GEOG Exam 2 Study Guide
GEOG Exam 2 Study Guide GEOG 1003
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by SophieSol on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1003 at George Washington University taught by Rain, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Society and Environment in Geography at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Test hints Exam is on Chapters 5-8 Chapter 9 and chapter 10 material: not on this exam Info from guest speaker is fair game Know residence time and radiant potential Be able to list at least 2 greenhouse gases and explain their functions in society o I.e. Black carbon is soot that comes out of a poorly tuned car engine. Really bad greenhouse gas Know about albedo (from guest speaker lecture) o Reflectivity o How much a surface reflects/retains energy Know LECZs (what it is) o How vulnerable are people around the world and where are they o If you are at less than 10m elevation low elevation coastal zone o Adaptation vs. mitigation Know that Latitude increases as you go towards the poles Know that the Earth has a 23.5 degree tilt Know forms of evidence for climate change, such as ice cores (also from guest speaker lecture) Intro and Overview: Architecture of the Planet Know the difference between the weather and the climate o Weather: temperature in terms of numbers o Climate: what the conditions were a certain number of years ago, and what we can expect based on those conditions The “architecture” part of the planet is in reference to its surface o The biosphere is the zone of life It is about 10 miles thin, and it is very fragile It makes up about ¼ of the earth’s radius This concept can be thought of like the skin of an apple Think of the biosphere as the skin Climate Basics When we think about climate change, the change taking place is actually very minimal o This change is measure in parts per million (ppm), so obviously it is very small! Even though that it is small, due to the delicate balance of elements in the atmosphere, when we discuss possibilities of doubling some of these elements it actually makes a huge difference in the environment We are seeing rates of change now that are equivalent to those observed during the Pleistocene (the last ice age) o This is because of human impact Climate is the long term pattern of the weather o Two factors play key roles Circulation of the air and water Topography o The tilt of the earth gives us the seasons we experience because of how the sun hits certain parts of the globe (the angle affects which areas get more sun) Tilt of Earth is 23.5 degrees We have a big heat transfer system o Rays heat up the biosphere o The earth is constantly rotating on an axis, which generates heat. There is a surplus of this heat, and the excess is sent through the planet and constitutes the heat that we feel o The Tropics constitute an area of the earth that has the same degrees as the earth’s tilt, so there is full complete sun Continental and maritime influences on precipitation distribution o Ie. Fargo, North Dakota is the center of the North American continent The land here heats up and cools down faster than water This causes the possibility of 100-degree weather in summer and below 0 degree weather in the winter Cells: defined by physical properties of water vapor o Heat rises at the equator and goes to Hadley, Ferrel, and Polar cells, loses some water content, and air masses move o Doldrums are winds at the equator o Trade winds are the surface expressions of Hadley Cells o Westerlies winds describe the movement of different air masses and how they collide Inter-tropical convergence zone Where wind masses meet They undulate around the equator and follow the sun o In the summer, ITCZ is going north and bring a lot of rainfall to places that don’t get much rain Leads to monsoons Topography: Temperatures get lower as you get higher in elevation As air ascends up the side of a mountain range, the temperature goes down and it loses its ability to hold the same amount of moisture o This leads to precipitation Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification System A system of characterizing climates around the world based on temperature and precipitation H climates have a high elevation which causes them to behave differently, as though they are at a higher latitude, such as Tibet and Ethiopia Water Cycle Ice and show gets stored on tops of mountains (snow caps) o Turns into runoff and discharges into ground water o Begins to evaporate Biogeography The patterns of life in the atmosphere Includes the study of distribution of life forms across space and through time (Net) primary productivity o Plants take in CO2 from atmosphere, it is used in photosynthesis, and produces a byproduct of 02, which is what we need in the atmosphere to survive o Appropriated energy = energy from the sun This gives us short wave radiation that heats up everything Biome Areas with similar climatic conditions, referred to as ecosystems o