Exam 2 study guide and study materials
Exam 2 study guide and study materials BIOL 3020-001
Popular in Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates
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This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Martinez on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3020-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Multiple Choice 1 A Neurocranium 2 D Quadrate 3 D Hyostylic 4 C Opisthocelus 5 D AampB prezyopophyses and postzygopophyses 6 A Synasacrum 7 E Hypurals 8 E Pleurodont 9 C Unicate Process 10 H All of the preceeding 1 1 C Heterocercal 12 B Reticulum 13 C Hyposdont 14 A Solengolypha 15 C Uvula 16 C mucosa submucosa muscularis externis seroa 17 B Gizzard 18 B Reticulum 19 A Villi 20 A Opistoglypha Endochondral in origin 0 mentomecklian of frog 0 otic bone of human 0 quadrate of alligator 0 scapula of turtle 0 ilium of a mammal 0 femur of lizard Short Answer What is the splanchnocranium also known as Visceral cranium Identify by name 3 skeletal elements that are components of the splanchonocranium The splanchnocranium is one of the components of the skull that develops in association with the pharyngeal arches and jaws endochondrally Includes the palatoquadrate upper jaw Meckel s cartilage lower jaw articular bone quadrate bone hyomendibula Living amphibians have a double occipital condyleBrie y indicate the anatomical modification of cervical vertebrae that explains how mammals achieve this wider range of motion Mammals have a modified atlas and axis the axis centrum loses the neural arch and shifts posteriorly to fuse onto the axis centrum They have the odontoid process a tooth like process on the axis which allows rotational and lateral movement on the axis and up and down movement on the atlas List all the bones that surround the foramen magnum in turtles and crocodilians Supraoccipital Basioccipital Exoccipital Basisphenoid Occipital condyle Explain how and why the sternum of an ostrich differs anatomically from that of a swan Ostriches and swans differ anatomically because ightless birds like the ostrich do not have a keel which serves as an attachment site for the muscles used for ight and swimming nor do they have highly developed pectoral muscles Swans are ying and swimming birds so they do have a well developed keel The pelvic girdle in most tetrapods is composed 3 paired bones but in monotromes and marsupials it is comped of four Identify the3 bones forming the pelvic girdle inmost tetrapods and indicate which of the 3 bones attaches to the vertebral column Lastly identify the 39extra39 bone of marsupial pelvic girdle and brie y state its function Most groups of tetrapods consist of 3 bones the ilium ischium and pubis The ilium attaches to the vertebral column Marsupials have an 39extra39 pelvic girdle bone called the epipubicprepubic bone which extends from the pubis to the abdominal wall and gives it support The skeletal organization of the limb follows a similar pattern among all tetrapod groups However some variation occurs based on specialization to specific habits or habitats For examples the front limb skeleton is modified from a generalized tetrapod limb in those vertebrates that evolved wings Describe how the skeleton is modified for ight in the bat wing and then contrast with the skeletal organization in the bird wing Bat wings and bird wings are analogous as ight structures their structure and function have evolved by different routes from a ightless reptilian ancestor Bats have webbed fingers that allows a greater surface area of the wing necessary for ight whereas the digits of the bird are relatively small and do not support the ight surface Bats have an elongated forelimbs to support the wing membrane The esophagus of vertebrates is generally a simple passageway linking the pharynx to the stomach List and brie y describe two other modifications of the vertebrate esophagus that allow it to serve a function other than a passageway to the stomach 1 Egg Eating Snakes have a modified esophagus that is pleated to allow expansion over the egg which is wider than them completely and has teethlike projections in it called hypotheses which will slit the egg open as it travels down the digestive tract allowing the snake to have access to the yolk 2 Birds have a crop a sac like extension of the esophagus that is used for food storage The crop allows the bird to survive longer periods of time without hunting Skull Exam 2 Study Guide Biology 3020 composite structure made up of 3 components Neurocranium Develops initially from cartilage protects the brain and sense organs Sphlanchnocranium Visceral Cranium Develops in association with the pharyngeal arches and jaws Originates as cartilage and the Dermatochranium Originates as bone and forms to surround the neurocranial and sphlanchnocranium elements preskeletal blastoma clusters of mesenchyme cells I mesenchyme cells are undifferentiated and develop into specialized cells called young cells39 will form preskeletal blastomas that will eventually develop into bones or whatever other structure in specific locations to specific tissues fibroblast cells I secrete fibers that create a matrix osteoblasts I give turn to osteocytes then into bones chondroblasts I develop into chondrocytes then into cartilage Intramembranous Bones I Dermal Bone bones developed from embryonic cells