Test 2 Study Guide
Test 2 Study Guide CLAS 1040
Popular in Mythology
Popular in Classical Studies
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Sell on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CLAS 1040 at Tulane University taught by Rebecca Sears in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see Mythology in Classical Studies at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Key Terms Mythology Tetralogy 3 tragedies1 satyr play on the same general mythological story hubris main theme in tragedy hubris results in curses and family violence anthropophagia cannibalism nurse tragedy nurses can be most important maternal figures omphalos quotnavelquot of the world Zeus sent two eagles across the world to meet at its center The Omphalos stones were erected at Delphi archon each of the nine chief magistrates in ancient Athens expiation atonement making amends Apotheosis being raised to godlike stature dramatic irony audience knows things the character does not agon verbal contest between characters ex Apollo vs Thanatosdeath sticomythia characters exchanging short quick lines satyrs men w horse or goat legs tails ears essentially comicunlike centaurs but uncivilized associated with Dionysus thyrsus staff of giant fennel covered with ivy vines and leaves wound with taeniae and always topped with a pine cone Dithyramb ancient greek hymn sung and danced in honor of Dionysys Maenads the raving onesquot immortal female followers of Dionysus seer a person who can see the future mimesis imitation representation in are and literature catharsis process of releasing and providing relief from strong or repressed emotions apotropaic image image intended to ward off evil Iiebestod love death them more typical in Romance than myth the Golden Fleece Skin of a Ram sent by nymph Nephele and husband AthamasKing of Boeotia to rescue her children Phrixos and Helle from being sacrificed Argonaut sailors on the Argoquot Xenia hospitality Aeschylus525455 Fought at marathon and Salamis against Persians Marathon was Athenian army vs all of the Persian army This battle was important for Aeschylus winning made Athens feel superior Salamis was naval battle against Persian army not just Athenians but they led the charge Sophocles496406 most victories of 3 tragedians reputation as religious person connects myth w ritual and cult not usually seen as innovative but added 3rd actor and painted scenery Euripides480406 very innovative stylistically but lead to few victories most successful in terms of reception of work later reputation for pushing boundaries in terms of myth religion 0resteia458 Performed at city Dionysia Last performance there for Aeschylus before moving to Syracuse 3 tragedies1 satyr proteus Agamemnon libation bearers the furies Theme hubris resulting in curses and family Violence About the fate of house of Atreus after Trojan war House of Atreus Proteus God who can change shape at will Mycenae Location for the treasure of Atreusquot a beehive tomg Mycenae supplanted by Argos Agamemnon War hero who returns from Troy ten years late because they committed war crimes He also comes with Cassandra his prize He is killed by his wife and her lover Clytemnestra Wife of Agamemnon who kills him because he sacrificed their daughter Iphigenia Nemean lion lion skin becomes major symbol of Hercules in are wrestled the lion to death Lernean hydra 9 heads 2 grow when you chop one off Defeats it by having a friend Lolaus causterize the stumps this labor doesn t count because he has help Hind of Ceryneia Golden horns bronze hooves sacred to Artemis must capture alive took one year to chase down til exhaustion Erymanthian boar Must bring it back alive encounters Centaurs during the quest Augeus Must clean stables that have never been cleaned diverts rivers to accomplish without any real work Stymphalian birds Birds that eat human esh kills with bow arrow or sling Cretan bull Must retrieve alive Bull sacred to Poseidon and the father of the Minotaur Minosking of Crete later killed by Theseus who also kills Minotaur at Marathon Horses of Diomedes Must capture esh eating horses Belt of Hippolyte Hippolytequeen of amazons belt is special sword belt given to her by Ares He tries with the help of Theseus to get it peacefully but Hera causes peace to fall apart and Hercules must kill Hippolyte they take revenge on Theseus not Hercules Hippolyte Queen of the Amazons Geryon 3 headed monster whose cattle are guarded by Eurytion and two