Chapter 3: Migration
Chapter 3: Migration GEOG 100
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leonard Carey on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 100 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by DR. GEORGE in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO HUMAN GEORGRAPHY in Geography at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 03/26/16
Introduction to Human Geography (Geog100) Study Guide: Chapter 3 Topic: Migration (Chapter 3) Cyclic movements, Periodic movements and examples of each Cyclic movement: Movement away from home for a short period Defined by activity spaces Ex. Commuting Periodic movement: Movement away from home for a longer period Ex. Migrant labor, Military service Transhumance: a system of pastoral farming where ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures. Push and pull factors—what are they, and examples of both. Push factors: Negative factors at the origin (home country) War Famine Natural disaster Unemployment Persecution Economic hardship Civil unrest Pull factors: Positive factors at potential destinations Employment opportunities Educational opportunities Political Freedom Religious Freedom Family Ties The good life Better climate Lower taxes Difference between gross and net migration Gross Migration: the sum of the inmigration and outmigration for a geographic area over time. Gross migration is a measure of the total movement or turnover of population Net Migration: The difference between inmigration/immigration and out migration/emigration. +value = growth, population gain value = decline Ravensteins Laws of Migration Every migration flow generates a return or countermigration The majority of migrants move a short distance. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose bigcity destinations. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults. Migration Transition Geographer Wilbur Zelinski identified a migration transition Comparable to the demographic transition. Stage Demographic Transition Migration Transition 1 Low NIR, High CBR, High CDR High daily or seasonal mobility in search 2 High NIR, high CBR, rapidly declining High international emigration and CDR interregional migration from rural to urban 3 Declining NIR, rapidly declining CBR, High international immigration and declining CDR intraregional migration from cities to suburbs 4 Low NIR, Low CBR, Low CDR Same as stage 3 Internal Migration: Types, Patterns within the U.S; Rural to urban migration (urbanization) Urban to suburban migration (suburbanization) Reverse Migration A) Counterurbanization Movement away from urban areas to rural areas Interregional Migrations Patterns in China Migration from rural areas in the interior to large urban areas of the east coast where factory jobs are plentiful Migration to Tibet and Xinjiang (oil) Transmigration: what is it? Examples of transmigration. The movement of people from the overcrowded areas of a country to more rural areas to reduce the pressure of over population in the cities Transmigration in Brazil and Indonesia Most Brazilians live in large cities near the Atlantic coast. 1960 change of capital from Rio to Brasilia Coastal Areas: Net outmigration; Interiors: Net inmigration Suburbanization in Chicago Chicago population shift Decline of white and African American population (census 2010) Gentrification Renewal and rebuilding Influx of middleclass or affluent people into deteriorating areas Displaces poorer residents International Migrations: Concerns Concentrated in a few places in the host country Immigrants in peak childbearing years Slow assimilation to new country Possible competition for jobs Contrasting socioeconomic characteristics of migrants Poor, uneducated, unskilled vs. Highly educated and skilled Immigration in America: Changing patterns 12.9% of the U.S. population is foreign born (2010 census) Undocumented (unauthorized) Immigrants Estimated 11.2 million undocumented immigrants living in the united states 1 million of whom are children 8 Million are employed 60% from Mexico California and Texas have largest number of undocumented immigrants Diversity and change Immigration in Europe 9.4% of the population of the EU in 2010 were foreign born. Immigrants fill lowstatus, lowincome jobs Addition of Asians and Africans in population Many migrants Muslim Definition of citizenship Guest Workers Migrants allowed into a country to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go “home” one the labor need subsides. Brain Drain—effects on both origin and destination of migrants Relates to educationally specific selective migrations of highly educated and qualified professionals, usually from less developed to more developed countries. Brain: Receiving country Tap various labor pools Highly qualified labor contributing to the economy right away Promotes economic growth in science and technology Not having to pay education and health costs. Drain: Country of origin Education and health costs not paid back Losing potential leaders and talent Long term impact on economic growth Possibility of remittances Many brain drain migrants have skills which they can’t use at home: The resources and technology may not be available. The specific labor market is not big enough. Kinds of Voluntary Migrations Step Migration: When a migrant follows a series of stages, or steps, toward a final destination. Intervening opportunity: at one of the steps along the path, pull factors encourage the migrant to settle there. Chain migration: Further migration to a place where friends or relatives have already settled. Refugees and forced migrations—Difference between refugees and internally displaced people. Refugees No protection until twentieth century Geneva Convention (1951) definition Outside home country Fear of persecution for religious, political, nationality, social group Push factors more compelling than pull factors Est. 19.5 Million in 2014 + 55.9 Million forcibly displaced (UNHCR) Internally Displaced Persons (IDP); People who have been displaced within their own countries. Asylum: The right to protection in the first country in which the refugee arrives. Repatriation: A process by which the UNHCR helps return refugees to their homelands once violence and persecution subside Countermigration: Governments detain migrants who enter or attempt to enter their countries illegally and return the migrants to their home countries.
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