ANT 304 - Exam 3 Study Guide
ANT 304 - Exam 3 Study Guide ANT 304
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!
It's a great review, although the parts that the professor really highlighted need to be highlighter (some were missed).
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Date Created: 10/31/15
CHAPTER 7 EAST ASIAN AGRICULTURE AND ITS IMPACT Farming arose is East Asia around 8000 and 6000 BC in two separate areas 0 Central China 0 South China The two regions evolved independently and had different types of domestication in plants and animals Central China 0 Consisted of the loess plateau and central plain of the Huang He aka Yellow River 0 Harvest and propagation of millet South China 0 Consisted of the central Yangzi River valley 0 Harvest and propagation of rice At this time huntergatherer communities became more sedentary 0 Led to establishment of permanently occupied villages 0 Transformation in the fundamentals of huntergatherer society 0 Houses were constructed inhumation cemeteries increased and populations surged 0 Exotic stone jewelry polished axes wooden and bone spades fine ceramics and woven fabric Although changes arose traditions essentially stayed the same Expanding farming groups most likely kept speaking their native tongues as well as learning and identifying other words from other groups THE TRANSITION TO AGRICULTURE IN EAST ASIA Two major plant species are part of the origin of agriculture in East Asia 0 Millet domesticated in central china 0 Rice cultivated in the Yangzi valley in the south Establishment of settled farming communities happened in both regions around the same time The origins of millet cultivation o Seminal changes took place in two distinct regions linked by the Yellow River 0 At the time 14000 BC sea levels much lower than today and climate much cooler and drier o Vegetation was dominated by droughtresistant shrubs herbaceous plants and a few coniferous trees 0 Animals included horses deer gazelle rhinoceros and sheep all large herbivores o By 11000 BC climate warmed and wet conditions returned so deciduous trees invaded the area and new range of animals spread north deer monkeys and alligators THE GROWTH OF AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITIES Neolithic cultures in the yellow river valley 0 Based on millet cultivation 0 Two major cultures developed Yang Shao and Dawenkou Q Yang Shao I Dated to approx 52003000 BC I Have semisubterranean houses storage pits for millet harvest kilnfired ceramic vessels bearing distinctive geometric painted designs and images and extensive inhumation cemeteries I Rising tide of social stratification seen in burials I Best known site is at Banbo in Xian I Had shamanistic rituals o Dawenkou I Dated approx 43002000 BC I Increasing population density and social ranking I Cemeteries had five sort of sections to bury dead depending on descent groups I Men and women distinguished from each other in burials I Manufacture ofjades and ceramic vessels I Developed into Longshan culture and early state formation CHAPTER 18 COMPLEX SOCIETIES OF NORTH AMERICA In 16th century many Native Americans were already living in settled communities numbering from a few hundred to a thousand or more 0 Would survive on what they could locally grow 0 Main plant was maize North America is commonly divided into several cultural areas the Eastern Woodlands the Plains the Southwest California the Northwest Coast and the Arctic o The largest and most complex societies developed in the Eastern Woodlands o The Southwest is known for their cliffdwelling pueblos and have the most widely recognized evidence of prehistoric life in the continent THE EASTERN WOODLANDS 800200 BC New social relationships appeared in the forms of conical mounds in the middle of Ohio Valley 0 Later these mounds became an important part of ceremonies such as burials graveside rituals and included artifacts 0 Not the earliest but first to appear in large numbers from the Great Lakes to the south east Adena and Hopewell the early and middle woodlands period from 800400 BC O Mounds were usually no more than a few feet high Grave Creek mound in Adena is an exception to the rule found in West Virginia Adena mounds usually built in ritually significant areas Mounds became more common in Middle Woodlands times Started to become more conical found in Illinois specifically and were for important people their tomb was right in the middle The Mississippian Period mound centers and villages from 10001600 AD 0 Most chiefdoms are considered part of the Mississippian culture Mounds were an important part of main settlements I Most small but some were HUGE Largest mound is found at Cahokia in Illinois I Called Monks Mound I 305 meters tall and covers 138 acres Here mounds were rectangular and flattopped I Were more like platforms to support buildings The buildings found on the mounds were more for highranking people Within the mounds are usually charnel houses bone deposits and other burials I Items inside could be luxurious materials like marine shells and copper Human sacrifice was part of rituals associated with the burial of highly