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SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam 2

by: Hannah Wright

SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam 2 SOC100

Hannah Wright

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These notes cover what's going to be on exam 2.
Sociology 100: Introduction to Sociology
Rebecca, Sandefur
Study Guide
SOC 100, UIUC, Sandefur, sociology, Intro to sociology, Exam 2, Study Guide, notes
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Wright on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC100 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Rebecca, Sandefur in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Sociology 100: Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


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Date Created: 03/26/16
Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Soc 100 Lectures for Exam 2 Methods of sociological inquiry -research question -concepts -data The General Social Survey: -around since 1972 -now conducted biennially -n=1500 in each administration represents the nation Experiments: -start with a hypothesis -find ways to “control for” other things that might affect the outcome of interest Slave systems of stratification -Chattel slavery -human trafficking -b/c it’s your property, you can do anything you want with it -Debt bondage/bonded labor -fixed or definite term -sell yourself to another person as a way to pay off debt, if you don't pay it off it goes to your kid -Forced labor Class systems of stratification -elite class, upper class, middle class, lower middle class, poor class Class Ala Weber classes are groups of people with a common relationship to the marketplace… 1 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Some factors that distinguish classes from each other for Weberians -Income and other kinds of play -labor market opportunities Class ala Marx -classes are groups of people who share a common relationship to the means of production -ownership of means of production Marx’s theory of social class -ownership In contemporary capitalism, ownership and control are often separated. so some of the proletariat have control, while others don’t Marx made modern -identify class positions, based on… Subculture: beliefs, values, ways of understanding the world, ways of communicating, normative patterns of behavior that are peculiar to a particular subgroup in a large society style of life: tastes, preferences… Meritocracy and equal opportunity -meritocarcy -ability + effort =merit -achievement= f(merit) -rewards=f(merit) Social Mobility: Intragenerational: mobility within a generation (your lifetime) -ex of studies: careers, earnings and trajectories, job mobility, promotions 2 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 -adverse childhood experiences: early death, disease, disability, and social problems, adoption of health risk behaviors, social emotional, and cognitive impairment, disrupted neurodevelopment, adverse childhood experiences -on scale form conception to death Intergenerational: mobility between generations Legitimation of Inequality: -beliefs, norms, values, ideology beliefs: ideas about what’s real and what’s not real -miasmas cause disease -barnacle geese come from barnacles -the earth is pretty much round -hard work leads to success -remember the Thomas Theorem: beliefs do not have to be accurate to have effects in the world Values:shared ideas about what is good, desirable, worthy, as opposed to bad, undesirable, worthless -ex: honesty, loyalty, physical toughness, intelligence Ideology: constellations of beliefs that are an idealized reflection of what people experience and do. These beliefs are not an exact replica of what happens, but are “normative average”: certain (not all) aspects of what happens on average come to be taken as what does happen or ought to happen -ideologies contain a particular point of view -pick up different aspects of society and spin them in a particular way -emphasize some things, but not other things Subjective Illusions: incorrect perceptions of reality due to faulty sense of organs or misuse of working sense organs -color blindness -something wrong with your perceiver 3 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Objective Illusions: incorrect perceptions of reality that arise from more or less accurate perceptions of what one can perceive -the sun rises over the horizon each morning -happens when everything is going just fine -see facts and tell a story about them and everything makes sense, but it’s all fundamentally round -take facts that are around us and put them together in ways that are coherent with the facts, but they’re just wrong, not crazy Social Reproduction: the process by which the divisions and inequalities found within a social group or society are replaced across time and across generations Two aspects: 1. Structural Replication: look at it day to day and everything is the same 2. Intergenerational Inheritance: how do we fill those statuses? are you going to be in the same status as your parents, or have a different one?? Opportunity Structure -the chance or likelihood of doing certain things, achieving certain goals, or receiving certain rewards -define the possible -the menu of options (menu is not made up of us) -these chances or likelihoods are shaped by many forces that are outside an individual’s control -we think of the chances to become x as an opportunity structure -if x is a position where you work for pay, then we can divide the opportunity structure into two parts 1. the “pipeline” of x-creation 2. The labor market for fully-fledged x’s ex: professional basketball -pipeline: the number and distribution in social space of opportunities to develop basketball skills 4 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Public Interest Law -share of entering law students who say they want to work in public interest jobs after graduation: -30-60%, depending on the school and the study -share of ALL law jobs that are public interest jobs -1.5% Structural Replication: Reproduction of the form of the social structure -ex: in a capitalist society, the relative proportions pretty stable over time -ex: the share of all law jobs that are public interest jobs could hold pretty steady Intergenerational Inheritance: Inheritance by individuals or groups of particular social positions -ex: when children go into the same line of work as the parent Social Reproduction theories: -correspondence theory: theres a class structure to society and the stuff in that society are parts of the structure -understandings about you that make you fit into the workplace high structural determination = cast system -learning divided into subjects -work