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Exam 2

by: Camille Turner
Camille Turner
intro- psychopathology
M. Lilly

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intro- psychopathology
M. Lilly
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camille Turner on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 316 at Northern Illinois University taught by M. Lilly in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see intro- psychopathology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
Psvc 316 Exam 2 Studv Guide Mood Disorders Examples Depression and Mania Biological Model Genetic heritability 20 prevalence in relatives Neurotransmitter dysregulation Serotonin and norepinephrine Endocrine system Abnormal melatonin secretion cortisol dysregulation protein deficiencies Neuroanatomy Abnormal functioning Behavioral Model Develops as a function of reward and punishment becomes less and less reinforced with positive rewards leading to a decline in constructive and social behavior Cognitive Model Learned helplessness believing there is no control over their external environment and they are to blame for their helplessness Negative thinking self defeat thinking errors minimization automatic thoughts are negative and recurrent and coloring the person39s experiences Depression Sadness life feels dark and overwhelming hopeless and helplessness Treatments Biological Drugs ECT deep brain stimulationbehaviora1 reinforce depressed and nondepressed behaviors focus on social skills cognitive recognize and change cognitive processes Bipolar Disorder Mania with depression Powerful emotions poor judgment little to no sleeprest sensation seeking May be seen as high irritable mood increased activity or energy Bipolar 1 full manic and depressive episodes Can be mixed Bipolar II Hypomanic and depressive episodes Treatments Psychotherapy and antidepressants Suicide Suicide is an intentional death person makes an intentional direct conscious effort to end their life Media poses as a risk for suicide due to social modeling wanting to imitate behaviors of others as well as how impulsive people can be Mostly teens due to their brain not being fully developed Death Seekers intend to end life Death initiators intend to die believes that death is already on the way Death ignorers Death doesn39t equal the end of their existence Death Darers Ambivalence which can be re ected in the act itself Subintentional death plays indirect hidden and partial of unconscious role in their own death Types of suicide Egoistic individuals over whom society has little to no control Altruistic So integrated that they sacrifice own life Anomic Environment fails them and no meaning Women have a higher attempt rate Men have a higher completion rate chooses a more violent way as well Parasuicide Act intended to self injure or self mutilate but not die might die as a result of parasuicidal acts Purpose is to make emotional pain physical Somatic Disoders Malingering intentionally fake illness for secondary gain Factitious disorder intentionally produce or fake symptoms out of a wish to play patient role Conversion Disorder psych needs are being converted to physical symptoms and needs Somatic symptom disorder Significant distress and concern over bodily symptoms Illness Anxiety Disorder Chronic anxiety about health and concern that they are developing a serious illness despite no physical symptoms Treatments antidepressant ERP cognitive restructuring Psychodynamic Model hysteria leads to conversion of emotions into physical sxs symptoms Behavioral Model Sick behaVior reward Cognitive Model Symptoms are a form of communication and want to express extreme Treatments Dynamic insight into true struggles Behavioral do exposure to trauma events that trigger symptoms Antianxiety or antidepressants hypnosis contingency management Psychophysiological Disorders Ulcers Lesions in the stomach that cause pain Physio factors bacterial infection Psycho factors pressure stress anger and anxiety Asthma Difficulty breathing caused by narrowing of airways Physio factors allergies poor respiratory system Psycho factors stress anxiety Insomnia Physio factors medical ailments overactive arousal Psycho factors anxiety depression fear HeadacheMigraines Physio factors muscle weakness abnormal serotonin Psycho factors stresspressure helplessness Hypertension chronically high blood pressure Physio factors obesity Smoking poor kidney function Psycho factors stress angerdepression dangerous enVironment Coronary heart disease blockage in coronary artery Physio factors high cholesterol obesity hypertension smoking Psycho factors job stress anger depression Eating Disorders Thinness health and beauty to the point of natural obsession Anorexia Nervosa Refusal to maintain more than 85 normal body weight intense fear of being overweight distorted View of weight and shape Restricting Cut out food almost no variability in diet Binge force self to vomit laxatives excessive exercise also binge eating Treatment eclectic therapy approach includes family group modalities and sometimes drugs recognize need for independencecontrol and trust internal feelings Common Pattern Normal slightly overweight person goes on diet dieting escalates towards anorexia most recover 26 fear is often the motivating factor Low self esteem insomnia perfectionism depression anxiety etc Bulimia Nervosa Binges uncontrolled bout of overeating during a specific period of time following food intake those with BN engage in compensatory behaViors Typically normal weight range but uctuates Binging can happen 130 times a week unplanned but becomes planned Treatments Eliminate bingepurge patterns restore healthy eating habits identify and tackle causes of patterns Many improve with treatment however many relapse Substance Use Disorders Alcohol Affects judgment and inhibitions prefrontal cortex Spreads to other areas of the central nervous system 5 or more drinks are considered binge drinking Alcohol use disorder drinks large amounts regularly relies on it to enable them to do things Key features of dependence Tolerance and Withdrawl Sedatives hypnotic drugs anxiolytics Feeling relaxed sleep inducer or hypnotic at high dose Opiates heroin opium motphine codeine Can be smoked or injected depress the central nervous system and binds the receptors that receive endorphins relieve pain can be addictive and dependence develops quickly Stimulants cocainecaffeine nicotine rapid behavior and thinking Cocaine is the most powerful natural stimulant cause euphoric rush increases dopamine receptors in the brain Hallucinogens change in sensory perceptions strong emotions can have bad trips or experience ashbacks Cannabis Varieties of hemp plants Is addictive produces mixture of hallucinogens depressants and stimulants lasts 26 hours panic reactions poor concentration and memory Treatments CBT change patterns and cognition contributing to the problem Five general principles of motivational interviewing express empathy develop discrepancy avoid argumentation roll w resistance support self efficacy Biological drugs abstaining block or change effect of substance maintain levels without increasing Sociocultural self help programs culture and gender sensitive programs community preventions alcoholics anonymous narcotics anonymous


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