headed dog Orthus Creates pillars of HerculesStraights of Gibraltar return is through Italy Eurytion herdsman who gaurds Geryon s Cattle Orthus twoheaded dogbrother of Cerberus who gaurds Geryon s Cattle Golden Apples Wrestling battle with Antaueusson of Poseidon who draws strength wearth manages to defeat him by holding him off the ground then releases Prometheus from his punishments and tricks Atlas into getting the apples for him Cerberus most dangerous Hercules descends to retrieve Cerberus Hades gives him permission to take Cerberus but no tricks cant drugknock him out etc He managed to sneak up on Cerberus and grab him He and Orpheus are the only heroes to go down and back up on their own Omphale Queen of Lydia enslaves Hercules for 3 years as punishment for killing friend and stealing tripod from Temple of Delphi when he wasn t given the answer he wanted Deianeira wife of Hecules who is carried across river by Nessus and is told by him that the poison Hercules killed him with would act like a love potion Chiron centaur and teacher of Achilles Jason and Aesculapius He is a naturopathic healer and source of Prophecy Alcestis daughter of Pelias the uncle of Jason who volunteers to take her husband Admetus place in death she is then saved by Heracles Admetus King of Pherae who was given by the fates the ability to live past his normal life span if someone were to die in his place Thanatos personification of death in Euripides Alcestic KybeleCybele AKA Aphrodite Agave mother of Pentheus daughter of Cadmus Pentheus Grandson of Cadmus and kind of Thebes killed by Theban Maenads because he doesn t worship Dionysus Eteocles Argive hero with no other claim to fame than this story Haemon not typical Greek man in his reaction to this situation Argo Story of the first ship Capaneus boasted that not even Zeus could defeat him one of the Attackers Parthenopaeus brother of Adrastus son of Atalanta and Hippomenes one of the Attackers Aeolus God of the winds ancestor of Jason Pelias son of TyroPoseidon uncle of Jason kills Aeson and takes the throne while Jason is away getting the golden eece so Jason has Medea kill Prlisd Colchis capitol city of Aia land of the sunEast where the Golden Fleece is Medea Witch who uses magic potion to put dragon to sleep so that Jason can steal the golden eece She always dresses as eastern woman Media is not Greek and Jason sees her as a barbarian Nephele Image of Herea made out of clouds by Zeus in order to deceive Ixion Ixion Son of Ares King of Lapiths father of Pirithous violated xenia driven crazy by guilt and becomes a beggar Forgiven and welcomed to Olympus by Zeus where he decides to rape Athena Punished by eternal torture in tartarus on a wheel Hylas Heracles lover abducted by nymphs Dioscuri Castor and Pollux Argonauts Telamon father of the greater Ajax one of the Argonauts Peleus father of Achilles Argonauts Tiphys The helmsman of the Argos Lynceus has xray vision Argonauts ApsyrtusAbsyrtus Hecate Goddess of MagicWitchcraft associated with moon night dogs crossroads and doorways Receives atypical sacrafices guarded entrance to acropolis in Athens Tantalus Son of Zeus Served his son Pelops to the Gods at a banquet to prove their divinity Only Demeter ate it as she was grieving for Persephone He was sent to Hades while alive condemned to eternal hunger and thirst Pelops Son of Tantalus who was restored to life by the Gods but had an ivory shoulder because the Gods ate it Married Hippodamia when her father arranged a chariot race and he bribed her fathers charioteer to sabotage the chariot father dies and Pelops becomes king of Argos Eponymous hero a person who gives there name to something Pelops Peloponnesian peninsula Hippodamia Wife of Pelops daughter of king of argos AtreusKing of Argos Found out Thyestes was sleeping with Aerope his wife and banished him from Argos Later he invited him back for a dinner party where he served his two sons as dinner and present him with the heads later on Zeus not happy because it breaks rules od hospitality Thyestes Brother of Atreus who seduces Aerope and whose two sons are murdered in revenge Aegisthus Cousin of Agamemnon who gaurds Clytemnestra when he is in Troy They hook up Agamemnons father killed Aegisthus brothers so he wants him dead Calchas Greek seer interpreter of omens Aulisinterprets winds and requires sacrifice of Iphigenia fortells length of war and outcome Cassandra Trojan daughter of Priam and Hecuba Agamemnons war prize which angers