Study Guide For IR Test
Study Guide For IR Test PS 250
Popular in International Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cameron Rhoades on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PS 250 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Soleiman Kiasatpour in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 233 views. For similar materials see International Politics in Political Science at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 10/31/15
NPT: NonProliferation Treaty 1968 created a framework for controlling the spread of nuclear materials and expertise. A number of potentially nuclear states have not signed the NPT (Israel) WMD: Weapons of Mass Destruction Comprise of three general types: nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. Distinguished from conventional weapons by their potential lethality, given their small size and modest costs, and by their relative lack of discrimination in whom they kill. Purpose: to deter attack by giving state leaders the means to inflict great pain againstwould be conqueror or destroyer. Serve as symbolic equalizers for middle power with great powers. Nuclear Weapons: World’s most destructive weapon. Extremely difficult to defend against. Two types: Fission Weapons (atomic bombs) are simpler and less expensive. When it is exploded, one type of atom is split. Manhattan project: Abomb was used against Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Fusion weapons (Hydrogen bombs of Hbombs) are extremely expensive and technically demanding, they are for only the richest, largest, most technologically capable states. Two atoms fuse together into a larger one and release energy. Ballistic Missiles: extremely difficult to defend against. Ballistic missiles carry a warhead up along a trajectory and let it drop on the target. The longest range missiles are intercontinental ballistic missiles with ranges of more than 5,000 miles. Short range ballistic missiles have a range of well under 1,000 miles. Chemical and Biological Weapons: A chemical weapon releases chemicals that disable and kill people. They vary from lethal (nerve gas) to merely irritating gas (tear gas).Possible to defend against. Dress troops appropriately. Indiscriminate against whom they kill and are rarely used in warfare. Were banned in the 1925 Geneva protocol. Iraq is the only country to violate the treaty. Cheap way for states to gain weapons of mass destruction. 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention: banned the production and possession of chemical weapons has been signed by all the great power and nearly all other states, with a few exceptions including Egypt, Syria , and North Korea. Biological Weapons: resemble chemical ones, but use deadly microorganisms or biologically derived toxins. Have virtually never been used in war. 1972 Biological Weapons Convention: signed by more than 100 countries including the great powers. The superpowers destroyed their stocks of biological weapons and had to restrict their biological weapons complexes to defensive research rather than the development of weapons First Strike vs. Second Strike First Strike when a country is attacked by strikes and cannot respond. Second Strike when a country is attacked by strikes and can respond with an attack of their own. Mutually Assured Destruction Material Interests as Causes of War: A)territorial border disputes Territorial integrity Secession Interstate borders Territorial waters B)Control over national government C) Economic Interests Mercantilism An economic theory and a political ideology opposed to free trade; it share with realism the belief that each state must protect its own interests without seeking mutual gains through international organizations Conflict over nonmaterial interests: Ethnic conflict Territorial control is closely tied to Ethnic identities and thus leads to material conflict between two ethnic groups. Ethnocentrism tendency to see one’s own group in favorable terms and an out group in unfavorable terms. Dehumanization includes the common use of names “pigs,” “dogs,” for member of the outgroup. Religious conflict Religion is the core of a community’s value system in much of the world, people whose religious practices differ are easily disdained and treated as unworthy or even inhuman. Overlaid on ethnic and territorial conflicts, religion often surfaces as the central and most visible division between groups. Sunni’s vs. Shi’ite Muslims Ideological conflict Similar to religion conflicts. It symbolizes and intensifies conflicts between groups and states more than it causes them. Ideologies have a somewhat weaker hold on core values and absolute truth than religions do, so they pose somewhat fewer problems for the international system. The importance of norms; sovereignty and borders Norms are the expectations actors hold about normal international relations. Such norms such as sovereignty and respect for treaties, are widely held; thye shape expectations about state behavior and set standards that make deviations stand out. Agreed norms of behavior, institutionalized through such organizations, become habitual over time and gain legitimacy. State leaders become used to behaving in a normal way and stop calculating, for each action, whether violating norms would pay off. Chapter 7: Liberal View on