activities as well as who the child is with and generally how they re developing 0 As children get older monitoring takes new forms 0 The day s school performance and homework status 0 What the child is reading 0 Who the child is talking with on the phone or chatting with on the internet 0 What the child purchases and so on 0 Monitoring can be conducted in various ways 0 An authoritarian parent can monitor their child by severely limiting their freedom 0 On the contrary a more authoritative parent may monitor their child by having frequent open conversations with them 0 To be effective at monitoring parents must be involved interested in the child s welfare and motivated to keep tabs on the child o It is key to recognize that this process also requires disclosure on the part of the child bidirectional There is evidence for a negative association between monitoring and child behavior problems 0 Results in higher school grades and in dualearner families fewer behavioral issues 0 Other attributes of positive parental discipline include approval consistency guidance positive reinforcement and responsiveness Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 0 Early onset behaviors have a male preponderance eg autism and ADHD the later ones show a female preponderance eg anxiety and depression 0 ADHD and its subtypes have been seen to be on a rise 0 ADHDlnattentive o ADHDCombined Inattention and lmpulsivity ADHD sometimes cooccurs with other problems such as conduct disorders CD which is a severe problem of persistent and repeated violations of social rules and rights of others Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Most common cause of ADHD appears to be a congenital problem caused by problems in pregnancy or delivery or a genetic predisposition to act in ways that are demanding intrusive and sensitive to others 0 Parents of children with ADHD are more likely to engage in inconsistent harsh and reactive discipline the same practically applies for any child with an externalizing disorder 0 Parents who provide more acceptance approval guidance synchrony and warmth had children with fewer externalizing behavior problems 0 It s important to note the absence of coercive control 0 Another study found that mothers who were high in affection but also high in psychological control had children with more internalizing and externalizing problems 0 Furthermore the environment such as whether the parent is a single parent as well as SES all play a role in the development of behavioral issues as well Marital Conflict Exposure to marital conflict can lead to problems in multiple ways 0 Children might model some of the negative behavior they observe and assume that aggressive behavior is a way to deal with problems 0 Marital conflict threatens a child s sense of emotional security I When children are exposed to marital conflict they begin to feel insecure about their own wellbeing 0 Conflict may spill over into the parentchild relationship I Following an argument parents are likely to be irritable with their children and engage in negative parenting practices or they may become withdrawn and unavailable 0 The more children are exposed to the conflict the more sensitizedthey become which also leads to an increase in negative emotions and problematic thoughts selfblame they think they re the cause of the conflict 0 A cognitivecontextual model by Grych amp Fincham captures how a child thinks about the conflict 0 According to the model children first evaluate their parents quarrels by the perceived negativity level ofthreat and relevance to themselves 0 After that they make causal attributions and then respond to the conflict based on these assessments 0 Marital conflict can be distinguished in four dimensions frequency intensity content and resolution 0 Overall though children s appraisals influence the severity of their own reaction they cannot protect children from the negative effects of interpersonal conflict at home quotSaferquot marital conflicts are characterized by mutual respect positive communication and resolution or at least progress toward resolution 0 When parents can amicably agree to disagree and the conflict is viewed as constructive children show few ill effects 0 Divorce and its aftermath involved many changes and adjustments such as 0 Place of residence Daily routine Schools and peers Family financial situation 0 o o 0 Increased negative emotions Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Quality of parenting and 0 Relationship with custodial and noncustodial parents and extended family Postdivorce mothers are often more stressed and less likely to discipline and monitor their children effectively 0 Research shows many problems will dissipate because of divorce particularly if the mother s remarriage is a positive one or the child is resilient defined as being capable of adapting positively in the face of adversity Peer Relationships 0 Children learn about their strengths and weaknesses through social comparisons with peers Because of the power equality shared with peers peer relationships are classified as horizontal versus the vertical relationship with more powerful parents 0 Parents manage multiple roles in peer relationships 0 A social broker to find friends 0 A gatekeeper to exclude undesirable peers o A police officer to intervene during conflicts o A social coach to improve the child s quality of interaction 0 Other roles during middle childhood include o Reciprocity by engaging in an egalitarian relationship 0 Guided learning teaching rules and values of a social group 0 Group participation engaging children in multiple groups 0 Control disciplining and modifying the child s behavior 0 Protection being empathetic and providing a secure basis Media 0 Benefits involved with media include education entertainment information relaxation self expression and identity creation 0 Problems involved with media include exposure to threats such as cyberbulling exposure to inappropriate content sexual solicitation pornography materialism obesity and passivity Parents are encouraged to exercise their significant role in a child s exposure to social media by setting rules and boundaries such as what is watched how long it s watched for and the placement of televisions and computers throughout the household 0 Most parents don t exercise this sort of regulation however 0 It s encouraged that parents mediate TV content by coviewing and discussing it Chapter 10 Key Terms and Concepts Identity Formation o The main goal for an adolescent is identity formation which is when they negotiate the transition between the safety of childhood and the complexity and responsibilities of adulthood Five key qualities seen in effective parentchild relationships through adolescence involve o Staying connected via warm positive relationships I When the parent is involved accepting supportive and caring I Results in better academic achievement while dissuading behavioral problems I Being connected also aides in topics such as sex and drug use which peers might have a bigger influence on when parents are absent 0 Maintaining open