Clytemnestra Maybe crazy or mayne just sees things clearly Her heroism she knows and accepts her fate ekkyklema encyclema Platform that could be wheeled out onto center stage door to reveal dead bodies Choephori Libation Bearers slave women who help carry thingd Pylades Orestes best friend who goes with Orestes to kill off his fathers murderers Electraamber AKA Laodice not married because father is dead and brother in exile so no one to arrange marriage wat else role of nurse in tragedy Can be more important maternal figures than mothers psychopompus Hermes that escorts dead to the underworld usually leaves them with Charon at the river styx chthonic underworld dieties Charon ferryman of the underworld libation liquid offering of water wine honey olive oil milk to Gods heroes or dead prosthesis Laying out of the body ekphora funeral procession internment burials either by inhumation or cremation remains remained in an urn tombcult regular offerings at grave sites Unhappy dead present dangers to society especially those killed violently or die unfulfilled ritual mourning practices tear hair personal neglect dark clothes striking arms and slashing cheeks w fingernails Loud shrieks moral ambiguity characters often have no good choices but are they really victims of the Gods Orestes Anthesteria Three day early springtime festival of the Gods Late February name associated with owers Probably celebrated Dionysus rebirth Took last years wine and poured libation then drank it Drinking contests in silence attributed to Orestes pollution from matricide libations to dead spirits wandered streets during festival ritual marriage of Dionysus to priestess Eumenides The kindlyones deus ex machine Mechanical Device for ying in a God Erinyes The Furies female chthonic underworld dieties Concerned with avenging murders within families Zeus Catharsios Zeus the Purifier but Delphic Oracle Apollo often gave advice about purification supplication Ritual request for aid from a God or powerful person usually by clasping knees Semnai holy ones cult at Athens Megaera One of the furies pathos Appeal to audience s emotions for Greeks it is suffering resulting from experience peithoPeitho Pursuasion often personified into a Goddess primary goal of Greek rhetoric anakrisis examination of both sides by magistrate prior to trial to determine if sufficient cause for trial Nessus Centaur who is asked by Heracles to carry Deianeira across a river and Nessus gropes her Heracles shoots him with an arros dipped in Hydra venom Nessus tells Deineira to collect the venom from the wound and use it as a love potion Achelous God of the largest fresh water river in Greece depicted as man headed bull or merman Fought with Heracles over Deianeira Cornucopia Achelous horn that was pulled off by Heracles Centaur Half horse half human all male characterized by excessive violence and lust Created from Ixion and Nephelecloud Pirithous Lapiths Battle at Pirithous wedding feast because they get drunk and try to rape the women at the party Spartoi the men who spring up from dragons teeth planted by Cadmus Autochthony Born form the earth herself referring to the spartoi who fight amongst themselves until only 5 are left alive Magna Mater Great Mother name for Phrygian earth goddess Sophists paid teachers of rhetoric and philosophy viewed negatively by Athenians reputation for not caring about the truth just ability to persuadepeitho someone of their truth Peitho persuasion Sparagmos Maenads tear apart animals with bear hands during worship of Dionysus Deus Ex Machina Dionysus reveals himself opening lines missing but papyrus survives Dionysus says Pentheus deserved the fate Cadmus daughters exiled even though he made them do it Holds Cadmus responsible since he was not more active and he and his wife are turned into snakes Adrastus The silent partner King of Argos fatherinlaw of polyneices traditionally one of the attackers but left out by Aeschylus Tydeus Father of Homerica Diomeded excessively violenthubristic in one version he kills Ismes tries to eat brains of Melanippus as he lies dying costs him mortality Amphiaraus Argive seer married Adiastus sisteEriphyle associated with underground oracle as a result of being swallowed by earthZeus Polyneices younger brother of Eteocles supposed to reign as King of Thebes on alternate years but Eteocles refuses to let him take over Ecphrasis Literary description of a work of art
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