anarchy liberalist theory acknowledges that the international system is anarchic, it contends that this anarchy can be regulated with various tools, most importantly: liberal democratization, liberal economic interdependence and liberal institutionalism. The basic liberal goal is a completely interdependent world. Liberalist theory asserts that the existence and spread of free trade reduces the likelihood of conflict, as “economically interdependent states are reluctant to become involved in militarized disputes out of fear that conflict disrupts trade and foreign investment and thus induces costs on the opponents”. Liberalists contend that it is not in a country’s interest to go to war with a state with which its private economic agents maintain an extensive exchange of goods and capital. Thus, for liberals, there is hope for world peace even under anarchy, if states seek common ground, forming alliances and institutions for policing the world powers. UN structure: General Assembly: where representatives of all states sit together in a huge room, listen to speeches, and pass resolutions. Coordinates a variety of development programs and other autonomous agencies through the Economic and Social Council. UN Security Council: Parallel to the General Assembly, in which five great powers and ten rotating member states make decisions about international peace and security. Dispatches peacekeeping forces to trouble spots. (US, Britain, France, Russia, and China) Resolutions in the Security council require 9 out of the 15 votes to approve/pass. Meets irregularly. Power is limited in two major ways. 1) Council decisions depend entirely on the interests of its member states. 2) UN security Council resolutions in theory bind all UN members, member states often try to evade or soften their effect. Economic and Social Council: (ECOSOC): The General Assembly coordinates a variety of development programs and other autonomous agancies through the Economic and Social Council. (Regional commissions, Functional commissions, Expert Bodies, Other committees) Trusteeship Council: written not really in practice anymore. was established to help ensure that trust territories were administered in the best interests of their inhabitants and of international peace and security. The trust territories—most of them former mandates of the League of Nations or territories taken from nations defeated at the end of World War II—have all now attained selfgovernment or independence, either as separate nations or by joining neighbouring independent countries. UN Secretariat: Executive branch of the UN. Closest thing to a “president of the world.” Represents member states rather than the 7 billion people of the world. Secretarygeneral is nominated by the Security Council requiring consent by all 5 permanent members and must be approved by the General Assembly. It is a bureaucracy for administering UN policy and programs,. Divided into functional areas, with undersecretariesgeneral and assistant secretariesgeneral. One purpose is to develop an international civil service of diplomats and bureaucrats whose loyalties lie at the gloval level, not with their states or origin. Role of international law; eno Just War Doctrine: Apart of the laws concerning war. International law distinguishes just was (which are legal) from wars of aggression (which are illegal). Today, the legality of war is defined by the UN Charter, which outlaws aggression. Has become a strong international norm, not one that all states follow but an important part of the modern intellectual tradition governing matters of war and peace that evolved in Europe. War must be waged in a response to aggression. World Court (Intl Court of Justice or ICJ): As international law has developed, a general world legal framework in which states can pursue grievances against each other has begun to take shape. The rudiments of such as system exist in the World Court. Only States, not individuals can sue or be sued. World Court is a panel of 15 judges elected for nine year terms. The great weakness of the WC is that states have not agreed in a comprehensive way to subject themselves to its jurisdiction or obey its decisions. Main use of the WC now is to arbitrate issues of secondary importance between countries w/ friendly relations overall. International Criminal Court (or ICC): Hears cases of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity from anywhere in the world. Opened for business in 2003. In 2008, it began its first trial, or a militia leader from Democratic Congo accused of drafting children under 15 and killing civilians. Was convicted in 2012. 