directly to bones and originate from skin phylogenically Endochondral Bone Cartilage Replacement Bone I Bones developed from within cartilage 0 Ossification Centers 0 O 0 Where bone develops within cartilage Blood vessels carry osteoblast in cartilage and that forms the bone 4 Groups of ossification centers I 1 Occipital centers 0 Supraoccipital on top 0 Exoccipital on the sides 0 Basioccipital on the bottom 0 as they enlarge they grow toward one another and it will for 4 distinct bones I 2 Sphenoid Center 0 develops the basisphenoid and the presphenoid I 3 Ethnoid Center 0 there isn t a lot of bones that develop here as the cartilage tends to remain cartilage here I 4 Optic Center 0 a lot of inner bones are developed here 0 3 main bones prootic opisthotic and epiotic Dermatocranium o originates as dermal bone 0 has 4 basic regions 0 1 Roofing Bones 0 form above and along the neurocranium 0 has four associated regions I 1 snout nasals I 2 orbits lacrimal post orbitals I 3 vault frontal parietals I 4 temporal squamosal bone 0 2 Dermal Bones and Upper Jaw I premaxilla links anterior jaw to the skull I maxilla links posterior jaw to the skull I all mammals have a dentary squamosal jaw joint this is the bone that can identify a mammal o 3 Primary Palate I any palate can bare teeth 0 vomer 0 palatine bones 0 parasphenoid 0 pterydoids 0 become obscured by the formation of the secondary palate o mammals have all 4 regions but tetrapods only have the first three Jaw Suspensions o Palaestyly Jaw Found in Agnathans Ancient don t have any support of j aws to brain case Not jawed none of the arches attaches themselves directly to the skull 0 Euaultostyly Jaw Found in placoderms and acanthodians The mandibular arch is suspended from the skull by itself without help from the hyoid arch o Hyostyly Jaw Found in the modern day shark The mandibular arch is attached through the hyomandibula o Modified Hyostyly Jaw The sympletic bone helps in the suspension 0 Metautostyly Jaw Mostly found in reptiles birds amphibians and turtles Jaws are attached to the braincase directly through the quardrate The hyomandibula plays no part in the supporting the jaws but actually becomes the stapes and allows hearing while the hyoid supports the tongue Craniostyly Jaw Found in mammals The entire upper jaw is incorporated into the braincase while the lower jaw is suspended from the squamosal bone The lower is suspended from the dentary bone The quadrate bone becomes the incus The articular bone becomes the mallusThe columella bones becomes the stapes These three bones will fuse to join up with a singular jaw bone Axial skeleton Vertebrae amphicoelus means double cavity this allows for exibility as the notochord is exposed in between creating ball on socket like structure sharks proceolus means one end of the central is a cavity and the other is a disc they are concave anteriorly and convex posteriorly reptiles opisthocoelus means that the posterior end is a cavity while the anterior is a disc concave posteriorly and convex anteriorly other types of reptiles both the proceolus and the opisthocoelus allow for stretching or bending without bending the actual spinal cord Aceolus centra are at they seem well suited to receive and distribute pressure most mammals Heteroceolus means that the central have different shaped cavities and allow for lateral and vertical exion but prevent the rotation of the vertebral column turtles that retract their neck and bird s cervical vertebrae Diplasioceolus means it has more than one of the centra types in the vertebral column a lot of the vertebra but specifically a bird and some mammals There are transverse processes any process extending from the centrum or the neural arch on both sides of the neural spines The intracentra skeletal elements develop between the central and are more commonly found in the mammal or the reptilian tail Anamniotes fish and amphibians Vertebral column is highly variable particularly to the centra Hagfish o unconstricted notochord no centra no neural arch Lamprae o Unconstricted notochord no central but some do have a neural arches that rest on the notochord Sharks 0 Have well developed hemal arches and neural arches 0 Have well developed amphicoelus centra Bony fish lungfish paddlefish stergens o are all highly cartilaginous fish 0 have a notochord but no central 0 have neural and hemal arches More Advanced Bony Fish tetrapods 0 Have well developed hemal and neural arches as well as centra Amphibians 0 Have well developed vertebrae hemal and neural arches and centra Vertebrae 0 Includes the centrum the neural arch hemal arch transverse process zygophyses prezygophyses and post zygophyses o Zygophyses 0 There is a pair of zygophyses found anteriorly and posteriorly on the vertebrae 0 Serve to link up the vertebrae to one another 0 Prezygophyses o Are located on the anterior end of the vertebrae o Articulates surfaces that face up and inward on the vertebrae 0 Post zygophyses o Are located on the posterior end of the vertebrae o Articulate surfaces that face down and outward Number of vertebrae o Is variable 0 Some snakes and legless amphibians 0 Have over 200 vertebrae ultimately increasing agility o Frogs 0 Have about 9 vertebrae which reduces agility o Lizards 0 When their tail breaks off it does so within the vertebrae 0 Salamanders 0 When they shed their tails it does so between the vertebrae 