Unit 2 Exam study guide
Unit 2 Exam study guide SOP 3742
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Fiaza Ahmed on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOP 3742 at Florida International University taught by Dr. Dionne Stephens in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Women in Psychlogy at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Unit Two Study Guide Chapter 6- Gendered Identities: Childhood and Adolescence *One of the most important tasks of children in all cultures is to learn how to be a woman or a man in their society Theories of Gender Development: Social learning theory: An approach that emphasizes how children learn gendered behavior from their environment According to this theory, people learn their characteristic behavior mainly through the process of reinforcement (Behavior that is followed by desirable consequences in reinforced and is more likely to occur in the future. If a behavior is never reinforced, it will stop.) The effects of reinforcement can occur whether or not the adult is deliberately attempting to influence behavior. Ex: If a Dad glances up from his computer and smiles warmly while Debbie is quietly coloring this is reinforcing Debbie’s behavior. According to social learning theory, learning also occurs by observing and imitating the behaviors of others. Ex: Albert Bandura’s study This theory explains gender identity and gender typing as the result of moment-moment, day-to-day interactions between the developing child and the immediate social environment. What a child learns about femininity and masculinity will vary according to social class, ethnic group, etc. Cognitive Theories: Children willingly socialize themselves to be masculine or feminine Cognitive Developmental Theory: Piaget believed that children move through a fixed series of stages in their cognitive development and there are concepts they cannot grasp until they have reached the appropriate cognitive stage By 2-3, children can identify girls and boys By 6-7, children understand gender constancy, that gender is permanent Once aware of gender constancy, children match, value, and may exaggerate behaviors and attitudes consistent with gender label Gender Schema Theory Schemas are needed to understand information Gender schema theory explains that gender is a schema learned early that guides gender-typing Those with well developed schemas are gender-schematic opposed to those with less developed schemas who are gender- aschematic Gender schemas determine what we attend to and remember Gender schema theory also suggests the development of gender schemas can be minimized by upbringing Gender in the Child’s Daily Life Parental Influences Boys: The preferred sex Female infanticide is a sad reality in some parts of the world. The male gender is preferred. Strong traditional ideas about the greater worth of sons Underlying reason: Essentialism- patriarchal violence, belief that it is acceptable to control the numbers and freedom of females through the use of violence. Peer influences Preference to play with same-gendered friends (emerges around age 2) is known as pattern of gender segregation. Increases around preschool years Explanation according to cognitive developmental theory: Children want to fit into their prescribed gender roles. Gendered play friendship styles Boys learn competitive, dominance-oriented play styles Girls learn cooperative styles Girls’ play style encourages use of interpersonal skills rather than physical aggression. When girls want to be aggressive/dominant they engage in relational aggression (Hostile acts that attempt to damage another’s close relationship or social standing) Gendered Environments Gendered toy preferences Media Influences Boys/men depicted as independent, competent, and aggressive Girls/women shown as passive, helpless, nurturing, or dependent Males appeared as main character much more often than females st Females: damsel in distress role (changes in the 21 century) Video games surpass all other media in both popularity and sexism Ethnicity, social class, and gender typing Asian American families encourage women to be nurturing and men to be strong and stoic but also family related Latinos are taught tradition role expectations typically by same- gender parent African Americans are less likely to rely on gender stereotypical thinking African American girls and women gender stereotype much less than whites and African American boys and men; single parent status and class differences may create this difference Children and Poverty Children from low-income families are exposed to more violence at home, in their neighborhood, and at school than those from middle-income families More likely to experience parents’ divorce, breakup in family and foster care. Poor children receive less cognitive stimulation than wealthier children do Leaving Childhood Behind: Puberty and Adolescence Puberty is a series of physiological events that changes a child into a person capable of reproducing. Adolescence time that society allocates for young people to mature and grow into their adult roles. Changing Bodies Puberty begins with rise on hormonal production that gradually causes the body to mature Girls: first external sign might be a growth spurt, then development of secondary sex characteristics: breasts and body hair Healthy adult women have twice as much body fat than healthy adult men. Societal pressures about weight gain/association of weight gain to self esteem (White girls have greater body dissatisfaction) Onset of menstruation: menarche There are both positive/negative feelings toward menarche Menstruating women are still stigmatized Menstruating