3 mechanisms that can trigger a ICC trial: 1. A state can turn over an individual for trial if the state agrees to do so. 2. Against the wishes of a state, a special prosecutor at the ICC can begin a trial if the crimes occurred in the territory of a signatory to the ICC. 3. The UN Security Council can begin proceedings even against individuals from nonsignatory states. Chapter 8: Autarky a policy of selfreliance , avoiding or minimizing trade and trying to produce everything one needs within that state/society by ones self. Ineffective: a selfreliant state pays a very high cost to produce goods for which it does not have a comparative advantage. As other states cooperate among themselves to maximize their joint creation of wealth, the relative power of the autarkic state in the international system tends to fall. Comparative advantage the principle that says states should specialize in trading goods that they produce with the greatest relative efficiency and at the lowest relative cost (relative that is, to other goods produced by the same state.) Absolute advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, or firm, or country) to produce a greater quantity of a good, product, or service than competitors, using the same amount of resources Balance of trade is the value of a state’s imports relative to its exports. A state that exports more than it imports has a positive balance or trade, or a trade surplus. China has run a large trade surplus for years, passing $250 billion per year. It gets more money for the many goods it exports than it pays for ray materials and other imported goods. A state that imports more than it exports has a negative balance of trade (trade deficit). Neomercantilism Neomercantilism is a policy regime that encourages exports, discourages imports, controls capital movement, and centralizes currency decisions in the hands of a central government. The objective of neomercantilist policies is to increase the level of foreign reserves held by the government, allowing more effective monetary policy and fiscal policy. This is generally believed to come at the cost of lower standards of living than an open economy would bring at the same time, but offers the advantages to the government in question of having greater autonomy and control. China, Japan and Singapore are described as neomercantilist. It is called "neo" because of the change in emphasis from classical mercantilism on military development, to economic development. Its policy recommendations sometimes echo the mercantilism of the early modern period. These are generally protectionist measures in the form of high tariffs and other import restrictions to protect domestic industries combined with government intervention to promote industrial growth, especially manufacturing. At its simplest level, it proposes that economic independence and selfsufficiency are legitimate objectives for a nation to pursue, and systems of protection are justified to allow the nation to develop its industrial and commercial infrastructure to the point where it can compete on equal terms in international trade. In macroeconomic terms, it emphasizes a fixed currency and autonomy over monetary policy over capital mobility. Free riders In economics, the free rider problem occurs when those who benefit from resources, goods, or services do not pay for them, which results in an underprovision of those goods or services. [1 The free rider problem is the question of how to limit free riding and its negative effects in these situations. The free rider problem may occur when property rights are not clearly defined and imposed. A common example of a free rider problem is defense spending. No one person can be excluded from being defended by a state's military forces, and thus free riders may refuse or avoid paying for being defended, even though they are still as well guarded as those who contribute to the state's efforts. How States Trade: GATT (WTO) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was created in 1947 to facilitate freer trade on a multilateral basis. GATT was more of a negotiating framework than an administrative institution. Did not actually regulate trade. Became the World Trade Organization in 1995. WTO rests on the principle of reciprocitymatching stat’s lowering of trade barriers to one another. Is also used the concept of nondiscrimination, embodied in the MFN status. MFN status this concept says that trade restrictions imposed by a WTO member on its mostfavored trading partner must be applied equally to all WTO members. An exception to the MFN system is the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) dating from the 1970s, by which rich states give trade concessions to poor ones to help their economic development. Protectionism: protection of domestic industries from international competition. Tariffs: A tax imposed on certain types of imported goods (usually as a percentage of their value as they enter the country. NTBs: Other means by which to discourage imports into a country. Quotas: are ceilings on how many goods of a certain kind can be imported. They are imposed to restrict the growth of such of imports. Subsidies: payments by a government to a domestic industry that allow it to lower its prices w/o losing money. Subsidies to an industry struggling to get established or facing strong foreign competition include tax breaks, loans on favorable terms, and high guaranteed prices paid by the governments. Restrictions and regulations: make it hard to distribute and market a product even when it can be imported. (Safety Regulations Iranian pistachio and mold). (US restricted the number of automobiles Japan could export to the USJapan feared that if they kept exporting large quantities then the US would retaliate economically in some form of fashion. Economic nationalism: use of economics to influence international power and relative standing in the international system. (US looking to buy helicopter for the President, Europe groups come out with a better helicopter; however, we don’t buy it because it is European, and we don’t want them to know the ins and outs of our President’s means of transportation.)  