ranked people The Southern Cult or Southeastern Ceremonial Complex had a few different traditions shared the luxurious material burial though I They highlighted the roles of leaders in burials as well as distanced them form other burials reinforced such and depicted supernatural beings Burial inside the mound was only allowed to a small amount of local Mississippian populations I Access to burial in a mound was restricted only to adults Easy access to mounds was sometime prevented by skulls on top of poles surrounding the mound I Clear warning to not approach sacred ground unless you were the proper person on a special occasion Settlements ranged from isolated farmsteads to villages and mound centers I Although most principal sites had no more than a few mounds usually only one Mounds ringed a central plaza I Ordinary people lives in houses that surrounded the plazas and accompanying mounds Studded bastions were build to protect villages I Had special spaces for archers o Mound centers usually surrounded by innumerable smaller settlements which were occupied for small periods of time o Mississippian chiefdoms were scattered near areas of water where they could grow maize but also wild food plants like squash and common bean THE SOUTHWEST Area of Phoenix Arizona Canal irrigation for cop productions started 1000 BC Preclassic and Classic Hohokam 7001450 AD 0 Snaketown in Phoenix provides one of the best insights into Hohokam society Houses at Snaketown were singleroom structures constructed ofjacal with thatch roofs Three or four houses were arranged around small courtyards or plazas Ball courts large oval unroofed semisubterranean structures that suggest some degree of political integration among nearby descent groups Hohokam were skilled in a variety of crafts sucks as elaborately etched shell ornaments BUT these were not prestigious goods In addition to crops of maize beans and squash Hohokam also cultivated agave and made extensive use of wild plants like mesquite amaranth chenopod saguaro pear cactus and mustard Canal irrigation was supplemented by floodwater farming and alluvial fans and flood plans In later years the Gila River started losing the amount of water is had so Hohokam farmers began to see difficulty in getting water to the canal gates Thus there began to be an abandonment of settlements and a dramatic decline in the regional population Pueblo The Chaco Phenomenon 9001150 AD 0 Transformation of settlement patterns occurred in the San Jun basic in the midst of these late 10th and early 11th century populations Small household farmsteads became aggregated communities centered on communal masonry buildings AKA great houses Structures are concentrated in Chaco Canyon The largest house is Pueblo Boito I Has over 600 rooms I Covers 2 acres By seeing all of the great house construction it s obvious that this was a time of cooperative effort REMEMBER for cooperative effort there needs to be a leader and some form of social stratification The reason this is called the quotChaco Phenomenon is because this place is extremely dry and arid so why would it be a place of population concentration I The Chaco started and ended real quick I No real answer as to why they would go to that particular spot The Chaco during the Bonito phase was a location of high devotional expression a rituality and the pilgrimage center of a sacred landscape Studies show that this area was of coresidence I Different social groups lived in Pueblo Bonito I Proves that the buildings may have been important in creating social bonds within and out of the community New geological studies show that there may have been during the beginning there may have been a large volume of water and suspended sediment flowed into the canyon I A large lake may have existed at the western end of Chaco near the biggest concentration of great houses Chaco may have not only been influences by agricultural production but also on religious function of the area ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies October 14 2015 Earliest Farmers Other groups more advanced in farming techniques 0 Ancient China Today if you were to travel Southwest many ancient ruins or monuments to visit 0 Chapel canyon or casa grande or anything to show proof of ancient times 0 Pueblo ruins cliff dwellings etc o Testimony of what was accomplished in this desert area of the American Southwest Certain skills needed to be mastered to succeed and survive there Some of the inspiration for the American Southwest came out of Mexico 0 Pottery making cultivation of certain crops religious ideas etc o Rejected idea of priest rules the notion of having power centers that require tribute o No kind of military political structure 0 Actions that are adaptations taken to benefit society and others that are not as beneficial are ignored or rejected The American southwest is a relatively small cultural area by continental standards Those boundaries expand a bit you can find some artifacts in West Texas towards El Paso area In this region you have one of the most complex stages of early American societies 0 Both the prehistoric past and into more recent