is often associated with disgust, shame, annoyance, secrecy Gender Intensification Gender intensification is the increased pressure to conform to gender roles beginning in early adolescence Vulnerabilities of Adolescence Self-silencing and Self Esteem Interviews with adolescent girls showed that they stifled their own feelings and thoughts in an effort to fit in and be seen as the nice girl known as the silencing effect Self-silencing is contrasted with relational authenticity, which is the congruence between with what a girl thinks and feel and how she acts. Basically how much a girl is able to be herself. Self-esteem: Person’s overall level of positive self regard and self respect Chapter 7-Sex, love and Romance How is sexuality shaped by culture? What are sexual scripts? Sexual scripts: The rules or guidelines for expected behavior Part of cultural institutions Adolescent Sexuality Puberty- surge in sexual interest and behavior North American values contributing to changing sexual norms Intercourse outside of marriage is increasingly common. For both boys and girls, the strongest predictor of sexual activity is the perceived level of their friend’s sexual activity First Intercourse: Less than Bliss? Gap between romantic ideal and reality Lesbian and Bisexual Women By the early twentieth century Lesbianism was seen as a serious form of pathology Later laboratory research showed that the pattern of physiological change in the sexual response cycle is the same regardless of whether one’s partner is a woman or a man. Developing a Lesbian or Bisexual Identity LGB teens may find it difficult to accept their sexual orientation Process of coming out may be slow or erratic but is related to grater social support, improved relationships, and lower psychological distress in lesbians of all ages. Ethnic Diversity and Sexual identity Latin lesbians more likely to remain in the closet than White lesbians African American lesbians also have described issues of integrating multiple identities and group memberships Within Asian cultures, any public or open expression of sexuality is unacceptable Romantic Love and Sexual Pleasure Young women are told that love, especially romantic love is everything Existence of sexual scripts Token resistance: saying no when you actually want to say yes. Creates confusion as to what no really means Women who actively take responsibility for own pleasure are more likely to experience pleasure Women may experience less sexual pleasure because of society’s emphasis on the passive sexuality of female vs. active sexuality of male Sexual script: Man’s pleasure is more important that a woman’s. Social Contexts of Sexual Expression Black women are less likely to believe in romantic love, and maintain stronger feelings of independence compared to white women. Hispanic cultures place strong emphasis on the purity, or virginity of women Asian cultures: public expression of sexuality is suppressed and rarely discussed yet sexuality is viewed as healthy. Sexual double standards sexual activity outside of marriage was okay and expected for men but not for women. Controlling Women’s Sexuality Genital Mutilation: involves removing clitoris, practiced typically in Middle East, Africa and Asia. Slang words about sex suggest violence against women Dating violence: Over 80% of college students have been involved in dating violence Ideology of romance encourages tolerance for violence Acquaintance rape is more prevalent than stranger rape Chapter 8: Marriage People in Western societies are aware that marriage is a legal contract, that can be subject to regulation by the state but they rarely think of it like that. Marriage had strong patriarchal background Who Marries and When? More than 90 percent of people in Western societies marry at some point in their lives. African American women least likely to get married Average age of bride now is 25 years old (one generation ago was 20) Average age of groom is 26.8 years old (Used to be 22.8) Why are women marrying later? Advances in contraception, economic factors, higher education. Who marries Whom? In cross cultural study, more than 9,000 people from 37 nations were asked to assess important qualities in a potential mate. They were narrowed down to be: Good health, chastity, dependability, intelligence, social status, religious background, neatness, ambition, and sociability. Cultural differences also determined extent to which these qualities were important. These cultural differences were more important than gender differences. Gender differences: Woman across cultures were more likely to emphasize partner’s learning capacity and ambition. Men were most likely to emphasize good looks and physical attractiveness. “Marrying up: and “Marrying down”: The marriage gradient Individuals are usually closely matched Cross culturally when there are differences within a couple it is usually when the man is older, has access to higher education and a more prestigious occupation. (Known as the marriage gradient) Will marriage gradient continue to exist? Experiment: when playing a game in which ideal long term mate was “designed” by purchasing desirable characteristics women paid most for males with status and resources while males desired females who were physically attractive. Varieties of Marriage Traditional Marriage: Distinctions between the role of wife and husband are made. Both the husband and wife agree that the husband should have greater authority. Modern Marriage: Modern wives work outside the home, but by mutual agreement, wife’s job is less important. Man is real provider. Concept of a second shift: doing work outside of home, as well as time spent