Factors include: Latitude Humidity Elevation Biodiversity Soils Considered the “skin” of the earth Interfaces between lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere Soil is the end product of the influences of climate, topography, biotic activity, and parent materials People: John Harrison o Designed the prize of the Longitude Act, which was a competition aimed at determining a way to measure longitude His prize that he designed was a frictionless clock Food! Food Web o The sun is a huge component of this o Different levels that describe how different organisms eat each other o We are of the higher trophic levels because we aren’t eaten by anything else o People: Michael Pollan The Omnivore’s Dilemma o Describes how we have so many options of what we can eat, and that because of this there are certain things that we should eat and what these include …And human evolution o Agriculture can be considered “unnatural selection” due to mutations and how we manipulate species to mate GMOs to food Domestication ***Know the general dates of plant and animal domestication and know a couple of animals that have been domesticated and be able to tell that story*** Selective breeding of animals and plants for human use o For highest yields, disease, resistance, and behavior o Involves genetic change o We really have been doing this for thousands of years through selective breeding and grafting ***Three Sisters*** o Know this o These are the three main agricultural crops of different Native American groups Winter squash Maize (corn) Beans o They tend to be planted close together Animals o Dogs were the earliest domesticated animals o Sheep, goats, horses, llamas, donkeys Plants o Middle East Rye, figs, wheat, barley o Americas Squash, maize potatoes, peanuts, chilies, tomatoes o China Rice, millet o Africa Sorghum, pearl millet o New Guinea Sugar Domesticated here, then went to India, and then Khanda was created (juice crystals) Columbus received sugar cane cuttings to plant in the New World Was always associated with slavery until recently People: Sidney Mintz o Sweetness and Power 100 million people left home to establish new lives in other continents, and half of them were cutting cane and making sugar for the other half Bananas and yams o There were 3 revolutions Neolithic revolution, urban/economic growth in Europe b/w 1000-1340AD, and Global origins in North America Impacts o Ecosystems become simplified o More food is available (you can make higher yields and can store surplus) o Increase in population more environmental needs o Cities rise o Deforestation, overgrazing Roman Agriculture Imported grains from subject countries in their empire to keep everyone fed Wheat = staple Geometric system to lay out crop lands Latifundia = large estates using slaves from conquered lands Crop rotation Microparasites, Macroparasites People: o William McNeil Professor at U of Chicago Microparasites = viruses, bacteria Macroparasites = criminals, unjust rulers, dysfunctional institutions Thinks bureaucracy arose as a replacement for spoils taken by despots His idea is that institutions play a big role, it is not just about individuals in their own decisions Theory of civilization and that it is predicated on the idea of surplus: when you grow surplus you make money Industrialization of Agriculture in the US 1892: First petrol-driven tractor o Steam-driven pieces of equipment were its predecessor 1907: First manufacturing plant 19202-30s: Tractors replaced horses 1950s: Chemical farming developed o Using inorganic fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides, pesticides People Basch Breakfast cereal o Corn flakes were invented by Kellogg as a cure for hyperactive sexual appetites o Actual ingredients and their cost Grain is $0.09 Advertising is $1.02 You pay the company to sell you the cereal Mechanization of the American Farm Plows o Thomas Jefferson invented a plow that worked well on the Eastern Seaboard but it didn’t work well in the Midwest o John Deere created the wrought iron mouldboard in 1837 Transition from animal to machine power was complete by 1960, which was a huge advantage By 1962 USDA no longer kept track of how many horses and mules were kept on farms After 1900 Era of Power Farming Third stage of industrialization Food manufacturing arose in the 1960s Large farms came into being It became super expensive to have a farm, yet they were treating farms like firms o CAFO’s (concentrated animal feeding operation) Often get a bad rap for poor animal treatment Supermarkets Agribusiness o Cargill sponsors public radio o ADM (archer-Daniels-Midland): the informant o Bunge Ltd o J.R. Simplot: Fast Food Nation, became huge supplier of potatoes and dehydrated onions to US military during WWII History o 1859: great Atlantic and pacific tea company (A & P) o 1916: Piggly Wiggly in Memphis Self service shopping o 1920s: chain store explosion Kroger, American stores, Safeway o 1930s-40s: supermarkets o 1950s-60s: golden age