INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY BIOL 1114
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Preview MaTerial Exam 1 Spring 2006 This exacT maTerial will appear on The exam alThough iT may be arranged differenle You are free To discuss iT wiTh oThers including The insTrucTors Worker bumble bees are ofTen responsible for mainTaining The TemperaTure of eggs in response To The ambienT TemperaTure of The hive In a recenle published experimenT The acTiviTy of worker bumble bees was moniTored and recorded Worker bees eiTher39 fanned The nesT or incubaTed brood cells wiTh eggs as needed IncubaTing The brood cells involved The worker bee coiling her body around The cells and conTracTing her muscles The ambienT air TemperaTure of The hive was recorded regularly When The hive39s ambienT TemperaTure dropped below 28 C The vasT majoriTy of workers were observed incubaTing The eggs in The brood cells When The ambienT TemperaTure rose above 28 C The vasT majoriTy of The workers were observed fanning The nesT To TesT The cause of These observaTions in The lab Dr Mel Ifera incubaTes eggs aT 22 C 34 C or 28 C and measures The raTe of enzyme acTiviTy in each group of eggs PlanTs have been producing Toxic compounds long before agrochemical companies goT inTo The business One group of compounds commonly found in planTs is cyanogenic glycosides Cyanogenic glycosides are compounds composed of a sugar combined wiTh The Toxin cyanide Passion vine and The human foods cassava almonds yams and lima beans all conTain cyanogenic glycosides one good excuse noT To eaT lima beans When planT cells ThaT conTain These compounds are chewed by insecTs an enzyme is acTivaTed ThaT releases poisonous hydrogen cyanide from The glycoside and The insecT dies hungry Hydrogen cyanide binds To an elecTron carrier in The ElecTron TransporT Chain and blocks elecTron flow Passion vine is The sole food source for The buTTerfly Heiconius Sara Female buTTer39flies lay Their eggs on The planT and The emerging caTerpillars have a voracious appeTiTe for The passion vine Normally The cyanogenic glycosides being a poison sTops feeding insecTs from eaTing The vine buT Heicom39us Sara can deToxify cyanogenic glycosides and disarm This planT defense Some species of passion vine have also developed hooked hairs ThaT They use To impale and kill The Toxindisarming caTerpillars You are inTeresTed in how much passion vine musT anoTher species of caTerpillars consume before They sTop eaTing and die You seT up The following experimenT For each differenT quanTiTy of passion vine per caTerpillar There are five jars In addiTion To The passion vine each jar conTains a quanTiTy of a nonpoisonous food source so ThaT The ToTal amounT of food equals whaT 10 average caTerpillars eaT in an eighT hour period Each jar has 10 caTerpillars of The same sex obTained from a single group of recenle haTched eggs The jars are incubaTed aT The same TemperaTure in a wellliT room and The following resulTs are obTained QuanTiTy of passion vine per Number of deaThs caTerpillar mg 1 2 5 5 10 7 15 10 3 svaayvhe TTT3TTT u T T TTT TTT T 21 um T T T asvaaehv fur vhe thhv WhTTe Th vhe sauna same phahksvehs vaak hTs eTavhes aha Tevv hTm Wth ahTy vhe sWTm vhahks he was ClV mg oh eam Th3 aav avvhe hav sauna and aTseakehThg hTs pheaTeamehv he vhaaghv a Tave thhv svhaTT waTk baek vvhauv va hTs aahm r TTTT3TTT p 3 vahvheh vhaaghv he sveppea aav avvhe Saunacmd began hTs advemur e ohee pavsTae aha makmg hTs wayva vhe aahma shghv vevv T TT u 3TTTTTTTT3 T vveh ScuNng 00 ah vhe exam vhe hexv day vhe svaaehv aeeTaea va make ths ah ahhaaT ekehv ah vhe A 1 same thhv The hexv yeah H vmg pav ah 30 puunds vham aTTTgehvh wahkThg aav av vhe CUMquot Cehveh he havTeea vhav he aTa hav 3ev as and ah ah TaetheaT thhv vaTTaWThg vhe same h av he bavvam av 2ngm2d vabaTah vTawehs PThe heevah eahvaThs a thh eaheehvhavTah av 3Taease BThas vhav paTTThave amers have guud eaTah kTsTah aha Tahg bTHs va heaeh vhe heevah vham vwa gruups av vT k v Th vhe aahk av 25 C The avheh gruup Ts kepv Th vhe aahk av 41 The bThas heTeaseavhe same amaahv av 02 Under vhe vwa vempehavahes thTe vhe vakeh heTeasea Tess 02 av vhe Taweh vempehavahe vhah av vhe thheh vempehavahe Pengums Thhath vaaha Th vhapTeaT aheas ah deseN TsTahas as for hahvh as vhe eaaavah Empehah pehgahsvhe Tahgesv pengum speeTes ahe ahe avvwa speeTes vhav We vheTh ethhe TTkes ah AhvahevTea TheTh eTasesv heTaTTke vhe kmg pengum W25 vahvheh hahvh abudy s p p 3 AH pengums vaee vhe phabTem av H vmg weTT ThsaTavea baaTes bav paahTy ThsaTaTea vTTppehs theh aTTawvhem va sWTm by ang exvhemeTy p TT3aTTT h A vh v v m a V T vhe seava veea aha thhg baek vaaa fur vhe ehTeks Empehah pengums have beeh made vamaas Th muwes fur vheTh T 3 a pahehv s veev aha eakehThgvhem WthvheThbaaTes p T T TTT T TTTTT TT T T T heTpvhem keep vheTh ehTeks warm s uu TTT T T TTTT3 pp 33 aaaTvEmpehah pengums masv heaaee vheTh mevabahsm They masv aTsa keep warm Th vhe thgTa AhvahevTe WThveh A sThgTe pengum eahhav du ths b v a vTaek eah Pengum Th Ts heTakaeh TmpehmeabTe va saTv waver huwever TTke uur uwn samewaveh eah pass vhhaagh bav saTvs aha avheh Tahs