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OHIO / Engineering / PSY 1010 / What effect does a negative and stressful environment have on the onse

What effect does a negative and stressful environment have on the onse

What effect does a negative and stressful environment have on the onse

Description

School: Ohio University
Department: Engineering
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Mark alicke
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: Psy 1010 Notes Week 10
Description: Notes on emotions and biopsychosocial model Picture source: http://psychcentral.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/body-emotions-color.jpg
Uploaded: 03/27/2016
8 Pages 54 Views 2 Unlocks
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3-22-2016


What effect does a negative and stressful environment have on the onset of puberty?



Adolescence 

- Development of ability to reproduce (puberty)

- Puberty onset is earlier for females living in highly stressful  environments

o Highly stressful environments  epigenetic changes  (earlier)  activation of genes that code for pubertal process

o Evolutionary mechanism = organisms that sense threat/danger  want to ensure that they pass on genes before perishing

- Increased risk taking = during adolescence, limbic system is more  developed than prefrontal cortex

- Identity formation (requires metacognition): who am I?

o What are my gifts? What should I do with my life? How do I stack  up compared to other people?

Adulthood 


What is the likely relationship between brain development and adolescent risk taking?



- Early adulthood:

o Marriage: tends to have positive effect on health and well-being  Research shows marriage is positively correlated with  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the applications of impulse momentum theorem?

longer life, happiness, better health, etc.

o Having children: tends to have (small) negative effect on life  satisfaction and well-being

- Later adulthood:

o Body and mind (especially prefrontal cortex) start to deteriorate  around age 50

o Older adults have fewer mental health problems than younger  adults. Tend to be happy and satisfied with life We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between kinship and descent?

Emotion 

- Emotion (or Affect): An immediate response to environmental events  and/or internal thoughts

o A subjective experience (e.g. “I’m scared”)


What is the effect of intimate relationships on well being?



We also discuss several other topics like What are the three criteria for choosing a buffer?

o A physiological process (e.g. heart beating fast and sweating) o A behavioral response (e.g. eyes and mouth opening wide) - Mood: Diffuse, long-lasting emotional states (trigger usually unknown) If you want to learn more check out How was domestic violence viewed in the past?

Circumplex Model of Emotions/Feelings 

- Valence: Indicates how positive or negative emotions are - Activation: Indicates how arousing they areDon't forget about the age old question of How does the electromagnetic spectrum work?

o Arousal: physiological activation/increased autonomic responses  (such as increased heart rate, sweating, or muscle tension)

Picture source:  

http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/psp/69/1/images/psp_69_1_153_fig2a.gif Physiological Component of Emotions

- Warm colors = more active Don't forget about the age old question of What do west and zimmerman believe in regards to gender?

- Cool colors = less active

- Tasks were given to participants that induce emotions o E.g. have participants write about last time they felt rejected, or  tell participants to speak in a group to induce anxiety, etc. - Participants had computer program where they could choose on a body silhouette which parts of their body were active during certain tasks –  where emotions “live” in our body

- Reactions: Very different emotions can “look” very similar on the map  (e.g. envy vs. surprise or anger vs. pride), similar emotions, however,  can also have similar maps, some researchers have shown that there  is no physiological difference between fear and anxiety, some are very  distinct (e.g. depression)

- Picture source: http://media.npr.org/assets/img/2013/12/30/13-21664- large-b12e81ec59ec77bd24c6abc7cf6a221346ed3bdd-s900-c85.jpg 

Limbic System 

- Generally, the “seat” of emotions

o Some other structures outside of the limbic system play a role in  emotions, however

o Some structures inside limbic system do not play a role in  emotions (e.g. hippocampus)

Limbic System: Insula 

- The insula receives and integrates somatosensory signals (sensations  from the body) from the entire body; involved in awareness of bodily  states (think of physiological component of emotion)

o Insula is particularly active when people experience disgust,  anger, guilt, and anxiety

o E.g. If you feel that “knot in your stomach” feeling, it will travel  to the thalamus, and then be relayed to the insula

