GAstudyguide2.pdf Anth 1113 003
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Anth 1113 003
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Red-Roe on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 1113 003 at University of Oklahoma taught by Samuel G. Duwe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/31/15
Renee Roe Study Guide 2 Charles Darwin The Theory of Natural Selection evolution by natural selection selection acts on existing variation Binomial nomenclature Carl Linnaeus system we use to name and categorize species 2 parts 1st is genus always capitalized 2nd is species not capitalized example Homo sapien J B Lamarck also known as JeanBaptiste de Monet de Lamarck o transformational evolution each individual member of a species transforms itself to meet the challenges of a changedchanging environment through the laws of use and disuse and the inheritance of acquired characteristics example giraffe39s neck 0 coined term biology The Theory of Natural Selection Charles DanVin and Alfred R Wallace Microevolution changes in gene frequencies from one generation to next Macroevolution emergence of new varieties species of organism Population genetics examines genetic variation in populations how it comes about how it changes how microevolution leads to macroevolution Species group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring Reproductively isolated from other species clear cut boundaries Population group of indivs within species that frequently breeds with other members of own group Normally defined by geography fexibe boundaries Four forces of evolution 0 Mutation o ultimate source of diversity 0 increases diversity within populations and influences divergence between populations slow random process 0 majority of mutations are damaging very small proportion are beneficial and the rest are neutral and invisible to natural selection 0 Gene flow 0 movement of genes between populations 0 can occur either within migration or with intermarriageinterbreeding and increases diversity within population by adding new allelestraits 0 reduces differences between population by spreading genetical material around low levels of gene flow can keep two populations from diverging into different species 0 Genetic drift 0 the random increase or decrease in allele frequencies due to stochastic chance factors this mainly affects neutral traits 0 tends to reduce diversity within populations and amplify the differences among them and causes rare aees to disappear 0 Natural selection Different types of selection stabilizing diversifying directional sexuaD o Directional selection fitness increases in one direction o Stabilizing selectionfitness highest in middle lowest at extremes o Diversifying selectionfitness lowest in middle highest at extremes 0 Sexual selection based entirely on criteria for choosing a mate 0 runaway sexual selection 5 key points of natural selection 1 resources are scarce offspring are produced at a faster rate than food supply can increase competition 2 individuals in any population will vary 3 competition for scarce resources may favor some individuals over others successful individuals will survive and reproduce 4 for evolution to occur traits that allow successful individuals to reproduce more than others must be heritable 5 over large spans of time small changes can accumulate producing new species reproductively isolates Bottlenecks and founder effects special cases of genetic drift 0 reduces genetic diversity within populations and increases divergence between them and may also amplify frequency of rare alleles if they happen to be present effects of random processes most pronounced in very small populations many examples from smalls communities of people that are endogamous closed for geographic or cultural reasons Genotypes genetic information about particular biological traits encoded in an organism s DNA Phenotype observable measurable overt characteristics of an organism Sickle cell anemia causes malformed sickle shaped red blood cells recessive allele is almost always fatal in homozygous condition and heterozygous one recessive allele have slightly compromised health Primates any of an order Primates of mammals that are characterized especially by advanced development of binocular vision specialization of the appendages for grasping and enlargement of the cerebral hemispheres and that include humans apes monkeys and related forms as lemurs and tarsiers Adaptive radiation rapid diversification of life forms to fill new ecological niches which can come from environmental change or from novel evolutionary developments airbreathing flight Sexual dimorphism phenotypic differentiation between males and females of the same species Heterodont dentition in monkeys 2133 2133 incisors canine premolarsmolars humans 21232123 Hypotheses explaining primate radiations arboreal hypotheses visual predator hypothesis and fruitflowereating hypothesis Prosimians traits and examples m 0 small brains doglike snout mobile ears 0 heavy reliance on olfactory and visual senses o expressionless face 0 possesses rhinarium most patch on nose 0 elongated hind limbs adapted to vertical clinging and leaping examples lemurs lorises bushbabies and galagos New world monkeys traits and examples known as platyrrhine primates Central and South America m o virtually all possess tals some are prehensile o tend toward quadrupedal locomotion o nearly all are completely arboreal o stereoscopic color vision examples capuchin squirrel spider howler and wooly monkeys marmosets uakar titi saki also owl monkeys only nocturnal arthropoids and Pygmy marmoset primitive new world primate has claws Old world monkeys traits and examples known as catarrhine primates Africa and Asia m 0 most possess tals none are prehensile o tend toward quadrupedal locomotion 0 some arboreal some terrestrial o stereoscopic color vision 0 some especially grounddwelling species are sexually dimorphic examples colobus proboscis and patas monkeys baboons macaques mandrills mangabey langurs Apes traits and examples Africa and Asia m 0 lack tails and possess short deep trunk laterally oriented shoulder most are largebodied except lesser apes locomotion patterns vary but suspensory capabilities are common some arboreal some terrestrial stereoscopic color vision social adaptations variable 0 some grounddwelling species are sexually dimorphic examples gibbons and siamangs orangutans chimpanzees includes bonobos gorillas humans small apes gibbons and siamangs are brachiators great apes 0 they possess high joint moblty in shoulder and hps both hands and feet have powerful grips o orangutans of SE Asa move deliberately and slowly through trees by clambering with all 4 limbs 0 African species include Chimpanzee lowland and mountain gorilla bonobo V 0 today they are distributed over relatively limited area of Central and West Africa quadrupedalism a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs Bipedal locomotion walking on 2 feet in upright