0 Birds 0 The body is fairly rigid except for the neck because they more cervical vertebrae which gives them more mobility and allows them to increase neck length Cervical Vertebrae 0 Most mammals including humans have 7 vertebrae present except for sloths who have 5 10 and the manatees who have 5 o This variation is because of a mutation of the Hox gene which is associated with segmentation 0 To distinguish between thoracic and lumbar vertebrae looking at the ribs is key o If the ribs are connected to the vertebrae it s most likely thoracic and if not then it is most likely lumbar vertebrae o The lower two cervical vertebrae may have just stayed in the cervical region instead of shifting down during evolution Atlas Vs Axis 0 Atlas is the first vertebrae C1 0 Axis is the second vertebrae C2 Salamander o Vertebrae allow it to look up and down Amphibians and Frogs 0 Have a double occipital conder that allows for up and down head movement Nonmammilian Amniotes Reptilian Vertebrates 0 Have a single condyle 0 Develop an atlas and axis 0 Both of these characteristics will give lizards and alligators better head movement Mammals 0 Have a double occipital condyle 0 Have a modified atlas and axis the axis centrum loses the neural arch and shifts posteriorly to fuse onto the axis centrum 0 Have the odontoid process a tooth like process on the axis which allows rotational and lateral movement on the axis and up and down movement on the atlas o Jawless Fish Don t have any ribs 0 Sharks Have short ventral ribs 0 Bonyfish teleost fish Only have ventral ribs 0 Fish Ribs are not prominent o TetrapodsHave dorsal ribs ancestrally had ribs associated with every vertebrae o Thoracic Region Have long ribs that support the pectoral girdle and fuse to the sternum o Lumbar Region Ribs are reduced and connect vertebra column to pectoral girdle o In many groups they are used to get greater locomotion o In and vertebrates they are used for protection and respiration o Ancestrally the ribs have 2 heads 0 1 Capitulum Articulates to the body vertebra o 2 Tuberculum Articulates to the transverse process Amphibians and Fish Ribs are reduced and will not meet up with the sternal plate because they don t have one Salamander Have bright colorations that depict toxic skin secretions from the glands Have spots or bumps that become warts on their backs and this indicated poison glands Their vertebral column will be located in the center of the back and the ribs will come off of the vertebral column into spinelike ends These will serve as mechanical devices to help push out poison Frogs and Toads o Ribs are absent and the transverse processes present are the remnants of the ribs 0 Caecilian amphibians do have ribs regardless of being limbless o In fact because of their serpentine locomotion the Caecilian amphibians have well developed ribs Reptiles Crocodiles and Snakes 0 Have significant variation in rib structure 0 Snakes lack a sternum so the ribs don t completely encompass the body 0 Some snakes like cobras can move their ribs out stretching the skin to make the hood around the head Lizards Draco Lizard or quotflying dragon 0 Can outstretch their ribs stretching their skin out resembling a parachute and use that to glide down from high places o In the thoracic and lumbar ribs the proximal region is typically ossified and the distal region is typically cartilaginous o This makes it flexible and good for expansions and contraction of the chest Turtles 0 Have extended ribs that will modify and grow together to become the outer shell or the carapace Birds 0 The cervical ribs become fused o The thoracic ribs have unicate processes which are small sections of bone that link up adjacent to the ribs and help solidify the body as well as form muscle attachment Mammals o Cervical ribs are absent except for in the mammals who lay shelled eggs like the platypus 0 Some mammals have cervical ribs in embryo but they are lost id development 0 The thoracic ribs are moveable and used for respiration Sternum Fins The midventral component that sometimes connects to the ribs Provides ventral support to the ventral girdle Used with limbs for locomotion therefore if there are not front limbs there will usually not be a sternum Fish 0 Lack a sternum Amphibians 0 Some salamanders have a sternal plate along the middle of their chest that is cartilaginous and variant in size Frogs and Toads 0 Have some shoulder girdle bones that fuse to form the sternum Legless Reptiles and Snakes 0 Lack a sternum Turtles 0 Sternum is absent but the lower component of the shell or the plasteron replaces the sternum Legged Lizards 0 Have a bone like the sternum Crocodile 0 Has a sternal plate made out of cartilaginous bone that tends to shrivel Birds 0 Have a welldeveloped sternum called carina or keel o The keeled sternum increases the surface area for better ying o Bats and moles have a keeled sternum 0 Most non ying birds Will have a at sternum Mammals 0 Have a sternum composed of individual stenebrae that fuse together 0 Last stenebrae is the Xiphoid process 0 Have a segmented sternum Median Fins 1 Dorsal fin formed in the medial dorsal septum 2 Caudal fin o incorporates modification of the hemal arches as they become enlarged hypurals and they also incorporate vertebral column 0 Functions to increase swimming effectiveness 0 Includes both hemal and neural arches 0 Supported by rays