divided into jobs -students divided hierarchically -workers divided hierarchically -students motivated by extrinsic -workers motivated by extrinsic rewards rewards (grades), rather than interest (money) rather than interest or pleasure in or pleasure in mastery work -students learn to compete for top spots -cultural approaches: -bourdieu, bernstein, paul willis -High individual agency 5 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 -Bourdieuian social reproduction theory: -habitus: tastes, dispositions, the way you understand the world -learn by experience -carry it with you -stable disposition Cultural capital -knowledge, skills, attitudes, tastes, experiences, personality traits -that are…fungible (exchange for other things in life (ie. money)), ranked in ways that advantage dominant groups Occupational prestige as a measure of social class: -high -architects, pharmacists, judges, physicians -upper middle -accountants, grade and high school teachers -lower-middle -telephone repair-people, airplane mechanics -low -truck drivers Annette Lareau (unequal childhoods): -middle/professional classes Working/poor classes -parental authority: negotiation, Parental authority: directives, customize no debate Social Class and Language Use -Restricted code: -when people interact frequently, “restricted code” can emerge. Grounded in shared culture, experience and understandings, much is implied, rather than stated, and outsiders can find it difficult to understand 6 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 -ex: slang -elaborated code -“stands on is own”… Aspirations and expectations: -aspirations: people’s hopes or wishes to do or be or achieve something -outcomes and wishes don’t always add up -expectations: pals predictions about what they are likely to do or be Socialization: the means through which societies and social groups reproduce their membership through the creation of social selves: the relatively organized complex[es] of attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors associated with individuals -happens through social interactions -takes place in a variety of settings (both formal and informal) -occurs across the life course -Two of the most important skills humans must learn in order to participate in social life are 1. how to anticipate the behavior of other people 2. how to manipulate the behavior of other people -One of the most important tasks of early childhood is learning about how other people think -we learn this by introduction and through interaction -Particularly relevant to understanding socialization, we learn what other people are thinking about us -we learn to “take on the role of the other” -The ME is your perception of how others see you and what they are thinking about you -The I consists of your response to your perception of how others see you -Socialization is importantly about the construction the ME -a key aspect of socialization is creating your understanding of yourself as an object of others’ observation and evaluation 7 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Installing You “ME” -by observing others’ reactions to your behavior-approval, disapproval, response, indifference -By “taking other role of the other” through play and speculation -“Me’s” are at first constituted by a set of ‘particular’ others-the “particular attitudes of other individuals toward [the individual] and toward one another in the specific social acts in which [she or he] participates with them -at the second stage in the full development of the individual’s self that self is constituted not only by an organization of these particular individual attitudes, but also by an organization of the…social group as a whole to which the belong….by the generalized other Generalized Other -The child becomes “an individual reflection of the general systematic pattern of social or group behavior in which it and the others are all involved – a pattern which enters as a whole into the individual’s experience in terms of these organized group attitudes which... he takes toward himself, just as he takes the individual attitudes of others.” Interplay between the “i” and the “me” -Is not perfect -Everyone in the same setting doesn’t end up with an identical “me.” -Is not determinative -In most situations, we have a choice of “I’s.” Agents of Socialization: -family, school, peers, religious organizations, media, workplace, for some ppl total institutions like prison or the military Gender Gap Index (GGI): -measures resources given to women who want to work, such as maternity leave and child care facilities. Participation of women in labor is also a big factor, as is their tole in political leadership Generalized Other 8 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 -the content of generalized others varies across national cultures and between groups within cultures. -ex: social class differences in child socialization-at school, at home, among peers… Bourdieuian Social Reproduction Theory: Habitus: a system of lasting, transposable dispositions which, integrating past experiences, functions at every moment as a matrix of perceptions, applications and actions…subjective but not individual” Social Class and Childrearing: middle-class parents…are more likely to emphasize child self-direction, and working-class parents to emphasize their conformity to external authority” correspondence theory cultural theories (ex: Bourdieu, Bernstein, Paul Willis) <————————————————————————————————————-> High Structural Determination High individual agency socialization: how your interactions define you a a person -ex: eating dinner with your family and talking about the world with them Cultural approaches to social reproduction: how different cultures react to the likelihood that you will end up in the same social class as their parents ex: your spot in the social system installs in you the way you see the world The “Me”: created by interactions and how it’s being acted upon -my assessment of me based on interactions with you -if someone thinks of you as being in an elite social class, you see it too The Generalized Other: when you see a group of ppl thinking about an other group -ex: my feedback is from a whole group…society thinks of me as a college student, sees me as a college student Agent of Socialization: What shapes the “me”, factors that socialize you -ex: family or school 9 Tuesday, March 1, 2016 Discussion Section Notes: -deterministic models<—————> culturally attuned models emphasize STRUCTURE emphasize INDIVIDUALAGENCY (given circumstances someone can make the best of their life, balance and thrive even though they have many constraints on their society) Bourdieu: social capital, habitus 10


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