posture Fossil something from a hole in the ground literally Taphonomy study of how fossils and fossil contexts are formed laws of burial Great Rift Valley a land of slow moving rivers and shallow lakes that is perfect for burial and preservation of fossil remains rift continues to spread causing erosion which exposes buried fossil remains East Africa Relative and absolute dating relative determines order geological and magnetic stratigraphy absolute estimates real calendar age various techniques based on wellknown principles of physics especially radioactive decay Hominids humans family hominidae of African origins only primate that walks habitually upright on its hind legs Laetoli where some evidence for early bipedalism cames from fossil trackways 37 mya 39brachiation form of arboreal locomotion in which primates swing from tree limb to tree limb using only their arms Australopithecus afarensistraits where found rough idea when it dates to m 0 fully bipedal but perhaps slightly different gait not meat eaters not toolmakers small brain same size or slightly larger than chimpanzees moderate sexual dimorphism long arms curved fingers indicate time still spent in trees or ancestral trait not yet selected out of early hominid populations Found throughout the East Asia Date range is ca 3529 million years Australopithecus Paranthropus boisei traits where found rough idea when it dates to m o massive teeth chewing muscles suggest specialized herbivores 2010 mya E Africa Homo habilistraits where found rough idea when it dates to m 0 larger brain case average ca 630 cc 0 more rounded higher cranial vault o flatter less prognathic face approx 25 mya Oldest early Homo fossils from Ethiopia Homo erectusergaster traits where found rough idea when it dates to m 0 larger brain size than earlier Homo cranial capacity 7501250 cc 0 larger body size 0 some dental reduction o essentially modern postcrania o Distinctive morphology of cranium 0 thick heavy bone 0 massive brow ridge 0 nuchal torus at back of skull 0 long low cranial vault o cranium wider near base that at top Earliest fossils ca 16 mya from E Africa Homo sapiens neanderthalensis Neanderthals traits where found rough idea when it dates to m o nearly same stature as modern humans although much more robust 0 brain size also very similar roughly 1500 cc or even larger found throughout Europe and Near East with many of most important sites being found along Mediterranean Sea Spain France israel gone completely by 30000 BP Homo sapiens Homo sapiens first appear in Eurasia 100000 ky but does not persist and then reappears in Eurasia ca 4550000 BP By 3035 000 BP only H sapiens remained Oldowan tools easy to make made from whatever stone material available form of tool determined by stone you start with Acheulean tools retains all basic tool forms from Oldowan but adds new tool forms and methods of manufacture handaxes cleavers and other large cutting tools Handaxe could have been used for variety of tasks butchery woodworking etc Mousterian tools many of the same aspects as Acheulean tools but they were more efficiently flaked Upper Paleolithic period elaborate and composite tool made of carved and polished bone antler ivory personal ornamentation burial with goods decorated objects andor art and accelerated rates of diversification change and accelerated population growth Upper Paleolithic rock art style design what it is about 0 mobile art sculpture and decorated utilitarian objects 0 parietal arton walls of caves o mostly about animals very rarely about humans but there are examples of very sketchy drawings etc Composite tools a tool formed of two or more joined parts Microliths small stone tool usually made of flint or chert and typically a centimetre or so in length and half a centimetre wide Short Answer and Essay Questions What are the four forces of evolution Explain how each is important for the evolutionary change or stasis The four forces of evolution are mutation gene flow genetic drift natural selection which together drive evolution by adding variation Gene flow allows for the passing of certain traits and alleles that can either help populations grow or diminish Genetic drift causes populations to become more similar and lowers the chance for rare traits Natural Selection acts on existing variation and though environment does not shape organisms directly or produce variation it does acts as a filter and influences selection of desired traits ls race a valid biological concept Please provide two examples to support your answer Yes race is a valid biological concept Two examples could be skin colors and DNA Skin color varies across races and you can look at DNA and know what race the owner of that DNA is Race is biological because race populations have certain biological features that are specific to those certain groups of people or they wouldn t be categorized as a certain race What is adaptive radiation Can you give two examples for how this leads to the evolution of species with one example describing the evolution of primates Adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly into a multitude of new forms particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available creates new challenges or opens new environmental niches Two examples could be bipedalism and brain size both of which could describe the evolution of primates Bipedalism is the first big evolutionary trait that we see in primates What are three of the five important derived traits that developed in primates that are different than other mammals Here s all 5 grasping hands and feet reduced reliance on sense of smell and tendency for vision to be dominant sense small litter size long gestation and prolonged juvenile dependency relatively large brain long life span What was the first member of the genus Homo to travel outside of Africa What were three necessary technologies that probably aided them Homo erectusergaster was the first member of our genus to leave Africa Three necessary technologies that they used were fire shelter mainly caves not evidence of built structures and couldn t find third What are four major characteristics that separate humans and human s hominin ancestors from other primates Please write a short paragraph for each detailing why each characteristic was important when it was expressed by our early ancestors what species each characteristic is first found and the evidence that supports this 1 bipedalism 2 increase in brain size 3 tool making 4 reduction in sexual morphism Give three examples of different kinds of artifacts that are unique or more highly developed by Homo sapiens sapiens that archaeologists have found in the Upper Paleolithic period 1 tools elaborate composite tool made of carved and polished ivory bone antler 2 nonutilitarian objects pendants and bead etc Made of shell bone ivory animal teeth ostrich egg shells 3 art and decorated objects figurines and decorated weapons and cave art
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