eahhav bh Mundcm wahks av wmer y aha Ts Thvehesvea Th aekeTapThg a new heeTpe fur ghaWThg v hthT h A vh h v h N ehehgy suurce bh Mundaw aeeTaes va vesv whevheh pyruvme WTTT serve equaHy weTT as a eahbah aha ehehgy suurce bh Mundcm vakes vwa vTasks vTTTs vhem each Wth eaaaT a v N T TT ahavhhthTh vhe gas vhav Ts heTeasea river a ve m Thave pehTaa vham eaeh yeasv saTavTah Plague black plague bubonic plague pneumonic plague is a disease caused by a bacterium Yersinia pestis This species of bacteria came to the US from Asia and infects small mammals such as rats and mice Usually the plague bacterium is spread from host to host by a flea that feeds on an infected mammal it sucks its blood and then injects the bacterium into a new host when it feeds on another mammal Sometimes plague becomes pneumonic This means that the bacteria live in the lungs and can be passed from prairie dog to prairie dog by coughing or kissing touching noses Plague arrived in the US in about 1900 having arrived with infected rats on ships from Asia Some of the plague bacteria in the United States eventually were carried to the Great Plains where they successfully infected prairie dogs small social mammals that live as groups in burrows only in the western US When plague bacteria first arrived in the western US most of the infected prairie dogs died of plague In an effort to repopulate the prairie dog towns wiped out by plague conservationists moved prairie dogs from Colorado where they were abundant to areas of Utah where there were none When fleas are infected with plague bacteria their digestive tracts become plugged with these bacteria and the fleas are not able to digest normal amounts of food thus having fewer food calories available Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a unicellular eukaryotic parasite of the genus Plasmodium The parasites are transmitted from one person to another by the female Anopheles mosquito Humans and mosquitoes are both necessary in the life cycle of the parasite Without an effective treatment the parasites destroy the red blood cells and the capillaries that supply blood to the brain may be clogged At present 300 million people are afflicted with malaria and 1 to 2 million die from it each year Malaria has probably killed more people than all the wars and the plagues combined Quinine is a chemical compound that is synthesized and accumulates in the outer layer of the trunk of a tree of the genus Cinchona native to South America lts natural function is to deter herbivores Historically quinine and its derivatives have been effective drugs to cure malaria Despite many years of quinine use malaria has not been eradicated because of the emergence of parasites that are resistant to quinine Return of the ants After learning all she could about ant mounds our researcher decided to conduct some population surveys of the ants in her research area She recorded the following results for a 2acre plot over a period of 3 years What reactant starting chemical goes into glycolysis a What is the nal fate what happens to it of a amp G What net products what is made result from glycolysis 3C compoundb H and e39 canier c most important d What were combined to make these products amp to make c amp to make d What is the nalfate of c What is the nal fate of d What reactants go into Krebs e fvgrhl39 Cytoplasm But don t forget that amp are supplied by ETS What net products result from Krebs 1C compound f 78c H and e39 camels g Electron most important h transport What were combined to make them in Romfc 7 or 7 to make g 7 amp Mitochondrion What is the nalfate of g What reactants go into Electron Transport System 7 amp 7 amp 76 What is the nal fate of i amp amp What do c and g donate to ETS amp 139 Where do i go next amp What function does 139 serve What are the nal products of Electron Transport System amp which are used in Krebs and Glycolysis which is the most important product which is a by product but is used in osmotic balance and for many reactions and is an important source of this compound for kangaroo rats So wherersthe or used7 So where ls cop Produced7 So where oloes Fotenonehaye an effch So where oloes Glycolysls take place7 So where oloes Krebs Cyele take place7 So where oloes Fleetron transport take place7 So how are hydrogen lons r e H or protons mvolvedm maklng A39I P7 Anolthrs happens when they rnoye frorn the through the rnto the then returnto the through the So tn whteh part of Cellular rewrrauon does Fotenone haye rts effch It does th5 by preyentang the fonnataon ofthe between the anal the whreh are separateolby the rnner rnrtoehondnal rnernbrane Thaneme there are no 710 pass througn the whteh therefore eannot make by chemlsomosls Thls wtll also stop the Krebs Cyele beeause there are no and retumtng from the ETS whleh that supply thern The trme ofhydrogenlons anol eleetrons by the FTSwoulol stop True False Thehydrogenlongradmntwouldmcrease True False Thernanufaeture ofATP wouldstop True False ATP synthase ls an enzyme True False The addtuonal Workbemg done by the ETS wouldgenerate addluonal heat True False
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