Study Guide, Midterm 3
Study Guide, Midterm 3 Chem 141
Popular in College Chemistry 1
Popular in Chemistry
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 141 at University of Montana taught by Mark Cracolice (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Montana.
Reviews for Study Guide, Midterm 3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/01/15
Chem 141, Prof Cracolice Study Guide- Midterm 3 Chapter 18 Molar volume (MV) the volume occupied by one more, usually of as gas MV≡V/n=RT/P Molar volume is not constant Make sure you are using the molar volume of the given temperature and pressure Avogadro’s Law The volume of a gas at constant temperature and pressure is proportional to the number of particles Chapter 20 Energy the ability to do work Work the product of the magnitude of the force on and object and the distance it is moved Joule (J) the SI energy unit defined as a force of one Newton applied over a distance of one meter Heat the form in which energy is transferred between substances with different temperatures Temperature a measure of the hotness of an object or substance Exothermic reaction a reaction that gives off energy to its surroundings Endothermic reaction a change that absorbs energy from the surroundings, have a positive ∆ H , an increase in enthalpy Potential energy energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position in an attractive and/or repulsive force Kinetic Energy energy of motion British Thermal Unit (BTU) the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of one bound of water by 1 ℉ Calorie (Cal) a unit of heat energy equal to 4814 joules Open System a system where energy can flow in and out of the system Closed System a system where energy cannot leave the system State function A property whose value is determined only by the state of a system at any give moment Internal Energy energy contained within a system; it can be changed by heat transfer and by work done on or by the system Law of Conservation of Energy in a nonnuclear change, energy is conserved Enthalpy (H) The heat content of a chemical system Chem 141, Prof Cracolice Pressure force per unit area Heat of Reaction, Enthalpy of Reaction, ∆ H the change of enthalpy in a chemical reaction Thermochemical Equation a chemical equation that includes an energy ter, of for which ∆ H is indicated Chapter 21 Enthalpy or Heat of Vaporization the heat flow when one gram of a substance changes between a liquid and a vapor at constant pressure and temperature Heat of Fusion (Solidification) the heat flow when one gram of a substance changes between a solid and aa liquid at constant pressure and temperature Specific Heat c Procedure: Calculating total Heat flow for a Change in Temperature and State 1) Sketch a graph, marking starting and ending points of each stage as well as the starting and ending points for each problem 2) Calculate heat flow, q for each sloped and horizontal portion of the graph between the starting and ending points 3) Add the heat flows calculation in step 2. Make sure that all of the units are either kJ or J for all the numbers being added. Chapter 22 Calorimetry the experimental determination of the quantity of heat transferred in a chemical or physical change Calorimeter a laboratory device for measuring heat flow Calorimeter Constant, K tcalproportionality constant relating heat transfer and change in temperature of a calorimeter Bomb Calorimeter or Combustion Calorimeter a constant volume calorimeter designed to measure heat of combustion Heat of the reaction the change of enthalpy in a chemical reaction n∗∆H ¿ °f reactants ° n∗∆H ¿ f products¿ ∆ H =Σ¿ Liquids bromine and mercury Gases hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, flouring, chlorine and all 8A/18 elements (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xeon, radon) Diatomic elements, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine Carbon standard form graphite or diamond, have to specify o ex. C (s, graphit(s, diamond) Chem 141, Prof Cracolice Hess’s Law if a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, the heat of the reaction for the total reaction will equal to the sum of the heat of the reaction for the steps Chapter 23 Electromagnetic Radiation form of energy that consists of both electric and magnetic fields Electromagnetic spectrum gamma rays, Xrays, Ultraviolet light, Infrared light, microwaves, radio waves, visible light 3.00∗10 8m Speed of light c, s Wave equation c=λν , where c= speed of light, ν= frequency, and λ=wavelength Continuous spectrum band of colors that results from electromagnetic radiation emission over a range of wavelengths Line spectrum spectral lines that appear when light emitted from a sample is analyzed in a spectroscope Discrete lines indicate that elements are individually distinct Photon particle of light Wave particle duality all matter and energy possess both wavelike and particle like properties, photons can behave like waves and particles. Hertz (Hz) inverse second, 1/s, frequency unit 6.626∗10 −34J ∙s Planck’s Constant , specifies that light is not a continous flow of raidation but a series of individual photons Photoelectric Effect light can cause ejection of electrons from some metal surfaces hc E photon= λ energy of a photon using wave length kg∙m 2 1Joule=1 2 s Quantized limited to specific values, it may never be between 2 values Continuous can have any values between any two values there is an infinite number of acceptable values Quantized energy levels at any instant, electrons may have one of several possibly energies, but at no time can it have an energy between them Quantum jump/ quantum leap when an electron moves between orbits Electrons are normally found at ground state Ground state condition when all electrons in an atom occupy the lowest possible energy level Chem 141, Prof Cracolice Excited State condition and which one or more election in an atom has an energy level above ground state −18 R H Rydberg constant for hydrogen= 2.1798722∗10 J h λ= mν whereλ=¿ de Broglie wavelength, hPlanks constant, mmass of particles, v velocity (Δx )(mΔυ)≥ h Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 4π Δ x−uncertianty∈position,Δν−uncertiantyof velocity ,h−planksconstant Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom an atomic concept that recognizes four quantum numbers by which electrons energy levels may be described Schrödinger’s Wave equation used to understand how wavelike