Limbic System: Amygdala 

- The amygdala processes the emotional significance of stimuli  (especially social stimuli and anxiety-provoking stimuli)

- Emotional events  increased activity in amygdala  enhanced long term memory of the emotional event

- Involved in emotional learning (e.g. classically conditioned fear  responses)

o People with damage to the amygdala do not develop CRs to CS  associated with dangerous US

- Proximity of hippocampus and amygdala is important o Fear learning/creating memories

o If something in your environment harmed you, you want to  remember the cues so you can avoid the event in the future 3 Major Theories of Emotions 

James-Lange Theory 

- Do our bodies respond to our subjective experience of an emotion? Or  is it the reverse

o E.g. stimulus  emotion  physiological response

o OR

o Stimulus  physiological response  emotion

- William James (1884): The detection of bodily responses leads the  person to feel an emotion

o “We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid  because we tremble”

James-Lange Theory and Laird’s Experiment (1984) 

- Facial feedback Hypothesis: facial expressions trigger the experience of emotions

o E.g. A smile can trigger happiness and enjoyment

- In study some people held pencil in teeth (smile) and some held pencil  between mouth and nose (frown)

- When participants were interviewed after watching a cartoon, “smile”  participants enjoyed the cartoon more than “frown” participants - Researchers concluded that participants were inferring their emotional  state based on their physiological state

Cannon-Bard Theory

- Walter B. Cannon and Philip Bard (1934)

o Autonomic NS is too slow to account for subjective experience of  emotions (e.g. blushing emerges AFTER the experience of  embarrassment)

o Many emotions produce similar body responses, making it  difficult to determine quickly which emotion they are  

experiencing  

o Exercise induces physiological arousal but does not generate a  specific emotion

- Cannon and Bard (1934): Information about emotional stimuli is sent  simultaneously to the cortex (resulting in emotional experience) and  the body (resulting in physiological activation)

o Mind and body experience emotions independently

Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory 

- Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer (1962):

o Extended Cannon-Bard model in suggesting that the  physiological responses to all emotional stimuli are virtually the  same (undifferentiated physiological arousal)

o This arousal is just interpreted differently – depending on  environmental cue present

o That is, the label applied to physiological arousal results in the  experience of an emotion

o Stimulus  physiological response  cognitive label  emotion  E.g. Bear growl  heart pounding  “That is a scary bear, I  am afraid of it”  fear

o What happens in an ambiguous situation when the cause of our  physiological arousal is less obvious?

 Whatever the person believes caused the emotion will  determine the emotion experienced

Dutton and Aron (1974) 

- 2 bridges: dangerous, narrow bridge (lots of emotion) and safe bridge  (not as much emotion

- Wanted to know whether male, heterosexual participants would ask  out female researcher in middle of bridge

- They discovered that men on dangerous bridge were more likely to ask this woman out, because they attributed their fear/physiologically  activation to “sexual attraction” for the woman

- This is due to the cognitive label: aka “sexual attraction” as opposed to “fear”

- Misattribution of arousal: When people misidentify the source of their  arousal

 Example of the Three Major Theories of Emotion ******On Exam 

- E.g. #1: Researchers conduct an experiment in which participants are  given a drug that makes them feel physiologically activated.  Participants in Group A are told that they will feel this way from the  drug. Participants in Group B are not told about the effects of the drug.  As the drug is beginning to take effect, a research confederate(actor)  enters the room and covertly provokes the participant (by repeatedly  tapping a pen loudly on a desk). According to the Schachter-Singer  theory, which group of participants will become more irritated with the  confederate? Why?  

o Answer: Group B because they were not told about the effects  of the drug, so they assume they are irritated because of the  tapping of the pen. Group A will attribute this irritation to the  drug, Group B will attribute this irritation to the pen/confederate.  