o 3 types of caudal fins I 1 Heteceral 0 Found in sharks 0 Long axis development upward 0 Asymmetrical both outside the fin and inside it I 2 Diphycercal 0 Found in lungfish 0 Symmetrically across the vertebral column both outside and inside of the fin I 3 Homocercal 0 Found in gold fish and bass 0 the round part that meets the fin is the caudal peduncle and along with the hypurals or enlarged hemal arches will support the rays 3 Anal fin o articulates with hemal arches o In tetrapods guppies had modified anal fins gonopodium to transfer sperm 4 Adipose fin associated with fat deposits not attached Appendages o Tetradpods o 5 segments I 1 Propododium Stylopodium o the first singular limb segment Includes the femur and lower arm and the humerus and upper arm moles will have a modified humerus to help with the digging they do 2 Epipodium Zeugopodium o Paired bone segments 0 Includes the radius and ulna and the tibia and fibula 3 Mesopodium 0 series of bones in the wrist and the ankle so the carpals and the tarsals 4 Metapodium 0 Bones of the pals or soles so metacarpals and metatarsals 5 Phalangeal Region 0 Includes the phalanges Autopodium o The mesopodium metapodium and the phalangeal region evolve together to form it 0 Includes the front limb manus hand and the hind limbs pez foot 0 Have a sesmoid bone a bone that forms in a tendon often in association with bones to protecte underlining muscle Birds 0 Use feathers to modify true ight o The Autopodium is a singular unit with joints present B ats 0 Modify ight by increasing the surface area with the an elongated phalange and the skin extended over it Blue Whale 0 Have and increase in the number of phalanges but very little cell death in between them so instead of separate phalanges will have the ipper Mammal Modifications 3 different stances 1 Plantigrade o Seen in the hind legs of raccoons and rats 0 Lower surface of all 3 regions of the autopodium will touch the oor 0 The ankles in the rats will touch the oor 2 Digitigrade o Seen in cats and dogs 0 Animal will walk on digits with the heel off the ground the sole of the foot and the palms won t touch the ground 3 Unguligrade o Seen in horses 0 The animal will walk on the tips of the digits 0 In this stance the claw modifies to decrease the number of digits they have 0 2 different types 1 Artiodactyla D have an even number of toes D examples are cows deer antelope 2 Parisodactyla D have an odd number of toes D ankle bones are elongated allowing for better spring action Digestive System tube that extends from the lips to the anus or cloaca a large pocket that the digestive reproductive and urinary tract that empties out to before leaving the body the cloacal opening is called the vent has 3 primary regions 1 Buccal Cavity D Originates at the lips D some animals have lips that extend as far as the jawbones so they don t have cheeks D Mammals o Evolve cheeks to cover the mouth portion and prevents food stuff from falling from the mouth D Dinosaurs 0 are depicted with cheeks for the same function to prevent food loss Teeth 0 along the margins of the jaw 0 can be found along all palatine bones depending on the vertebrate 0 formed from bony substance called dentin o Dentin is different from other bony substances in the organization of the cells within it o Dentin is also referred to as Ivory o is living and can be laid throughout life 0 Enamel is the hardest substance in the body 0 Lays above the crown 0 Resistance to breakage 0 Once tooth erupts no more enamel is produced 0 Pulp cavity 0 where the blood vessels and nerves are 0 extends to the two canals called apical foramen 0 Roots 0 Lack enamel 0 Root canal kills the nerve to the apical canal by burning it and packing it so no new nerves grow back leaving the tooth dead 0 Cusps o The ridges on teeth 0 Pariodontal membrane 0 Membrane found around tooth 0 Connect the tooth to the jaw 0 Cementum 0 Links up with dentin to help connect the teeth to the jaw Different Dentitions o Polyphydont Includes frogs and salamanders have multiple teeth replacements o Diphydont Includes most mammals has to sets of teeth baby or deciduous teeth and permanent teeth 0 Monophydont Includes armadillos have 1 set of teeth that are never replaced 0 Homodont Includes most snakes frogs whales and dolphins all the teeth look the same and while they may vary in size they will serve the same function 0 Heterodont includes cats and dogs the teeth look different and serve different functions Mammals o The teeth will arise from front to back o The younger the teeth the further back they will be in the mouth the older the closer to the front they will be Some Rabbits and Rodents Teeth will grow throughout life 0 Incisors will grow continuously so if they are not maintained by chewing grinding or biting they can grow into and through the palate killing the animal Attachment 0 Some crocodilians have teeth that grown down from sockets 0 some amphibians lizards and snakes have pleurodont dentitions meaning the teeth are set upon the side of the jaw 0 Some fish have acrodont dentitions meaning they have teeth resting on the top of the jaw 0 Some carnivores like dogs cats and jackals have cheek teeth that will shear instead of grind and have carnassial teeth that will enlarge to shear like scissors Tongue 0 Salivary glands o Responsible for saliva production 0 Contains some enzymes 0 some saliva can be