communication Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide I When both the child and parent are comfortable in communicating their views on topics such as education money and peers I Difficult because teenagers may be secretive 0 Supporting autonomy development I Giving adolescents the ability to further establish their developing identity while providing appropriate guidance when needed 0 Monitoring and being knowledgeable I Only possible if communication is open I Monitoring is associated with fewer problems since it involves knowing where the teen is at what time and with whom I The more knowledge there is the better the behavior I There are appropriate and excessive limits the former is associated with respect and trust while the latter is associated with suspicions and secrecy 0 Using appropriate control techniques I Vital to establish clear boundaries and limits I These boundaries need to be ageappropriate focused more on behavioral control than psychological control I The more inconsistent or inappropriate the methods of disciplining become the more ineffective they are Puberty 0 Long regarded as the hallmark of adolescence Physical changes include changes in body shape and fat distribution emergence of pubic hair and breast development and the onset of menstruation in females 0 The median age of onset of menarche in girls in the US is now 124 years 0 Physical changes in males include emergence of body facial and pubic hair growth of muscle and change in voice body shape and testicular size and function 0 For purposes of the exam girls go through puberty about one year ahead of boys 0 Many factors influence the onset of puberty including culture diet exercise genes socioeconomic status SES and stress 0 Timing of puberty influences psychological wellbeing ie selfesteem as well as the onset of emotional problems ie depression Egocentrism 0 Teen thinking may be characterized by egocentrism which is linked to two characteristics 0 Imaginary audience heightened sense of selfconsciousness teens often erroneously believe that others are watching and thinking about them which means they re a special person 0 Personal fable the belief that what they experience is unique to them 0 These reasoning processes can possibly feed into the belief of invincibility which may lead them to engage in risky behavior since they believe it won t happen to them Peer Influence Adolescence is marked by increasing time spent with peers as well as their growing importance 0 Group socialization theory hypothesized that peer influences were greater than parental influences parents had minimal if any say 0 The relationship is more dictated by parents responding to a child s behavior rather than the other way around Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Many criticized the GST because research was too simplified o Ignored other research pertaining to relationships with siblings teachers etc 0 Didn t examine geneenvironment interactions 0 Parental influence on peer selection was not considered 0 Ignored the effect parents had on behavior emotion and decisions that were outside the scope of peer influence 0 Regardless peer influence is a powerful and at times negative influence on adolescents 0 Peers tend to have a stronger say on topics such as sexual behavior when parents are not as involved or weak in monitoring Sexual Initiation Early sexual debut is associated with problems such as multiple partners and unprotected intercourse which can also result in sexually transmitted infections STIs and pregnancies 0 Though pregnancies have declined mostly due to improved contraceptive use and to a lesser extent decision to delay sexual activity Media 0 Watching too much television each day is associated with issues such as early sexual initiation and obesny 0 There are other more pervasive issues as well like consumerism sleep loss substance use and violence 0 Leaves less time for connecting with peers and homework Mental Health Problems 0 Depression is the most common mental health problem in adolescence 0 Most commonly found in females who tend to have more suicidal thoughts and attempts though males tend to have more successful attempts Depression can be a result of genetic biological familial and extrafamilial factors or a combination 0 Mental health problems in adolescence tend to include mainly females because of the later onset o Males are more likely to have ADHD or autism from early childhood Academics Teens who drop out of high school will earn around 2100000 less in their lifetime than peers who earn a diploma Taxpayers receive a net benefit of 127000 per graduate In the dropout rate were to be cut in half taxpayers receive an average benefit of 90 billion per year 0 Those who drop out of high school are more likely to commit crimes get arrested and abuse drugs Substance Use 0 Teens commonly use three types of problematic substances 0 Alcohol 0 Cigarettes 0 Illegal drugs usually marijuana 0 Teenage drinking is a bigger problem than smoking as it is more widely spread Psychology of Parenting Exam 2 Study Guide 0 Binge drinking is an issue typically described as consuming 5 or more alcoholic drinks in a short period Potentially serious problems associated with drinking involve alcohol dependence multiple sexual partners suicide attempts unprotected sex and violence Tied into academic problems as adolescents grow and transition into college where other problems escalate to health problems injuries and rape Illegal drugs are used to a lesser extent with marijuana being the drug most commonly used Delinquency During adolescence violence takes the form of bullying violence theft drug dealing rape school fights or even homicide There are several pathways toward delinquency reflecting differences as to whether the aggression began earlier or later early v late onset 0 Authority conflict most common and the one that begins earliest has its roots in stubborn behavior in toddlers and preschoolers I Later escalates to defiance and disobedience before becoming authority avoidance acts eg running away from home truancy skipping school breaking parental rules 0 Overt aggression onset comes later than authority conflict begins with minor aggression eg bullying and escalates to physical fighting individually or in groupsgangs I Finally culminates in serious violence including rape o Covert aggression also emerges after authority conflict begins with minor dishonest behavior eg frequent lying shoplifting gradually developing into property damage I Escalates to drug dealing and engaging in behaviors like burglary fraud and theft Discipline Important to administer ageappropriate discipline psychological control v autonomy granting which may take the form of 0 Teaching the teen to assume natural consequences of their behavior I Eg having to pay for a ticket 0 Limit setting I Eg early curfew after staying out too late 0 Removal of privileges I Eg car use Inappropriate disciplinary practice include inconsistency corporal punishment and psychological control the latter which has been linked to internalizing and externalizing problems
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