Larger square footage Automobile access Shopping carts o 1970s: warehouse Kroger, Harris Teeter o 1980s-90s: mergers Warehouse stores, Wal-mart o 2000s: consolidations Safeway + Albertsons o Significance: Epitome of choice All about institutions The Kitchen! In the 1950s, kitchens were promoted to the front of the house: central place of home o Used to be that servants would make food out of sight Even when women began to join the workforce they were still expected to cook for their families o Open floor plan: allows family members to serve themselves Climate Change Between 1/3 and ½ of the earth’s land surface has been transformed by human action “The Day After Tomorrow” is a disaster movie Climate change = global warming + climate variability o It is a form of air pollution but it affects the entire planet to various extents o Results from things like combustion We have a rising concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially CO2 and CH4, which trap infrared heat which would normally be lost to space o CO2 is produced by burning things, fossil fuel, and deforestation Carbon sinks Areas that absorb carbon, like a forest o Deforestation does a huge disservice since CO2 levels are rising o CH4 is produced by cattle, rice production, landfills, and gas pipelines The “greenhouse effect” is normal because it is what gives us our atmosphere on Earth o Think of how a car absorbs heat, same with Earth: Short wave radiation goes to the surface of the planet, some is reflected back, gases absorb some energy, but it mostly goes to Earth’s surface CO2 and temperature o The concentrations of greenhouse gases are increasing which is making temperatures increasing Evidence of this direct relationship is due to ice cores o Gaia Hypothesis: planetary regulation The idea of the planet as one large organism and how it is self-regulating Certainties with Climate Change o There is a natural greenhouse effect that makes for a livable climate on earth It is at least 15 decrees C warmer than without it Venus is so hot- if our temperatures continue to rise, we could end up like Venus! o Nearly universal consensus of temperature rising o Clear association between rising temp and gas levels o IPCC is 95% certain that humans are a primary cause of climate change o Areas of agreement Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are increasing CO2: 280ppm in 1750 400ppm today CH4: 0.9ppm in 1750 1.75ppm today Uncertainties associated with climate change o Scientists are skeptical about behavior of carbon in atmosphere How much/how long do CO2 and CH4 remain in atmosphere Many Q’s How much carbon is recycled through plants/oceans More deforestation in tropics Will soils emit more carbon in a warmer world? o Radiative effects (ability to attract heat) and residence times (how long it stays in atmosphere) CO2 has a long residence time but milder radiative potential CH4 has a shorter residence time but has 20 times the radiative potential 20 times more effective of trapping gases o You really don’t want methane in the atmosphere CFCs have a long residence time and a high radiative potential and it destroys the ozone layer These have been banned o New and improved modeling efforts Linked models run the same parameterized routines for smaller and then link the results back to the larger global model Feedbacks between land use/land cover and atmospheric circulation o Could climate be changing for other reasons? Changes in solar input? Changes in earth-sun geometry? Milankovitch theory of ice ages o Looked at places where earth seems to be wobbling on axis, which he thought were cause of ice ages Changes in surface characteristics like reflectivity, roughness and surface wetness Deforestation affects these Changes in atmospheric composition I.e. volcanic activity aerosols o With greenhouse cases, don’t contribute much o Has global warming already occurred? Yes… Urban heat island effect People live in cities, building warm up ground Weather stations are often located at airports o For aircraft reasons o Think about Dulles and urban heat effect, how it used to be “out there” but as area became more developed, could this have contributed to temp rising? “Hotlanta” o Asphalt, concrete buildings, o In Atlanta Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) o International body for assessing the science related to climate change o Produce a lot of graphs I.e. the variation in the Earth’s surface temperature Impacts of climate change o Higher temperatures All around planet Sensors tell us this Main temp changes occur at poles o Modified rainfall patterns Wet areas have been getting wetter, dry areas have been getting dryer o Sea level rise o Natural ecosystem changes Weeds grow better in higher temperatures, rise in weed growth o Challenged water resources Rainfall to areas that are super dry o Opportunity for better governance? Observed Impacts o 20 century average surface temperature +0.8 degree C A greater rate of change than any seen in