neurotoxic or hemolytic 0 Snake venom is modified saliva 0 some glands can be boarded on the 0 palate 0 posteriorly by the pharynx in the internal choanae the opening of the nasal cavity to the pharynx the anterior palatine foramen associated with the vomeronasal organ the hard palate becomes covered by keratinized epithelium the ridges on the hard palate help tongue move the food around lizards and frogs have teeth to do this instead of ridges 0 the soft palate where the second palate ends and there is not bone before past the uvula which keeps foodstuff from going into the nasal cavity Oral glands 0 moistens food to facilitate its passing 0 salivary glands 0 most tetrapods have them but they vary 0 named based on the location and where the ducts come out Lingual glands 0 associated with the tongue Sublingual glands 0 beneath the tongue Palatine glands on the roof of the mouth can modify to be a venom gland most lack oral glands With the exception of Swifts Swiftlet 0 create a nest found of saliva people harvest the nest to make bird nest soup for the protein Mammals 3 primary pairs of salivary glands 1 Mandibular gland 2 Sublingual gland 3 Parotid gland roof of oral cavity 4 Zygomatic glands Dogs and domestic animals have near zygomatic arch coming into the mouth is associated enzymes in saliva with amylase Shrews small mammals o Modified salivary glands to venom glands o Venom is as potent of that as a cottontail snake 0 use the venom to digest prey 2Pharynx 3Alimentary canal o a tube from the esophagus to the stomach to the large and small intestines Accessory structures 0 salivary glands o pancreas 0 liver Teeth o Homodont Heterodont 0 Homodont teeth look alike and have similar functions 0 Heterodont teeth look different serve different functions and are located in different locations 0 Polyphydont vs Diphydont vs Monophydont o Polyphydont vertebrates like amphibians and salamanders Will replace their teeth through out their lives 0 Diphydont vertebrate mammals like humans Will have 2 sets of teeth deciduous and permanent that Will not be replaced after the permanent set if lost 0 Monophydont vertebrates like armadillos have only one set of teeth that won39t be preplaced if lost 0 Theodont vs Pleurodont vs Acrodont 0 Theodont attachment is present in crocodilians and Will result in the teeth being set individually in different sockets 0 Pleurodont attachment is present in lizards snakes and amphibians and Will result in the teeth being set around the sides of the mouth attaching to the jaw sides 0 Acrodont attachment is present in some lizards snakes and fishes and results in the teeth resting on top of the jaw 0 Teeth Shape 0 Many vertebrates such as fish and salamanders have conical shaped teeth which will be used for grasping and holding 0 In some amphibians and salamanders the tooth shape is modified going from the conical shape in the larva stage to pedicellate shaped teeth 0 With the pedicellate shape the tooth is divided by two regions separated by the zone of weakness 0 Uppermost region is the crown o The Zone of weakness is made of keratine and will allow a break point for the two regions 0 Lower region is the dedical 0 Snakes 0 Fangs are elongated teeth found on the tip of the posterior maxillary bone 0 The venom goes from the mouth through small groove on the outer surface of the tooth to the victim 0 Have 4 types of fangs o 1 Opisthoglypha 0 Present in cobras crates cotton snakes 0 Located in the rear of the maxilla o The venom will run through the channel found in the tooth and can be neurotoxic o 2 Proteropglypha 0 Located in the front portion of the maxilla and fixed in place 0 Are enlarged but not too enlarged 0 3 Solenoglypha 0 Present in vipers pit vipes copperheads 0 These fangs are enlarged and have a cavity that runs through the fang 0 The teeth are fixed the maxillary bone which is shortened and has a loose connection to the cranium so that when the snake strikes the fangs that at rest lay against the palate will distend and move forward for the attack 0 4 Aglypha o If a snake doesn39t have fangs it is termed aglypha o Mammals o The tooth shape varies and will also vary in root length Tusks Brachyodont teeth 0 Have short roots in comparison with the roots which are large 0 found in humans and pigs Hypsodont teeth 0 Have tall crowns and short roots 0 found in deer cattle horses 0 Crowns will be worn and shortened in grazing animals Bunodont teeth 0 Will have low rounded cusps that are covered in enamel 0 Found in humans and pigs Lophodont 0 The cusps on these teeth are formed are ridges o The ridges will be covered in enamel the rest of the tooth is dentin o Allows the tooth to stay rigid to grind the food 0 Found in horses and rodents Selenodont o The enamel is found in triangular shapes scattered throughout the teeth 0 Allows for teeth to wear unequally for better grinding of vegiatation 0 Found in deer cattle grazing animals Dogs and cats 0 Have special cheek teeth called carnassial teeth 0 The cusps serve to sheer the food modified teeth Narwhals 0 Have a single tusk that is an elongated upper left incisor o All males have it but only some females have it 0 Largely made up of dentin and has some enamel Elephants 0 Typically paired 0 Tusks are elongated incisors Walrus 0 Tusks are elongated upper canines Hogs 0 Tusks are elongated canines Animas that lack teeth 0 Whales 0 Have baleen