times Most people were gardeners 0 Excellent exploiters of land and water Principle crops corn beans squash and cotton 0 There are other plants such as weeds tomatoes 0 Encouraged and cultivated but not quite domesticated What is often forgotten are all the wild species that were collected by these farmers 0 Hundreds were collected 0 The things that are domesticated allow for a denser population 0 The wild stuff supplements the culture When you get to the point where you can provide a staple food supply you feed and add more people o More people more labor accomplish more for group Remember Because of the amount of material that is gathered from the environment it is clearthat we Because of the environment you need special agricultural or horticultural techniques 0 Ex Corn is usually planted early and in a particular spot in rather deep holes I Depth protects from frost and keeps seeds moist I 1012 kernelsseeds dropped into each hole I Irregularly spaced so that they get their share of water I Because it s arid corn will only grow to about 34 feet in height I All seeds grow together and look like a bush I Seedlings are called I 6 7 8 stocks of corn plants come up I The internal part allows harvest of a few years of corn Number of major traditions of cultural groups that are interacting 0 Three important ones I Hohokam I Mogollon I Anasazi I Perhaps out of Mexico 0 0 At some point shortly after stimulus all of these societies are producing their own food and pottery 0 When you have societies creating pottery you know you have a more stable society I Pottery is to heavy and fragile to carry around 0 Provide evidence for the transition from archaic stage to horticultural stage 0 Able to see that early man starts and moves into society that makes ceramics and own food 0 Area that dwells from Arizona New Mexico border all across New Mexico and at some point into West Texas 0 Primarily in western to central Arizona F o Developed or implementation of irrigation agricultural o Flourished more to north in Colorado plateaus 0 Generally overlap with other two a little later in the sequence ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies October 21 2015 AMERICA SOUTHWEST Early farmers More understood Located in four corners region 0 Utah Colorado Arizona and New Mexico share a border 0 AKA Particularly known to have built cliff houses o In cliff walls almost cavelike you have these dwellings of pueblos 0 Very special end product from pit houses to puebloscliff dwellings Anasazi and four corners region became known to the world in late 18005 0 There were some rancher explorercollectors that lived in this part of Am Southwest and as part of collector aspect brought the wonders of the people of Mesa Verde 0 Found by the Wetherill family 0 Wetherill brought pottery and other stuff In this particular area we have examples of materials that are preserved from earlier stages 0 Found in earlier deposits of these cliff dwellings 0 Earlier deposits the Wetherill referred to as basketmakers 0 So before there is pottery or significant architecture there are a number of significant layers referred to as basketmakers 0 Different levels of basketmakers then portion where pottery is introduced and is what is first to as Anasazi o Textiles of various types 0 Wooden bone implements o Chipped stone 0 Papers 0 Fur blankets i subterranean ceremonialreligious structure 0 Found in pueblo setting 0 About AD 700 0 Among the Anasazi and their various constructions and buildings o In other words it s a below ground ceremonial structure Pit houses if looking from top are round 0 Have an entrance in form of cross section 0 Have certain features inside where ceremonial activities take place 0 An important structure Can fet a number of kivas within a certain town 0 In larger pueblos 0 Larger kiva that is more for the community Anasazi start to make finespun string in many colors 0 This is where we also get grey or white and black pottery Domesticates include dogs and turkeys Likely a good rainfall pattern so this is the point where the societies expand o Anasazi will spinoff and make small groups and lineages determined by their farming pattern Pottery is of good quality 0 Mesa Verde mug is super known 0 Rather than just jars and molds we have mugs o Probably has a lot to do with specific functions or societies In the closing years of pueblo period quotAD 1200 there is an extreme contraction of Anasazi o Rainfall patterns change and farming becomes way more difficult 0 Some parts that used to be inhabited are abandoned 0 Various ideas as to why areas are abandoned Ideas for abandonment 0 Long periods of drought 0 Pressure of enemy peoples there is some evidence for this where some places appear to be attacked 0 Significant periods of drought then suddenly get lots of rain so flooding happens it s absolutely disastrous to crops If you leave your settlement you re back to a hunting and gathering type of life 0 You don t take materials with you 0 Leave behind pottery baskets certain types of food 0 This is why Wetherill s found so much stuff AMERICA SOUTH WEST SUMMARY One of the few places in North America