properties of electrons effect their behavior Probability Density probability that a particles is found in a specific threedimensional region in space Probability tells the likelihood of finding an electron in a region of space Sublevel the levels into which principle energy levels are divided according to the quantum mechanical model of the atom usually specified as the letters s, p, d, f o specific sublevel identified by principle energy level and sublevel l o quantum number for sublevels are designated by l o corresponds directly to the sublevel At n=2, increasing order of energy 2s<2p At n=3, 3s<3p<3d At n=4 4s<4p<4d<4f m l−l…0…+l Number of orbitals depends on the electron quantum number l=0 m =0 o l , 1 orbital for every s sublevel m =−1,0,1 o l=1 l 3 orbitals for every p sublevel o l=2 m l−2,−1,0,1,2 5 orbitals for every d sublevel o l=3 m l−3 , 2 1, 0, 1, 2, 3 7 orbitals for every f sublevel Pauli Exclusion Principle at any time an orbital may be (1) unoccupied, (2) Occupied by one electron or (3) occupied by 2 electrons M = 1/2 and ½ (this is true all the time) s Chapter 25 Chem 141, Prof Cracolice Electron Configuration ground state distribution of electrons among the orbitals of gaseous atoms S orbitals filled across 1A/1 2A/2 P orbitals filled across 3A/13 8A/18 D orbitals groups 3B 2B F orbital lanthanide and actinide series Reading pstiodic table left to right order of increasing sublevel energy o 1 period – 1s sublevel o 2 period 2s and 2p o 3 period 3s and 3p th o 4 thriod 4s, 3d, and 4p o 5 period 5s, 4d and 5p o 6 period 6s, 4f, 5d and 6p o 7 period 7s, 5f, 6d, and 7p Noble Gas Core short hand notation used in electron configuration when the chemical symbol of a noble gas is in square brackets which substitutes for the electron configuration of the element Procedure: Writing Electron Configurations o 1. Locate element in the periodic table. From position, identify and write the electron configuration of the highest occupied energy sublevel o 2. To the left of the highest occupied energy sublevel, list all lower energy sublevels in order of increasing energy o 3. For each filled lower energy sublevel write the superscript of the number of electrons that fill that particular sublevel o 4. Confirm the total number of electrons is the same as the atomic number of the element. (adding together all the superscripts) o Remember: the atomic number= number of protons= number of electrons Orbital diagram diagram that shows how many electron are in each orbital Hund’s Rule the most stable arrangement of electrons is the one that has the maximum number of unpaired electrons Valance Electrons the highest energy s and p electrons in an atom, which determines the bonding characteristics of an element 1 n principle quantum number, ns highest principle energy level for all groups 1A/1 elements Lewis Dot Symbols, electron dot symbols shows the number of valance electrons for an element Chapter 26 Valance combining power of an element Z effharge experienced by an electron in an atom with many electrons S, shielding constant how many possible electrons from inner orbitals will shield the outer most electrons, only approximate Chem 141, Prof Cracolice Z atomic number, number of protons and electrons Z = ZS eff Atomic Radius the average distance between the nucleus of an atom of the element and the outer limits of the electron cloud Atomic Orbital probability of finding an electron, not a definite boundary Summary Atomic Radius o It increases from right to left across any row of the periodic table and from the top to the bottom. The smallest atoms are towards upper right corner and the larger are toward the bottom left corner Isoelectric series group of atoms and/or ions that have the same number of electrons, isoequal Summary Ionic Size o The size of an ion of an element increases going down a group in the periodic table and the size of an ion in the isoelectric series (Family) decreases with the increasing atomic number. A monatomic cation are smaller than the original atom. A monatomic anion is larger than the original atom Ionization energy energy required to remove one electrons from a neutral gaseous atom of an element Second ionization energy energy needed to remove second electron Third ionization energy energy needed to remove third electron Summary First Ionization energy o Generally increases from left to right and from the bottom to the top of the period table. The highest first ionization energy is in the upper right hand corner Electron Affinity change in energy that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom or ion Summary Electron Affinity o Generally, electron affinity increases from right to left on any row and atoms with the most electron affinities are on the right side. Metal can lose one or more electrons and become positively charged Nonmetal lacks the metal quality Metalloids/ semimetals properties of both metals and nonmetals Summary: Metallic Character o Increases from right to left across the periodic table Metals Nonmetals Loses electrons easily to form cations Tend to gain electrons to form anions 1,2, or 3 valance electrons 4 or more valance electrons Low ionization energy High ionization energy Forms compounds with nonmetals but Forms compounds with metals and not with metals nonmetals High electrical conductivity Poor electrical conductivity Chem 141, Prof Cracolice High thermal energy Poor thermal energy Malleable Brittle Ductile Nonductile Chemical Families groups with properties in common 1 Alkali metals Valance Electrons: ns o Group 1A/1, minus hydrogen o Easily lose valance electrons ▯ similar properties o Ionization energies decrease as atomic number increases o Reactivity tendency to react with other elements to form compounds 2 Alkali Earth Metals Valance electrons: ns o First and second ionization energy are low o Reactivity increases going down table o Group 2A/2 2 5 Halogens Valance electrons: ns np o Group 7A/17 o Also known as salt formers o 7 valance electrons o Reactivity decreases down the table, fluorine is the most reactive o Density, melting and boiling point increase going down the table 2 6 Noble Gases Valance electrons ns np o Very unreactive o High ionization energies, have full outer orbital 1 Hydrogen Valance electrons: ns o Not an alkali metal or halogen o Gains electrons to form ions with a positive charge o Has properties of both alkali metals and halogens
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'