conelike plates that come off the palate 0 Some ant eaters Tongue o Fishes o For the most part fish lack tongues 0 Bass have primary tongues 0 which are eshy material used to help expand the buccal pharyngeal cavity to help suck in food and function to manipulate food in the mouth 0 Lamprey 0 have little spike like projections on their tongue that are used to rasp off the esh of their prey 0 Also use the tongue to move food around the mouth 0 Tetrapods 0 Have a secondary tongue which is mobile and eshy o Mammals 0 Use tongue to bring food into the mouth 0 Salamanders 0 Their tongue has glands on it to help the prey stick to it so the salamander can eat it 0 Have barb like spikes on their tongue to rasp off the esh of their prey 0 Used for grooming 0 Have a long tongue that wraps around the skull and comes out of the mouth 0 Has barbs on the end of the tongue serrate the prey they hunt inside the trees Pharynx 0 Region where the respiratory passage way and digestive tract will cross 0 Near the uvula which helps prevent food from entering the pharynx 0 Glottis is the opening of the pharynx o Epiglottis is the esh covering of the glottis o Tonsils are located in the opening to the Eustachian tube Alimentary Canal 0 Is the tube that begins at the esophagus continues to the stomach through the small and large intestines and terminates through the rectum o Anuscircular muscles that allow the tube to close 0 4 layers 1 Mucosa Layer o The epithelial surface 2 Submucosa o The connective tissue layer 0 Where the majority of the blood vessels will be 3 Muscularis Externa 0 Consists of inner circular muscles that wrap around the lumen 4 Serosa 0 Outer layer longitudinal muscle layer fibers themselves run through the length of the tube 0 An epithelial layer that causes constriction of the lumen Esophagus Serves as a passage way of the pharynx to the stomach the longer the neck the longer the esophagus and vice versa Expands when swallowing and collapses when at rest In most vertebrates has a multiple layered stratified epithelium Provides protection form bacteria getting in the blood stream Associated with some mucus production keeps food lubricated Peristalsis the wavelike contractions that get the food into the stomach takes place here Reverse peristalsis the wavelike contractions that get the foot out of the stomach into the esophagus vomiting also happens here Amphibians 0 have cilia present in the esophagus to help food movement Sea Turtles 0 Modifies esophagus by lining the esophagus with keratinized projections esophageal papillae that protect the turtle from being stung by the jellyfishes it eats and helps prepare food for digestion Egg Eating Snakes 0 Have a modified esophagus that is pleated to allow expansion over the egg which is wider than them completely and has teethlike projections in it called hypotheses which will slit the egg open as it travels down the digestive tract allowing the snake to have access to the yolk 0 Have a crop a sac like extension of the esophagus that is used for food storage 0 The crop allows the bird to survive longer periods of time without hunting 0 Pigeons and Doves 0 the crop becomes granular so the lining epithelium layer produced uid called pigeon milk from the crop contents 0 This is given to the baby bird by either the female or male parent bird Ruminants The esophagus is modified by developing to 3 chambers of the ruminant stomach the 4th being the true chemical stomach of the animal 1 Reticulum 0 Has a mucosa layer that is honeycomb like to grab particles 0 Retains heavy particles 0 Functions as a fermentation vat 2 Rumen o Largest chamber 0 Storage area the region that begins the food for digestion 0 Microbial digestion occurs and has papillae for absorption of nutrients 3 Omasum o Filters what goes into the abomasum and increases the surface area for water absorption 4 Abomasum 0 Granular largest chamber in new born animals 0 Avoids fermentation in new born animals 0 New born animals will not have a rumen so the milk they get from their mothers with all the nutrients goes right in the omasum for absorption Stomach Typically has simple epithelium function as storage for food Absent in boneless fish Has a sphincter muscle on both ends which is a muscularis externa modification 0 Cardiac sphincter 0 keeps the stomach content from going into the eosphagus o Pyloric sphincter 0 produces mucus 0 Cardiac region 0 produces mucus 0 Fundic region 0 body of the stomach 0 produces pepsinogen which is activated by HCl to convert to pepsiogen to denature proteins Shape is variable within vertebrates This is where protein is initiated Involved in mechanical digestion but churning Birds Crocodilians 0 the stomach becomes 2 distant regions 0 1 Proventriculus 0 granular produce secretion to soften food 0 2 Gizzard 0 highly muscular 0 the muscle breaks up foodstuff and stores it in gizzards 0 birds of prey lack gizzards Intestines 0 Small Intestine 0 Serves as a major site of nutrient absorptions simple epithelium helps absorb them 0 Important because chemical digestion takes place here 0 Chemicals from the pancreas release digestion chemicals for proteins carbohydrates fats and nucleic acids 0 Lumen epithelium produces intestinal juice forms unicellular cells to secrete mucus and enzymes 0 Liver makes bile and sends it to the gallbladder for it to be released into the stomach o Bile functions