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# Study Guide Psychology 310

UNCG

GPA 3.5

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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nastasia Fong on Saturday October 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psychology 310 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by dr.ladrow in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see psych 310 in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.

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Date Created: 10/31/15

Exam 3 Study Guide Note that this may not be complete but you should find it very helpful Chapter 6 Probability For a normal distribution know how to find the proportion of scores in the body and tail of the distribution relative to a given zscore Use the Unit Normal Table after finding the zscore When zscore is positive tail xgtz body xltz When zscore is negative tail xltz body xgtz For a normal distribution know how to find the proportion of scores above and below a given zscore Use the Unit Normal Table Know the proportions of a normal distribution that lie at the 100 200 and 300 SD points 100 SD 8413 proportion in the body 1587 proportion in the tail 3413 proportion between the mean and z 200 SD 9772 proportion in the body 0228 proportion in the tail 4772 proportion between the mean and z 300 SD 9987 proportion in the body 0013 proportion in the tail 4987 proportion between the mean and 2 Be able to find the proportion of scores in a normal distribution between the mean and a given zscore Refer to the Unit Normal Table column D Know how to use the unit normal table to find proportions above and below given zscores and to find zscores for given proportions Refer to Column B or C for proportions above and below the mean Refer to Unit Normal Table if proportions are given in order to obtain zscore If you know 11 and G be able to find the proportion of scores between two given X s Find the Z scores of both X s and go to column D then add the values for both X scores formula X11G Know how different percentiles relate to the mean of a normal distribution 11to 1 SD 3413 1 to 2 SD 1359 2 SD to onward 228 If you know 11 and 5 determine the probability of selecting a score higher or lower than a given X Find zscore then refer to column B or C to determine if score is in the tail or body then write the proportion value of the corresponding zscore If you know 11 and 5 find the X that separates a given proportion from the rest of the distribution For any normal distribution what s the probability of selecting a score less than the mean 50 50 Chapter 7 Probability and Samples If you know 11 and G be able to determine the expected value of a distribution of sample means with a given n The expected value of the mean is always equal to 11because it is expected that the sample mean will be an exact re ection of the population mean Do not confuse expected value with actual value Be able to determine the average distance between M and 11 if you know n 11 and 5 Be able to determine the average of the sample means if you know 11 and G a What is the effect of sample size and GOD the standard error of the mean 1 The larger the sample size the smaller the standard error and the smaller the sample size the larger the standard error If you know n and SEM standard error of the mean for one sample of a population and n for another sample from the same population be able to determine SEM for the second sample If you know u and 5 know how to determine the sample size you need to ensure a given standard error What happens to the eXpected value of M as sample size increases stays constant If you know u and o be able to determine the amount of error on average between the sample mean and the population mean for a given n If you know u and o and M and the n of the sample determine the zscore for the mean of the sample Mu csr1 If a sample is selected from a normal population be able to determine the probability that the sample mean will have a zscore greater than 100 greater than 200 etc Chapter 8 GW What is a hypothesis test A statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothesis about a population What is the null hypothesis in words and in statistical notation The null hypothesis is used to describe the situation the treatment had no effect Ho In a hypothesis test what does an extreme low probability value for the z score indicate with respect to the null hypothesis It represents the alpha level What does the critical region consist of in a hypothesis test The critical region is a set of scores that are determined to be very unlikely if the Hois true In a hypothesis test what does a z score value near zero mean with respect to the critical region and the advisability of rejecting the null hypothesis The critical region is large meaning that the probability of the treatment being effective is more likely and it would be advisable to reject the null hypothesis In a hypothesis test what does an extreme z score value mean with respect to the critical region and the advisability of rejecting the null hypothesis The critical region is smaller meaning the probability of the treatment being effective is less likely and it would be advisable to fail to reject the null What are the four key steps of hypothesis testing Step 1 State the hypothesis either H0 or H1 H0 no effectnull H1 there is an effect Hmuwith tX u or H12 with tX i u mon directional H12 with tX lt u reatment decreased scores H12 with tX gt u reatment increased scores Step 2 Set Criteria 0t alpha 05 Find what z score bounds the critical region NB If it falls within the critical region then you reject the null hypothesis Step 3 Compute the Test Statistics z M uo1l1 Step 4 Make a decision Step 5 Report results include 1 type of test z test 2 independent variable 3 is it significant 4 dependent variable 5 test statistic state z score If given sample size and population mean know what to eXpect about the sample mean and likelihood of rejecting H0 if a treatment has a a large effect or b no effect In hypothesis tests what does standard error measure Size of the difference between the sample mean and population mean ie treated population vs untreated population By definition what is a Type I error What does it mean with respect to the conclusion about a treatment Type I error occurs when there is no effect thus the H0 is true but is rejected The probability of getting a type I error is 055 What determines the probability of committing a Type I error The alpha level on What does a Type II error mean with respect to the conclusion about a treatment This occurs when an effect eXists but the decision is to fail to reject the null What are the effects of increasing the alpha level with respect to the probability of a Type I error the size of the critical region the probability that a sample will fall in the critical region and the likelihood of rejecting the null hypothesis The effects of increasing the alpha level means that the probability of a Type I error increases as well as the size of the critical region What are the consequences of selecting a smaller or larger alpha level Smaller alpha level also suggests a smaller criterion region and it is more unlikely to obtain a score If the alpha level is large then the criterion region is also larger and the more likely to obtain a score a less extreme score When is a z statistic used for hypothesis testing Given sample n z and kind of test one or two tailed know what the researcher should do with respect to various levels of alpha The z statistic is used to find the z score associated with the sample mean untreated population in question One tailed test when a specific direction is stated in H1 critical region is located at the end of the distribution in the specifically stated area Two tailed test When a specific direction is not stated in the H1 the critical region is split between the two ends of the distribution is the standard smaller critical region 05 becomes 025 on both sides 01 becomes 005 on both sides 001 becomes 0005 on both sides If given the critical boundaries and the z score for the sample be able to determine the correct statistical decision A researcher reports that there is a significant difference at the 05 level of significance What does this mean That the alpha level was set to 05 A research report summarizes the results of the hypothesis test by stating quotz 207 p lt 01quot What does this tell us about the null hypothesis and the probability of Type I andor 11 error The alpha level is set at 01 Type 11 error because the alpha level is so low Fail to reject the null hypothesis because 2207 does not fall within the critical region of 258 which corresponds with alpha level being at 01

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