where we see societies become more complex then we see their decline Settlements 0 Some areas of dense population 0 Introduction of pit houses among other kinds of features 0 Surface masonry or adobe structures development of pueblos o Sedentary and permanent villages 0 Development of specialized religious structures kiva Subsistence 0 Close adaptation to environment still some hunting and collecting taking place 0 Agriculturehorticulture is minor at first but increases in importance over time o Domesticated animals turkeys and dogs 0 Several forms of irrigation Artifacts o Bows and arrows 0 Extensive use of marine shell particularly for jewelry rings bracelets necklaces 0 Trade for colored stones turquoise and colored feathers o Weaving and textiles o Variability in bone and wooden tools 0 Implied use of tobacco pipe and cane cigarettes Social Political Features 0 Weakly stratified society not strong class structure or anything like that 0 Evidence for some social control it s obvious in construction of irrigation systems or kivas 0 Little evidence for human sacrifice o Adaptability and receptivity to foreign ideas but only things that can be integrated into existing patterns 1 General close adaptation to local environmental features 2 Techniques of food preparation I Animals and plants exploited are similar to those exploited by archaic population I Accounts for most of the food being consumed 3 Tendency towards community with little social stratification 4 Weaklypoorly developed ideas of conquest CENTRAL CHINA Around 3000 BC cultural transformations that are similar all across China F o Named after place where they were first identified 0 Developed from previously existing societies Everywhere we look where we have Lungshanoid there seem to be two major stages of cultural development 0 transitional peaceful calm o earlier peaceful village life transforms into warlike and ranked society I The preparatory state for formation of civilization and state I If it stays on this particular track it will become a state consistently found in layers beneath Lungshanoid 0 North central cultures 0 From last exam 0 Clearly there s a transition between YangShao and Lungshanoid Lungshanoid EMPHASIZED 0 Pottery thin hard lustrous black different from Yang Shao which was red painted pottery 0 New kinds of tools for more intense agriculture and horticulture 0 Construction of village walls r technique for building village walls October 26 2015 Exam 3 0 Chapter 7 235237 244245 0 Chapter 18 679681 687694 697699 Considered Neolithic cultures Way to identify via pottery is thin black lustrous Stone inventory remains broadly similar to Yang Shao Before this culture we had Yang Shao 0 Use of oracle bones Thought that at some point and Lungshanoid were competing 0 Actually a sequence transition from one society to another Q Yang Shao then Lungshanoid o Represent two successive stages of development Characteristics we see from Yang Shao to Lungshanoid 0 Introduction to agriculture I From transitional stage of food gathering to something that is more substantive 0 Establishment of village farmers begins with the Yang Shao 0 Advanced stages of agriculture with Lungshanoid I Expansion of farming and more inclusive I Greater uniformity of agricultural techniques Remember two types of Lungshanoid early and late 0 During this development we see construction of village walls Village walls represent community efforts 0 Built for protection 0 Part of a more complex society 0 Kind of like America Southwest with irrigation systems or great kivas 0 Needs to have a social complexity in place to organize people and get them to build these places 0 Monumental works takes a lot of people and is a lot of work o AKA divination bones 0 Way of divining a future event task or activity 0 Can use the scapula of oxcattle or turtle shell I Scapulimancy use of scapula I Plastromancy use of turtle shell 0 Scapula version I Hot piece of metal placed on particular spot on bone and causes a crack I Usually has a question next to it that tells you what was asked I Crack is read and can have a positive or negative indication OOOO 0 So you take the scapula or turtle shell and let it dry SUPER DRY take metal to object and it cracks then crack is read 0 If you re the leader of the Lungshanoid and trying to figure out whether it s necessary to construct another village wall is tomorrow or next week a better day 0 Funny thing what the public doesn t see is that before the hot metal is ever placed on bone the bone has been shaven thin I So when heat placed on it it s going to crack on area where there is less resistance I Smoke and mirrors technique REMEMBER THAT THESE ARE TRANSITIONAL YANG SHAO LUNGSHANOID SETTLEMENT Shifting settlement repetitive Permanent settlement occupation occupation of same area DOMESTICATES Pigs and dogs Add cattle and sheep SETTLEMENT REGIONS Relatively small region We see an expansion POTTERY Red painted handmade Wheelmade pottery ORACLE BONES No evidence Introduced occupational specialization WEAPONS AND DEFENSE No significant defensive works Appearance of Hangt u walls and items produced that look like weapons