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by: Kaley Becker
Kaley Becker
OK State
GPA 3.94

William Handy

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About this Document

William Handy
Study Guide
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Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications

This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaley Becker on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JB 2183 at Oklahoma State University taught by William Handy in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/232830/jb-2183-oklahoma-state-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Oklahoma State University.

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Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications


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Date Created: 11/01/15
ActionProgram Planning The Organization of a PR campaign The word of the day is quotdifferentquot 2 101 Step in the PR process RESEARCH ACTION PLANNING COMMUNICATIONS EVALUATION Like a jigsaw puzzle find pieces of research to create a plan Need to conduct a remedial program or overcome a problem or negative strategy The need to conduct a specific onetime project reinforce an ongoing effect Planning is A way to accomplish an objective of the organization Strategic thinking Deciding where you want to be in the future Deciding how to communicate where you want to be to your audiences Writing the Plan 0 Preparing a document identifying what is to be done and how to accomplish it Outlines or extensive documents 0 Ensures everything has been considered that everyone will understand the quotbig picture Two kinds of Objectives Informational Increasing awareness and understanding about the client Increase awareness of Stillwater Humane Society All objectives are measurable specific and timecentric Motivational Getting public opinion attitudes or behaviors to change Increase the numbers of animal adoption at the Stillwater Humane Society 8 Elements of PR Planning 1 V Situation a Understand the problem why is a PR program needed Objectives a Established objectives based on organization s mission Key Publics Strategy a A statement describing how the objective will be achieved Tactics a How to get the messages out to audiences specific communication tools Timetable a Deadlines are a w for a plan Budget Human Resources a Usually the client says what they can spend and the firm works around it Evaluation a Did you achieve your objectives b What mistakes were made c What would you do the same next time Chapter 7 Communication RESEARCH ACTION COMMUNICATION EXECUTION OF A CAMPAIGN EVALUATION Goals of Communication To Inform To Persuade To Motivate To Achieve Mutual Understanding As a practitioner you must know What constitutes communication How people receive messages How people process information How people change their perceptions What kinds of mediacommunication tools are most effective for certain messages Date 9 Facts 9 Information 9 Knowledge 9 Wisdom Decision 9 Extrapolation Things to consider when planning a message Is the message appropriate Is the message meaningful Is the message memorable Is the message understandable Is the message believable to the recipient Five Objectives for Communications Grunig Message exposure Accurate dissemination of the message Acceptance of the message Attitude change Change in overt behavior Five Communication Elements SenderSourceEncoder Message Channel ReceiverDecoder Feedback needed to be sure it took place Schramm s Model Source Signal Encoder Decoder Destination Behavioral Communication Model Awareness Latent Readiness Available energy that is easily accessed Triggering Event Behavior Paying Attention to the Message Passive vs Active Audience Media uses amp Gratification Theory Triggering Events Other AttentionGetting Concepts 0 Five Senses o Raise Need Level 0 Effects of Order 0 Channeling reinforcing Understanding the Message Communication the act of transmitting information ideas and attitudes from one person to another Writing for Clarity Use symbols acronyms and slogans for clarity and simplicity Avoid jargon Avoid clich s Avoid Euphemisms Avoid discriminatory language Remembering the Message Source Credibility Multiple Communication Channels Message ConteXt Cognitive DissonancePredisposition of Audience Repetition Involvement Acting on the Message The ultimate purpose of the message is to have an effect on the recipient Evaluation Research Action Communication Evaluation The measurement of results against objectives measurable timecentric and specific Purpose of Evaluation To assess the programcampaign To offer accountability to clients and the practitioners So you can do a better job neXt time Helps you and the organization operate more efficiently and effectively Before you can evaluate you must have clearly defined result oriented and agreed upon objectives Then decide how you will evaluate the objectives before Informational objective measurable by determining how the message was delivered and received by the audience do they now understand the info Motivational objective More difficult to accomplish did they do what you wanted them to do How can you prove PR helped achieve objectives Evaluation Questions Adequately planned Message understood More effective PrimarySecondary audiences reached Organizational objectives achieved Unforeseen circumstances Within budget Steps to improve Common methods for PR Measurement of Productions Count how many news releases feature stories photos letters and other publicity pieces were shown by the media and how many were distributed to the media Measurement of Message Exposure Most widelypracticed method Compilation of press clipping and electronicmentions see how much the media runs the message media acceptance Computations Media impressions Hits on the Internet Advertising equivalence Systematic Tracking benchmarking Tracking media placements looking at market penetration type of publication tone of coverage sources quoted and mention of key copy points valuable because Constant feedback during a campaign Also helps gage the competition 0 Request and 800 numbers Cost per Person Determining cost of reaching each person in the audience often used by advertising Cost effectiveness Calculated by taking the cost of the publicity program and dividing it by CPM Audience Awareness Did they understand the message Find out by questioning audience members Do the dayafter call to audience members to see if they retain it Measures ofAttitudes Baseline study looks for changes in attitudes and perceptions before during and after a campaign they graphically show the percent of difference it s preplan postaction Measurement of Action Ultimate organizational objective Measurement of Supplemental Activities Communication Audit Pilot test and split messaging Newsletter leadership 0 Content analysis 0 Readership survey 0 Article recall 0 Readability


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