as emulsifying agent breaking up large globs into small globs increasing surface area to enhance absorption 0 Proteins are broken down to amino acids 0 Nucleic acids are broken down to nucleotides 0 Carbohydrates are broken down to monosaccharides like glucose 0 Teleost Fishes 0 Have a ring of blind ending sacs called the pyloric sphincter that Within it has pyloric caeca Which lay on the stomach lining secreting enzymes and increases surface area for absorption 0 Sharks 0 Have the spiral valve a mucosal lining the stomach that spirals down creating a funneling effect that increases surface area for absorption 0 Is present in cartilagenous fish 0 Mammals 0 Have villi fingerlike projections that extend inward on the lining that Will fold inward to increase surface area for absorption 0 There are 2 types of villi o 1 Capillaries 0 Exit intestines and link up with other blood vessels to form veins 0 Form a hepatic portal system that has a capillary bed on either side of the vein that travels to the liver 0 Will carry glucose for a short term amount of time Cecum If the glucose levels in the blood are high it will modify it to glycogen and this is done by the liver Liver cells convert the glucose to glycogen to be stored in the liver and skeletal muscles Capillaries also carry amino acids to the liver that are converted to amine to be cleared out of the body as urine 0 Amino acids are not stored in the capillaries 2 Lacteals Are a component of the lymphatic system 0 Called 39lymphatic capillaries39 as they have lymphatic vessels This is important because travel directly to the heart They have a one way ow of material Nutrient go from the lumen to the heart In mammas they carry fatty acids and this is an evolutionary adaptation that happened for rapid energy Increases microbe fermentation Herbaceous animals have a long cecum while carnivorous animals have a short cecum with ruminants as an exception The food goes into the cecum to be digested but not absorbed Such is the case of horses and rabbits whose cecum serves as digestion and sends the bolus out as specialized droppings Practicing corpophagy they eat these specialized droppings and by the second passage they will be able to have nutrient break down for absorption Large Intestine Filled with microbes and functions as a microbial fermentation center of indigestible material and releases nutrients as waste products In humans vitamins K and B are regulated in the dryness of the feces and how much water absorbed in the large intestine 0 If the feces is dry it has spent a long time in the large intestine o If the feces is wet it has spent a short time in the large intestine Respiratory System Oxygen to get to the cells for combustion to make metabolic water Oxygen is the last acceptor in the electron transport chain Has respiratory membranes Where oxygen enters and leaves the body Respiratory membranes bust be both thin and moist to diffuse oxygen There is a variation in the amount of oxygen that can be extracted from air and water Ventilation o The movement of air in and out of respiratory membranes 0 Plays part in evolution from aquatic animals to terrestrial animals Skin 0 Allows for transcutaneous respiration When used as a respiratory membrane 0 Salamanders o Rely solely on skin to get oxygen 0 Important because they produce large surface area for respiration 0 External gills 0 Found in larval fishes toads and tadpoles 0 Internal gills 0 Found in adult fishes o Are highly vascularized meaning there is a lot of blood ow 0 The more blood the more oxygen 0 Fish 0 Have gill arches 0 Provide structural support 0 Have gill raches and gill filaments o Gill filaments consist of projections exiting from the gill arch made of the primary and secondary lamellae that both increase surface area for oxygen absorption 0 Primary lamellae 0 large projections large blood vessel and capillary exchange occurs here 0 Secondary lamellae 0 Crescent projections 0 The oxygen enters the secondary lamellae then the primary moving water ow in one direction While oxygen is moved the opposite direction 0 This creates a 39counter current arrangement39 increasing circulation to increase absorption 0 Air has more oxygen than water 0 There is more oxygen in cooler water than there is in warm water 0 Water separates the lamellae allowing the exchange to go on so When fish are out of water and the lamellae are compressed the fish does not get enough oxygen to survive 0 Some fish have modified their operculum to store water for a While and are able to be out of the water for a small period of time Gill arches 0 Gill arch modifications 0 Lampreys have a branchial pouch and an uncovered lateral opening of the gill chamber 0 Sharks have septal gills connecting the dorsal and ventral surface Individual ap valves are formed from individual gill septa guard each gill chamberHave lamellae but the gills are exposed o Imost fish gills are covered by the operculum 0 Homobranch Vs Hemibranch o Hemibranch only one gill side has primary lamellae o Homobranch both sides of the gill have primary lamellae 0 Auxiliary Respiratory Structures 0 Fish gill o Is efficient extracts about 8095 of oxygen from water except in water with low concentration 0 To modify bimodal breathing 0 Super branchial air chambers develop above gills and the lamellae grow into pouches this allows them to go to the surface 0 The air that is