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Chapter 3: Migration

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by: Leonard Carey
Leonard Carey


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Study guide
Study Guide
human geography, migration
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"If Leonard isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!"


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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leonard Carey on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 100 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by DR. GEORGE in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO HUMAN GEORGRAPHY in Geography at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 03/26/16
Introduction to Human Geography (Geog100) Study Guide: Chapter 3 Topic:   Migration (Chapter 3)   Cyclic movements, Periodic movements and examples of each  Cyclic movement: Movement away from home for a short period  Defined by activity spaces  Ex. Commuting  Periodic movement: Movement away from home for a longer period  Ex. Migrant labor, Military service  Transhumance: a system of pastoral farming where ranchers move livestock  according to the seasonal availability of pastures.  Push and pull factors—what are they, and examples of both.  Push factors: Negative factors at the origin (home country)  War  Famine  Natural disaster  Unemployment  Persecution  Economic hardship  Civil unrest  Pull factors: Positive factors at potential destinations  Employment opportunities  Educational opportunities  Political Freedom  Religious Freedom  Family Ties  The good life  Better climate  Lower taxes  Difference between gross and net migration  Gross Migration: the sum of the in­migration and out­migration for a geographic area  over time. Gross migration is a measure of the total movement or turnover of population  Net Migration: The difference between in­migration/immigration and out­ migration/emigration.  +value = growth, population gain  ­value = decline  Ravensteins Laws of Migration  Every migration flow generates a return or countermigration  The majority of migrants move a short distance.  Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big­city destinations.  Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.  Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.  Migration Transition  Geographer Wilbur Zelinski identified a migration transition  Comparable to the demographic transition. Stage Demographic Transition Migration Transition 1 Low NIR, High CBR, High CDR High daily or seasonal mobility in search 2 High NIR, high CBR, rapidly declining High international emigration and CDR interregional migration from rural to urban 3 Declining NIR, rapidly declining CBR, High international immigration and declining CDR intraregional migration from cities to suburbs 4 Low NIR, Low CBR, Low CDR Same as stage 3  Internal Migration: Types, Patterns within the U.S;   Rural to urban migration (urbanization)  Urban to suburban migration (suburbanization)  Reverse Migration  A) Counter­urbanization  Movement away from urban areas to rural areas  Interregional Migrations Patterns in China  Migration from rural areas in the interior to large urban areas of the east coast where  factory jobs are plentiful  Migration to Tibet and Xinjiang (oil)  Transmigration: what is it?  Examples of transmigration.  The movement of people from the overcrowded areas of a country to more rural areas to  reduce the pressure of over population in the cities  Transmigration in Brazil and Indonesia  Most Brazilians live in large cities near the Atlantic coast.  1960 change of capital from Rio to Brasilia  Coastal Areas: Net out­migration; Interiors: Net in­migration  Suburbanization in Chicago  Chicago population shift  Decline of white and African American population (census 2010)  Gentrification  Renewal and rebuilding  Influx of middle­class or affluent people into deteriorating areas  Displaces poorer residents  International Migrations:  Concerns  Concentrated in a few places in the host country  Immigrants in peak childbearing years  Slow assimilation to new country  Possible competition for jobs  Contrasting socioeconomic characteristics of migrants  Poor, uneducated, unskilled vs. Highly educated and skilled  Immigration in America:  Changing patterns  12.9% of the U.S. population is foreign born (2010 census)  Undocumented (unauthorized) Immigrants  Estimated 11.2 million undocumented immigrants living in the united states  1 million of whom are children  8 Million are employed  60% from Mexico  California and Texas have largest number of undocumented immigrants  Diversity and change  Immigration in Europe  9.4% of the population of the EU in 2010 were foreign born.  Immigrants fill low­status, low­income jobs  Addition of Asians and Africans in population  Many migrants Muslim  Definition of citizenship  Guest Workers  Migrants allowed into a country to fill a labor need, assuming the workers will go  “home” one the labor need subsides.  Brain Drain—effects on both origin and destination of migrants  Relates to educationally specific selective migrations of highly educated and qualified  professionals, usually from less developed to more developed countries.  Brain:  Receiving country  Tap various labor pools  Highly qualified labor contributing to the economy right away  Promotes economic growth in science and technology  Not having to pay education and health costs.  Drain:  Country of origin  Education and health costs not paid back  Losing potential leaders and talent  Long term impact on economic growth  Possibility of remittances  Many brain drain migrants have skills which they can’t use at home:  The resources and technology may not be available.  The specific labor market is not big enough.  Kinds of Voluntary Migrations  Step Migration: When a migrant follows a series of stages, or steps, toward a final  destination.  Intervening opportunity: at one of the steps along the path, pull factors encourage the  migrant to settle there.  Chain migration: Further migration to a place where friends or relatives have already  settled.  Refugees and forced migrations—Difference between refugees and internally displaced  people.  Refugees  No protection until twentieth century  Geneva Convention (1951) definition  Outside home country  Fear of persecution for religious, political, nationality, social group  Push factors more compelling than pull factors  Est. 19.5 Million in 2014 + 55.9 Million forcibly displaced (UNHCR)  Internally Displaced Persons (IDP);  People who have been displaced within their own countries.  Asylum:  The right to protection in the first country in which the refugee arrives.  Repatriation:  A process by which the UNHCR helps return refugees to their homelands once  violence and persecution subside  Counter­migration:  Governments detain migrants who enter or attempt to enter their countries  illegally and return the migrants to their home countries.


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