Test 3 Review
Test 3 Review Bio 1023
Popular in Plants and humans
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gianna Notetaker on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Plants and Humans Exam 3 Fruits and Flowers Labeling the flower o Perianth (Sterile tissues) Petal: brightly colored to attract pollinators Sepal: “brackets” o Stamen (male reproductive) Anther: site where pollen (sperm) is produced Filament: stalk that holds up the Anther o Pistil (female reproductive) Stigma: site where pollen sticks Style: hollow tube connecting stigma and ovary Ovary: site where eggs are found Petal Stigma Style Sepa Ovar l y Fertilization: fusion of egg and sperm to produce zygote (fertilized egg) Pollination: transfer of pollen from stamen to stigma of same or distant flower of same species Double fertilization o Sperm #1 fuses with egg to produce zygote o Sperm #2 fuses with polar cell in embryonic sac to produce endosperm which is a nutritive material for embryonic plant Pollination: o Wind (~19.6%) Ineffective but common Produce copious amounts of pollen Lack scent/nectar Inconspicuous to flowers o Water (~.04%) Rare Submerged flowers o Organisms (~80%) Insects: Most common Brightly colored flowers and strong odors to attract pollinators Animals Hummingbirds: red flowers Bats: large sturdy flowers Fruit: develop from a fertilized ovary o Function: Protect developing seeds Seed dispersal Squirrels “plant” nuts Animals ingest and “move” the seeds o Parts: Endocarp Innermost layer; surrounds seeds Mesocarp Middle later; usually fleshy Exocarp Outermost layer; “skin” o Types Pome: apples, pears Drupe: seed is within pit Peaches, plums Berry: endo/meso/exocarp all fleshy Tomatoes, blueberries Hesperidium: exocarp is leather rind with oil glands Citrus fruits (lemons, oranges) Pepo: exocarp is think, hard rind Squash, melons, cucumbers Multiple fruits: Derived from a tight cluster of separate individual flowers on a single structure o Pineapple, mulberry Aggregate fruit: Derived from a fusion of many ovaries (one flower) o Strawberry, raspberry Cell Division Mitosis: type of nuclear division resulting in two genetically identical daughter cells; used in growth o Interphase: phase of the cell cycle during which the chromosomes are uncondensed and found in the nucleus; DNA replicates G 1 first gap S: synthesis of DNA G : second gap 2 o M phase: division of one cell nucleus into two; sister chromatids align and separate; ensures each daughter cell gets full set of chromosomes Prophase: chromosomes condense into highly compacted structures Nuclear membrane begins to break apart Spindle begins to form Metaphase: sister chromatids align along plane hallway between the poles Organized into ingle row Alignment must be complete to be called metaphase Anaphase: connection between pairs of sister chromatids are broken Each chromatid is linked to one pole Spindle tubules shorten o Pull chromosomes toward poles Telophase: chromosomes have reached their respective poles and de-condense Nuclear membrane now reform to produce two separate nuclei Meiosis: specialized type of nuclear division which results in four genetically different daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the mother (original) cell o Chromosome pairs from a tetrad; no S phase between meiosis I and meiosis II; sister chromatids are separated during anaphase II, unlike anaphase I Photosynthesis Energy within light is captured and used to synthesize carbohydrates Autotroph: make organic molecules from inorganic sources Photon: particle representing a quantum of light; carries energy proportional to the radiation frequency Wavelength of light that a pigment absorbs depends on the amount of energy needed to boost an electron to a higher orbital o Pigments absorb some light energy and reflect others Excited electrons in pigments can be transferred to another molecule or “captured” Chloroplast: o Granum: stack of thylakoids which contain pigment molecules o Stroma: fluid filled region between thylakoid membrane and inner membrane Accessory pigments o Carotenoids: oranges, yellows, reds Vitamin A: split a carotene pigment molecule in half and get two molecules of Vit. A Good for eyes, teeth, bones Anthocyanins: reds, purples Reactions: o Light: converts light energy into chemical energy (ATP) and used in the next set of reactions to produce glucose molecules Water molecule is split to release electrons – where oxygen is created and creates energy to make ATP molecules o Calvin cycle: ATP and NADPH used to make carbohydrates Involves metabolic cycle Carbon from atmospheric CO2 is incorporated into carbohydrates o Precursors to all organic molecules o Energy storage
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