doing household chores. Egalitarian Marriage: Partners have equal power and authority. Shared responsibilities. (One’s partner’s job is not allowed to take precedence over other’s) Power in Marriage: Recent research confirms that marriage equality is not the norm, however couples may establish a myth of equality, which is a refusal in acknowledging a power imbalance in the marriage. Ex: Even though it is agreed by both men and women that women are more dominant in taking care of children and the household chores, most don’t see it as problematic. Sources of men’s greater power: Influence of traditional gender ideology. Social exchange theory: partner who brings greater outside resources to the relationship will have the greater influence in it. Men’s capacity to earn money is more highly valued than the ability to earn money. Even if wife brings in as much money as her husband, she may not have equal power because her success is seen as undermining his provider role and interfering with her nurturing role. Happily ever after? Marital Satisfaction and Psychological adjustment Does Marriage have any relationship to happiness? Happiness and satisfaction in marriage changes over time. Initial “Honeymoon period” followed by dissatisfaction after birth of children. Greatest dissatisfaction is when children are school-aged Happiness of early years is regained when children have grown and left home. Wives report more feelings of dissatisfaction than husbands. Women’s Marriage is associated with better psychological adjustment for both men and women. Benefits, however are unequally distributed. Psychological benefits are associated with balance of power. Lesbian Couples Characteristics: similar to that of a heterosexual marriage. Has qualities of companionship, communication, roles and division of labor, power and satisfaction. Cannot assign role of breadwinner or nurturer based on gender, thus roles are fairly equal. Same-sex couples tend to share more leisure activities than heterosexual couples. Cohabiting couples Heterosexual couples living together without being legally married in called cohabitation. Most striking social change from the past 50 years Half of all first marriages in US are preceded by living together It is also becoming a substitute for marriage It can be considered a “trial period” before marriage Study suggests that when a couple lives together before being engaged a discrepancy between his or her commitment exists, and it may persist even after years of marriage. Studies have shown that former cohabitants are more likely to divorce. Separation and Divorce: US has highest level of divorce as compared to any other industrialized nation. Large proportion of first marriages end in divorce within 15 years. Age at time of marriage and divorce have a high correlation. (Younger the man and women are when they marry, the more likely they are to get divorced) Women and men give differing reasons for the divorce. Women were more likely than men to mention their partner’s infidelity, substance abuse, and mental or physical abuse as reasons for their divorce. Men were more likely to say poor communication or that they did not know the cause. Psychological adjustment to divorce depends on social support Children’s custody is also a large part of the divorce adjustment. Majority of women receive emotional benefit from receiving custody of children but not financial support. Majority of fathers not living with their families no longer provided any monetary support. Chapter 9- Mothering Like marriage, motherhood is also an institution. Images of Mothers and Motherhood Western beliefs of motherhood and the four myths 1. Motherhood is ultimate fulfillment of a woman. It is natural and necessary 2. Women are instinctively good at caregiving. Good mothers enjoy it 3. A mother has infinite patience and willingness to sacrifice herself to her children 4. Woman’s intense, full-time devotion for her children is best for her children Motherhood is learned (Studies on single fathers show that they develop skills very much like those of women Motherhood mandate: social pressure on women to have children, if not it is seen as maladjustment Having one child is not seen as enough Childfree or Childless? Not always a matter of choice, some women choose not to have children, some cannot bear but want to have. Society stigmatizes both Most societies regulate woman’s rights to have or not have children Reproductive freedom: Right to comprehensive, unbiased sex education, access to safe and reliable contraception, end to forced sterilization and forced birth control, access to safe and legal abortion Pro-choice: all choices about reproduction should be made by the woman herself Contraception Family planning empowers women but it may also increase their anxiety and psychological distress when they live in contexts of extreme gender inequality For contraceptive services to be effective, women’s psychological needs and cultural contexts must be taken into account. Abortion Roe vs. Wade: Supreme court decision 1973-affirmed that women have a right to decide whether to terminate their pregnancies (right to privacy) Abortion is still restricted (Hyde Amendment): Prohibition of use of federal Medicaid money for abortions except in cases of incest, rape, or when mother’s life is medically endangered. Nonsurgical abortion procedure is mifepristone that is taken as pill, induces abortion in early pregnancy by causing the uterine lining to slough off. Criticism for doctors who perform abortions Post-abortion syndrome: mythical fact that claims women who have an abortion typically suffer guilt, shame, and lasting psychological damage Transition