Evolutionary Perspective of Emotions 

- Emotions prepare and guide behaviors that increase probability of  surviving and reproducing

o Fear is adaptive because it motivates fleeing when under attack o Guilt is adaptive because it motivates attempts to repair broken  social bonds

 Groups allow division of labor, allow members to share  information about predators/prey, and provide sexual  

partners

 Guilt comes when you’ve harmed another person, and  perhaps ruptured that social bond

Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions 

- Our instantaneous affective responses guide our decision-making,  memory, and behavior

o Decision-making: Would you rather play basketball with friends  or go for a hike?

 When emotions and cognitions are in conflict, emotions  typically have the stronger impact on decisions

 Affect-as-information theory: we use our current moods to  make more global judgments and appraisals;

∙ Research on overall life satisfaction

o You would think to answer this question you  

would have to look into many aspects of your  

life over your lifetime

o One study took place on a rainy day, one study

took place on a sunny day

o Weather had a huge affect on emotional state  

during study, and thus “colored” their  

judgment about the overall satisfaction of their  

life (problems with heuristics)

o Our judgments can be swayed by something as

trivial as the weather

Motivation 

- Motivation: A process that energizes, guides, and maintains behavior  toward a goal

o “Movaire” = to move in Latin

o E.g. Eating removes hunger, because of this you are more likely  to repeat this behavior in the future

 Operant conditioning/Negative reinforcement

∙ Removing hunger, behavior increases

∙ Explains how we form habits

o E.g. We eat even when we are not hungry because it produces  pleasure. Because of this, the behavior increases.

 Positive reinforcement

- What increases motivation?

o Having specific and challenging (but not too difficult) goals o Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977): The expectations that your efforts  will lead to success; predicts success in number of domains  High self-efficacy: If I come to class, study, and pay  

attention I will do well in class

 Low self-efficacy: If I come to class, study, and pay  

attention I still won’t do well

 Anticipatory beliefs influence the amount of work we put  into a task, and our success on that task

∙ BELIEFS MATTER

 - Self-Regulation: Modifying behavior to attain personal goals o We often have to postpone immediate gratification in the pursuit  of long-term goals. This ability to delay gratification: 

 Is relatively stable throughout one’s life

 Predicts social functioning, academic achievement, and  physical health outcomes (Mischel’s marshmallow test)

Chapter 11: Health and Well-Being 

Biopsychosocial Model 

- Physical (and mental) health is dependent on:

o Biological factors (e.g. genetic predisposition, neurochemical  processes)

o Psychological factors (e.g. beliefs, attitudes, behaviors) o Social factors (e.g. cultural influences, family and peer  relationships)

- Many leading causes of death (e.g. heart disease, cancer) are at least  partially outcomes of behavioral habits/lifestyle (e.g. poor nutrition,  overeating, alcohol use, smoking, lack of exercise)

- Contrasts with traditional medical model that views the individual as  passive recipient of both illness and treatment  

Obesity and Maladaptive Eating Habits 

- Body Mass Index (BMI): Ratio of body weight to height, used to  measure obesity (BMI > 30)

- People who are underweight (BMI < 18.5) or extremely obese (BMI >  35/40) are at increased risk for premature death

- A 2013 meta-analysis of 97 studies found:

o People who were slightly overweight (BMIs 25-30) were at lower  risk for death than people with “recommended” BMIs (18.5-25) - Distribution of body fat may have greater influence on health than  absolute amount of fat

o Eating high fat/sugar diet  storing fat in abdomen  health  problems

Biopsychosocial Influences on Diet & Weight 

- Bio: Heritability of body weight ~ 0.70

o 70% of the variability in body weight is attributable to genetic  factors

o More than 300 genes play a role

- Psycho: Self-efficacy

- Social: Peers communicate what is acceptable body weight  - Social: Portion size (e.g. Big Gulp)

 - Social: Food variety (e.g. at a buffet)

o Variety diet = more weight

o Control diet = less weight

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