more than 10,000 years o Decreasing snow and ice cover th o Sea level rise 1-20 cm in 20 century Melting/thermal expansion o Precipitation + 0.5 – 1% per decade over mid-high latitudes o Projected impact: if trends continue, a temperature rise of 3 degrees C will occur before the end of the next century Limitations on predicting the future o General circulation models GCMs are models, complex computer simulations Models where certain parameters such as CO2 can be modified Hard time predicting what storm path will be Best tools available Limitations Results vary among models Simplistic representations of oceans, ice, clouds o Makes precipitation predictions uncertain Model resolution and topography are coarse Only do somewhat well reproducing current conditions Cannot predict climate variability and extreme weather Global climate change response o Impacts Mitigation: reduce impact Reducing amount of greenhouse gasses emitted per year Europe has a reason to worry Extreme cooling due to possible loss of warm ocean currents London is very north, but has a lot of green and doesn’t stay warm Europe stays very warm from gulf stream bringing warm water from tropical Atlantic Thermohaline circulation sends Europe into a deep winter o Big temperature conveyor belt o Big fear is that this will slow down and will send Europe in to deep cold winter Drought Dry land Africa- drought in western and southern Africa o Removed surface vegetation has effect on surface conditions o Rainfall variability modulated by vegetation dynamics o Species loss o Impacts on livelihoods o Food impacts o People decide to have more kids as a result Western US o CO is dependent on snowpack for water o CO river basin is experiencing a 55 percent drop in average snowmelt o Since 1999, the driest of 98 years of recorded history 2 years of successive dryness = drought BAU: “business as usual” If we don’t do anything different… Assumes people will not want to change o Adaptation o Global climate equity issues Trouble at the poles o Most startling changes are in the high latitudes o Permafrost is becoming less and less common A piece of ground that has remained frozen for at least 2 years o Albedo = reflectivity Impacts on the Cryosphere o Some models predict that all permanent ice will be gone by 2080 Many controversies o Greenland has 8% of world’s freshwater supply o Sea ice meting does not affect sea level Already displacing an equivalent amount of sea water Antarctica ice shelf has been melting more quickly Sea level rise o People: Michael Oppenheimer, professor of Geosciences and international Affairs (Princeton university) st If there is a 3 degree warming over the 21 century there would be complete melting of the Greenland ice sheet, 7 meter sea level rise worldwide o Southern Florida would be completely covered o For every 1 degree of warming, = 2.3 meters of long term sea level rise o All ports at sea level would be gone o Farming at sea level would be gone o Whole areas of the world would have to be remade o London… Protect or abandon? Depends on pace of sea rise LECZs o Took all of censuses of world and put into 1km grid Estimated populations at risk of sea level rise o About 2.2% world land area 11% population lives here China is biggest Then other Asian countries who are vulnerable to sea level rise Info From Guest Speaker Lecture (whole lecture is fair game for exam) A Path to Regulation and A Career o Clean Air act: 1970 Regulate motor vehicles (air pollutants that come from them) Once you’ve regulated a pollutant under one section, you can do others o Greenhouse gasses proving they are air pollutants If they are a danger, regulation is necessary 2009: final endangerment finding Climate Science o What drives it Greenhouse gas concentrations Aerosols (warming or reflecting) Cutting trees, changes in sun and clouds o Changes on a physical scale Temperature, precipitation, sea level rise Many uncertainties Non-climate changes like fertilization o Impacts Human health from changes in heat, air quality, mosquito inhabitance Infrastructure Sea level rise Agriculture Drought Ecosystems CO2 Concentrations o 1950s: people began to realize that we were influencing CO2 levels o 800,000 years of CO2 history Correlated with ice ages and interglacial o How do we know? People take ice cores You get bubbles trapped in ice from layers of snow over time You can see layers and determine when the bubbles came and the concentration of the gas in it o People: Ralph Keeling began to measure CO2 concentration in late 1950s o We care because it absorbs infrared radiation o Climate variability from el Niño/la Nina years Cooling from volcanic eruptions Future projected temperatures o Temperature change over next century will be a lot greater than past century o Warming is not uniform… more warming over land Indicators of climate change o Sea level rise o Ocean heat content o Artic sea ice o Upper atmosphere temperatures o Glacial melt o Plant bloom dates o Bird migrations o