to Motherhood Mothers face the burden of being supermom Inequality in marriage roles as well as increased household duties for woman after children Physiological changes during pregnancy and psychological implications Becoming pregnant and giving birth highlight a woman’s sexuality Many women experience increased sexual desire while pregnant; contradictory (The Madonna ideal-women/mothers are supposed to be pure and serene) Poor mothers: “welfare moms” are labeled as undeserving of respect, forced to look for employment Middle class mothers urged to stay home with their children Motherhood product of social context of mothering Event of Childbirth Women are encouraged to think of childbirth as a event in which they would be dependent, passive, subject to authority, and in need of expert medical intervention Peak experience/worst pain ever Lack of literary accounts on childbirth by women Is Childbirth a medical crisis? Medical model of birth: babies delivered by doctors vs. birthed by women. Most births occur in a hospital setting. In US women lie on their back while giving birth, while in most cultures women give birth squatting or in a seated position Family centered childbirth: methods of prepared or natural birth. Lamaze method: learning techniques of relaxation and controlled breathing Depression following childbirth: why? First few weeks after childbirth (postnatal period) characterized by a time of mood swings and depression Feelings of inadequacy, fatigue, tearfulness and insomnia When experiences were negative compared to expectations there was greater depression following the birth Experiences of Mothering Teen mothers: had decreased over the years, has consequences for the young woman (interrupted education, lowered job opportunities, health problems, costs of public interventions) Single mothers: Families headed by women are far more likely to be poor than other families, however studies show that they are just as satisfied wit motherhood than married women are Black mothers and matriarchal myth: because of long slave history, and still more likely to be raising families without a resident father/husband, collective cooperative child rearing (strong familial ties) Lesbian Mothers: may feel little in common with heterosexual families of their children’s friends. More tolerant about rules, less restrictive of sex play, less concerned with modesty Commonalities 1. Becoming a mother results in large, significant, and permanent changes in identity and life circumstances 2. Motherhood can involve feelings of intense love, competence, and achievement 3. Motherhood is a constantly changing relationship 4. Both the mother and the child must confront the limitations of love and care 5. Mothers and children must adapt to a society that is structured as though children did not exist and does not provide necessary support for those who care for the young Chapter 11-Midlife and Aging Age cohort: the group of people born in about the same decade Psychology has paid less attention to the second part of life, particularly for women. Not Just a Number: The Social Meanings of Age There is a double standard for aging. Men are not considered old as soon as woman are considered old A woman was considered old when she can no longer attract men or reproduce Man was not considered old until he became mentally or physically incapacitated “Women are much nicer” stereotype went in favor of women during double standard studies on aging In one study, older woman were more distressed about changes in appearance in regards to aging while men were more concerned with changing in their bodies’ function Ageism Prejudice and discrimination based on age Middle ages people held the strongest anti-aged attitudes compared to young people White American culture is individualistic and materialistic and works best for the young and strong Needing help from others is seen as shameful Ageism depends on cultural context Self-esteem and Social identity “We deny that we are aging, and when we are forced to confront it, we treat it as ugly and tragic” Images of Older Women Older women in the media are often portrayed as unattractive, useless and boring They become less visible in all forms of media Most invisible aspect of older women is their sexuality Most pervasive image of older woman is the kindly grandmother Age stereotyping is often triggered by appearance Elderspeak: when people talk to the elderly, it is grammatically simplified, repetitious, slowed down and exaggerated in pitch Older people are infantilized and often treated like children Changing bodies, illness and health issues are inevitable when one ages Heart disease, all types of cancer and stroke are the three most common causes of death in both men and women Midlife and older women are likely to live with chronic illnesses such as arthritis and diabetes Chronic illness forces continued focus on the body Menopause: end of menstrual cycle and monthly periods Can occur anytime between mid forties and late 50’s, average age is 51 Hot flashes- brief episodes of suddenly increasing heart rate, warmth, and sweating (bodily change that may accompany menopause) Old age is accompanied by the message to avoid the appearance of old age Targeted towards white women Increased number of cosmetic surgery Fewer older woman are sexually active than older men Becoming a grandmother is seen as positive for older woman, it can be fulfilling or challenging depending on age cohort Since women marry older men and outlive men, women typically care for aging spouses Androcentric society less retirement privileges for women as compared to men
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