sucked in goes to highly vascularized lamallae to extract the oxygen I an example of this are betta fish I Extension in gut tube allows for the modified mucosal lining to increase the surface area in the lining to absorb oxygen 0 Gas bladder 0 If the gas bladder is used for respiration it is referred to as lungs if used for buoyancy control then it is referred to as a swim bladder o Lungs o Evolve from tetrapods and develop embryonically 0 Usually paired o In small vertebrates it is not uncommon for the animal to only have one lung due to the small body area such is the case of snakes 0 lungfish lung 0 is a bilobial structure 0 have faveoli like structures 0 Swim Bladder o A balloon like structure developed under the vertebral column 0 Most fish use lungs as a swim bladder to develop a neutral buoyancy in the water they are in 0 Fish esh is more dense than skin making them sink 0 A swim bladder filled with gas reduces fish density helping them oat 0 By adjusting the pressure in the swim bladder the fish can oat without expanding energy 0 2 types of swim bladders o 1 Physostomous Swim bladder o in Gars Bowfins and lungfish 0 have a pneumatic duct connection between the bladder and the digestive tract 0 Can rise to surface of water suck in air and use it the swim bladder as a lung to absorb oxygen 0 because the swim bladder is filled with gas the fish39s density is decreased allowing it to oat o 2 Physoclistous o in bass and catfish 0 do not have the connection between the bladder and the gut closed bag of gases 0 cannot suck in air 0 Both will adjust the buoyancy of the fish because the addition and release of gasses is needed for the fish to raise or lower itself in the water 0 Some have a gas gland that creates a capillary bed referred to as a red body Tetrapods The gas gland secretes lactic acid lowers the pH lowers the ability for hemoglobin to hold on to oxygen and are stored in the red body Lactic acid creates gases that collect in the lumen to sink the gases must be released and to rise gases must be added Red body 0 Impermeable gases can39t pass through Ovule o Permeable releases gases to blood to go to gills to allow the fish to sink Lizards and Snakes 0 use aspiration pump to fill lungs expanding the caVity around the lung to press air into the lungs using the ribs 0 rely on faveoli to breathe 0 have circular smooth muscles surrounding to help pump Crocodilians 0 Have prominent transverse septum portion developed to serpentine lungs from the abdominal caVity and becomes invaded With in creating the diaphragm In mammals 0 there are distinct muscles Which contract to create negative pressure to breathe 0 Also the diaphragmatic muscle pushes down on the lungs to expire contracting the muscles forces air out 0 Air ow to lungs leads from the pharynx to the glottis opening of the respiratory tree to the larynx to the trachea to the bronchi Efficiency of the lung depends on the amount of respiratory membrane Lungfish and amphibian lungs have little subdiVision Which results in decreased efficiency 0 Amphibians 0000 I they are endotherms so they have a low metabolic rate and in turn require low amounts oxygen I Breathe by a buccal pump I In order to get air into the lungs they will push air into them with circulatory muscles that are associated with the nostrils I When the nostrils open the oor of the oral cavity drops I It opens the glottis brings up the oral cavity pushing the air into the lungs I It does the opposite when exhaling I uses transcutaneous respiration under water Turtles have modified aspiration pumps Can39t expand or contract the thoracic cage Ribs are immobile impeding body expansion Muscles alter body pressure to shift organs allowing for the area around the lungs to expand to absorb oxygen Birds 0 Use aspiration pumps 0 are isotherms so they require high metabolic rates and more oxygen needs to the enter the body but ventilation rates are 25 lower than mammals of comparable size 0 Their respiratory system is more efficient than that of a mammal 0 They can be in areas of low oxygen because of their one way air ow 0 When air from the bronchi goes into the lungs it bypasses the air into sacs large bones in birds have airsacs o Anterior and posterior air sacs but they have multiple in the body ranging from 612sacs present in the average bird 0 Complex ventilation System 2 step cycle for complete ventilation 0 1st Inhalation 0 air enters into the respiratory tree by passing lungs 0 Most of the air enters the posterior air sacs 0 1st Exhalation 0 Air from the posterior air sac is pushed into lungs themselves 0 2nd Inhalation 0 air is brought in and the precious air moves through the lung tissue Where gas exchange takes place and is pushed into anterior air sacs 0 2nd Exhalation 0 Air from anterior air sacs is pushed out of the body Mammals o Breathe via aspiration pumps 0 Will use the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles 0 Respiratory tree air enters the glottis then goes down the larynx the trachea then bronchus 0 Can constrict bronchial tree to limit air to lung tissues 0 have mucus lining and Will have alveoli The diaphragm 0 assists With breathing o Evolutionarily it serves different functions on other mammals o Evolves to allow a front cage to help stop abdominal oxygen from pushing up against the heart and lungs in cats
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