Insect habitable zone o Changing precipitation patterns o River thaw contests Summary o GHG’s have changed composition of atmosphere o Average temps are rising, artic sea ice and glaciers are shrinking o What is happening now cannot be explained by natural factors alone o Gases stay in atmosphere for many years, so we are committing ourselves to continued climate change o Balance between mitigation, adaptation, geo-engineering, and inaction Climate change vulnerability in metropolitan NY o Close to 600 miles of coastline o 4 of 5 boroughs are situated on islands connected with 80 bridges and tunnels o It is hard to link disasters (i.e. Hurricane Sandy) directly to climate change Storm surge is very impactful Potential impacts of climate change and sea-level rise Flooding underground in subway Dangerously hot summers Mosquito borne diseases Stressed water supplies o Salt water intrusion Loss of beaches o Airports are very vulnerable o We could lose Southern Florida if an ice shelf crashes… worst case scenario o A sign of climate awareness is when insurance goes up Benefits of climate change? o Better/longer growing seasons o Better shipping routes o Think of the map from guest speaker where the state of Illinois moved down to where other states were located Adaptation o In the past climate change has ushered in innovation o Putting houses on stilts so storm will pass underneath o The “little ice age” in 1300s-1860 Forced agricultural revolution o Today about 200 million people live on agriculturally marginal land Implications of living here? People have different responses to drought Production systems have already changed/are prepared, but they lack resources o People move o How to adapt with…? Bangladesh Philippines Maldives could disappear Boston: could have Permeable streets Other adaptations Opportunities o GeoEngineering Aka climate engineering Deliberate intervention in Earth’s climatic system with aim of limiting adverse climate change Two types Carbon dioxide removal (sequestration) Solar radiation management Almost all research into solar geoengineering has consisted of computer modeling Types Albedo modification o Painting roof white to change reflectivity Less energy gets absorbed by surface and more gets reflected Tree planting Stratospheric aerosols o Aerosol = what volcano does Carbon sequestration o I.e. deforestation o Just take carbon out of coal Iron filings to stimulate growth of phytoplankton o Carbon sinks, stimulate their growth Chemtrails o Conspiracy theories that people spray these now Dangers o These could all lower temperatures, but then we would become dependent on it, makes for an unstable situation I.e. whoever owns the sunshades, war, take control over it, catastrophic event o Expensive o Irreversible actions Global climate equity o Americans consume about 4 tons of crude oil per capita/yeah o We produce the same amount of GHG as 4.5 Mexicans, 18 Indians o Who is responsible for past and present GHG emissions? Formulating a greenhouse index IPCC- factor in residence time of GHG WRI – look at one year at a time based on current mix of atmospheric gases o “China is to blame” They produce most GHG Weaknesses of the two approaches IPCC- don’t really know residence times, make assumptions o Cry from the south: bias against developing countries Emissions are not measured as having accumulated over time Developed countries are mainly responsible for today’s build-up Today’s deforestation in various places is weighted o People o Anil Agarwal Founder of Centre for Science and Environment (one of India’s leading environmental NGOs) Credited as one of the inspirations for the term sustainable development Luxury emissions vs. survival emissions Cap and trade idea o Came from republicans, set a market for carbon o Like giving people tickets to emit a certain amount o If people don’t use all of it they can bank the money o McCain was a supporter of acting in climate o Clean Energy and Security Act Not passed by senate More on mitigation o Cost of inaction Total cost of climate action in 2100 is about $12 trillion and cost of inaction is $20 trillion Costs are bigger in 2200 Steps to be taken o Emissions trading Cap and trade idea to bank money and make savings o Ecological taxes Instead of taxing people based on income, tax on environmental impact o An international kerosene tax Fuel made of coal, producer of black carbon o Financial incentives that favor climate-friendly renewable energy technologies Tax breaks Achievable carbon emissions reductions resulting from household actions o KNOW THE GRAPH ON THIS SLIDE PER = potential emissions reduction o Behavioral plasticity = how likely are people to adopt change? (Is in % in table) Carpooling is a good example of how everyone thinks it is a great idea but no one wants to get out of their car Look on emissions of different things on table o RAER Behavioral change x likelihood it will happen Climate responses o Mitigation o Adaptation o Resilience Disaster resilience: ability to prepare and plan for adverse events Actions to take to become more resilient? Implies that we are special and can handle whatever is thrown at us Population o “The population bomb” book Population debates o “Cassandras” vs. “cornucopias” Cartoonish way of looking at it Cassandra could see the future, no one believed anything she said In terms of population, same: people saying that the population is increasing too rapidly, if we don’t do something about it, x, y, and z will happen o No one acts on it, people don’t believe it Cornucopia: constant supply of food, no regulation, always two hands o Policy shifts to women’s reproductive health, 1990s Whole deal with birth control as a means of population control And then to retreat, then return o New policy issue: “Implosionism” in the developed world especially in Japan and Europe Explosion in African countries If you go to Spain of Italy, Japan, soon China Fewer babies being born that will keep population at current level o Population issues continue to be critically important and are often neglected Population basics o World population clock o Growth occurs when the number of births exceeds the number of deaths Right now population is growing at a rate of ~148 people per minute But rate of growth is slowing o Vital rates Birth rate = births per 1000 people Counted through hospital, collected by counties About 13.8 in the US Death rate = deaths per 1000 people Counted through death certificates About 8.4 in the US Rate of natural increase % = (birth rate – death rate)/10 13.8-8.4 = 0.53% Mexico has a higher growth rate than US, why? o Mexico has a younger population and usually odds of dying younger aren’t as high as dying older o Flow of immigration o Role of migration Can alter population growth rates In the US, about half of growth comes directly from immigration Influences fertility In US, immigrants prefer to have larger families 82% of population growth between 2005 and 2050 in US will be from immigrants o Fertility rates The average number of children a woman will have in her reproductive career within an age range TFR = total fertility rate o NOT a percentage US: 2.1, Mexico = 2.2 Pro-Natalist Everyone has kids, society where this is encouraged and more kids is better Niger, Burkina Faso have super high TFR Child mortality plays a role here: If you don’t believe your kids will survive, then you have more to counter this so that the chances of some living are higher. Why do fertility rates decline? Countries where this has happened o China has a one-child policy o Mexico issue o Thailand o Kenya o Ghana o Niger Reasons o Status of women Access to work and cash? Separate bank accounts? o Economic conditions o Infant and child mortality o Education (especially for girls) o Family planning efforts o Cultural and religious factors Breastfeeding o Government policies Role of family planning picture in Niger o Demographic transition Long-term reduction of fertility follows reduction of mortality Changes in water quality, hygiene, sanitation, vaccinations Specific conditions vary by region and culture o Age Structure Younger populations will have ‘longer influence’ Ie. Saudi Arabia: 38% under 15, so attitudes about children is changing This is “Population Momentum” This will cause population to grow rapidly when the population reaches reproductive age o Baby boom! o Battles between countries/states about who has the most kids Power Political power Status Pro-natalist societies “threatening” each other by having high numbers of children o Population as a cause of environmental problems Malthusianism Dismal Theorem o Thomas Malthus inspired Charles Darwin o He argued that population grew geometrically (2,4,8,16) and that food supplies only grown arithmetically (2,4,6,8) o Eventually we will run out; there won’t be enough food for the entirety of the population o Starvation would keep the population in balance o Carrying capacity is exceeded when population outstrips food supply o We behave like fruit flies o Other argue that population is a root cause of environmental degradation Countdown o Alan Weisman Jerusalem: battle of the babies Put two pro-natalist groups together, population explosion o After WWI, carrying capacity increased dramatically Criticisms o By cornnucopians and technological optimists Think population is not a problem because we can increase food supply through technology The Ultimate Resource: people are viewed as resources o By redistributionists High consumption by people in western countries is the problem, not women having too many kids If distribution was equal, everyone could be fed Population is a symptom of environmental problems Reason for high fertility: need for child labor Policy solutions: coercive tactics o China’s one child policy o India’s forced sterilization policy o US Eugenics movement (1910s-20s) Improving genetic quality of human population Sterilization for handicapped
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