Infant industry In economics, an infant industry is a new industry, which in its early stages experiences relative difficulty or is absolutely incapable in competing with established competitors abroad. Governments are sometimes urged to support the development of infant industries, protecting home industries in their early stages, usually through subsidies or tariffs. Subsidies may be indirect, as in when import duties are imposed or some prohibition against the import of a raw or finished material is imposed. Chapter 9 Balance of payments: The IMF maintains a system of national accounts statistics to keep track of the overall monetary positions of each state. A state’s balance of payments is like the financial statement of a company. It summarizes all the flows of money in and out of the country. The system itself is technical and not political in nature. 3 types of international transactions go into the balance of payments. 1) Current Account is basically the balance of trade. Money flows out of a state to pay for imports and flows into the state to pay for exports. The goods imported and exported include both merchandise and services. 2) Capital Flows are foreign investments in and by a country. Measured in net terms total investments and loans foreigners make in a country minus the investments and loans that country’s companies, citizens, and government invest in other countries. 3) Changes in foreign exchange reserves makes the national accounts balance. Any difference between the inflows and outflows of money is made up by an equal but opposite change in reserves. These changes in reserves consist of the states purchases and sales of SDR’s, gold and hard currencies other than its own, and changes in its deposits with the IMF. Bretton Woods System: created near the end of WWII. Was adopted at a conference of the winning states in 1944. It established the international Bank for Reconstruction and Development more commonly called the World Bank as a source of loans to reconstruct the Western European economies after the war and to help state through future financial difficulties. World Bank: Formally the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, an organization that was established in 1944 as a source of loans to help reconstruct the European economies. Later, the main borrowers were third world countries and in the 1990s, Eastern European ones. International Monetary Fund: An intergovernmental organization that coordinates international currency exchange, the balance of international payments, and national accounts. Along with the World Bank, it is a pillar of international financial system Devaluation A unilateral move to reduce the value of one’s own currency by changing a fixed or official exchange rate. Is a quick fix for financial problems in the short term, but it can create new problems. It causes losses to foreigners who hold one’s currency. Such losses reduct the trust people place in the currency of that country. FDI (Foreign Direct Investment): the acquisition by residents of one country of control over a new or existing business in another country. Involves tangible goods such as factories and office buildings. Mercantilists often view FDI with suspicion. In developing countries, it often evokes concerns about a loss of sovereignty, because governments may be less powerful than the MNCs that invest in their country. MNC: Companies based in one state with affiliated branches or subsidiaries operating in other states. Large corporation that operates on a worldwide basis in many countries simultaneously, with fixed facilities and employees in each. Most important are industrial corporations, which make goods in factories in various countries and sell them to business and consumers in various countries. Automobile, oil, and electronic are the largest. Financial corporation’s operate multinationally, among the largest are commercial banks worldwide. Some sell services McDonald’s, At&t Conflicts over wealth distribution and trade policy. Gold standard: Gold has long been a key power resource with which states could buy armies or other means of leverage. In recent years, the world has not used such a gold standard but has developed an international monetary system divorced from any tangible medium such as precious metals. Even today, some private investors buy stocks of golf or silver at times of political instability, as a haven that would reliably have future value. But gold and silver have now become basically like other commodities, with unpredictable fluctuations in price. Fixed Exchange Rates vs. Floating Exchange Rates Fixed: Governments decide individually or jointly, to establish official rates of exchange for their currencies. For example: the Canadian and US dollars were equal in value; a fixed rate of one to one was maintained. *No longer the case Floating: are now more commonly used for the world’s major currencies. Rates are determined by global currency markets in which private investors and government’s alike buy and cell currencies. There is a supply and demand for each state’s currency, with prices constantly adjusting in response to market conditions.
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