BURIALS Burials differ by sex and age Other materials seen in burials class differences are seen SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Little evidence Concentration of special artifacts like jade and others AMERICA SOUTHEAST Mississippians 0 About a thousand years or so ago 0 One of the more powerful civilizations North of Mexico Mississippi river bottom land 0 These people known as Mississippians 0 Their adaptations to their environment based significantly on cultivation of corn 0 Heavy reliance on wild food product wild game and plants 0 America Southeast is very rich and productive area I Many fish shellfish water mammals etc 0 Had a stratified society o Specialized crafts and monumental architecture that covered many acres 0 Accomplished and prolific builders 0 One site outside of St Louis is called Cahokia 0 Dates about AD 8001300 and will go on to exist until European contact 0 Probably ruled by an individual who claimed divine power I Theocratic chief sometimes referred to as the Great Sun I Top of the social order I Under chief would be closest relatives and other associates that would form the elite class 0 This is just one example of hundreds of cities in Am Southeast that represents careful herbal planting 0 Complex trade network Principle traits for Mississippian cultures 0 Flattopped temple mounds foundation for other kinds of structures 0 Floodplain agriculture 0 Craft specialization 0 Key to the success and growth is the production of surpluses of food labor services etc F October 28 2015 A site is not a cultural group AMERICA SOUTHEAST MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURES AND THE CAHOKIA Mississippians were prolific builders Most Cahokia were single family dwellings Most of the Cahokia houses are less than 20x20 ft in dimension At the site of Cahokia outside of St Louis built a lot of different structures including those for communal purposes 0 Where you have meetings rites of passage larger storage buildings The village was a walled village 0 Large timbers placed around the village in the form of a stockade 0 Large posts are gone but one can see the post holes and follow that pattern 0 Stockade was rebuilt several times over the course of the years 0 Made of hickory logs that are at least 1 foot 12 inches in diameter and at least 20 ft tall 0 A stockade would take 15000 20000 logs What was the function of the stockade o No evidence for invasion of Cahokia 0 Though seems primarily like a defensive structure o The reason for this belief is because of great height of wall some parts of the wall seem to be hurriedly built and there are evenly spaced bastions 0 Places that stick out of wall where archers could stand pretty close to top There was also a wooden structure series of posts in a circle and with a center piece 0 To keep track of the seasons over time 0 Known as Woodhenge The more dramatic structures among these building are large earthen mounds o More than 120 at Cahokia alone 0 Most serve as platforms for houses or others structures to be built At Cahokia there are distinctly different roles for men and for women 0 Gender activities 0 Men did much of the strenuous work made tools hunted teach boy to become men 0 Women did all domestic activities child bearing duties cultivated crops gathered plants processed animal skins made pottery 0 Significant amount of food stuff provided by women Subsistence was a year round obsession at Cahokia Animals added limited and seasonal variety to the diet 0 Squashes pumpkin sunflowers 0 Fishing in Mississippi River 0 Not just for food but also for other needs such as medicinal We see evidence for leisure time 0 Many festivals and ceremonies Evidence for music and dance Games of skill and chance Find rattles drums music instruments Chunkey game game of skill o Involves solid concave stone 0 Stone would be rolled down a lawn or particular area 0 Those in competition would through a spear to estimate where this stone will stop Mississippian societies made all of their tools from rocks and minerals 0 Axes chunkey stones other tools for pounding and grinding seedsnuts Lots of pottery o Fragile of course 0 Variety of styles and decorative finishes Access to shells 0 Both freshwater and coastal 0 Jewelry rings bracelets necklaces Wood was used for construction purposes but also to manufacture many other items 0 O O O 00000 0 Certain kinds of tools Used to manufacture handles or stone tools Bows Oils and dyes Canoes 12 ft to 70 ft in length Fuel to stay warm cook food and fire pottery Animal resources 0 Turtle shells used to make bowls rattles cones and other types of ornaments Animal fat used for cooking or ointments Talons from certain birds can be made into tools necklaces decoration for capes or headdresses Rattles from rattle snake claws from bear and others have strong symbolic meanings Animal skins can be made into bags blankets robes etc The most important animal resource in the general area was the white tailed deer I Valued for meat but also for hooves and antlers I Antlers used in costume arrow points chipped stone tools
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