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FSU / Psychology / PSY 3004 / What are the consequences of sex?

What are the consequences of sex?

What are the consequences of sex?



What are the consequences of sex?

€ 3 Study Guide Sop3004 ATTRACTIONY

Segal (1974) Study

- Police trainees were assigned seats . - Asked who their closest friends were after

6 weeks


• Mere-Exposure - the tendency for people to like things

simply because they see or encounter them repeatedly

What are the benefits of helping?

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Careat: Is they already dislike someone,

exposure can increase disliking Chartland i Bargh (1999)

(c=confederate, P=participant) --- and P engaged in interaction

-C's mimicked P's body language (or didn't

ich ald P's like C's - P's more likely to like Cif they mimicked their

A motivational state with the ultimate goal of increasing another's well being.


-Note: we also mimick others when we're attracted Don't forget about the age old question of jmu psychology

to them Matching Hypothesis

- which two people are more likely to be dating

those with similar (or matching physical


characteristics Sex Disserences what is attractive to each sex?

- women

waist-to-hip ratio

• Youth - Men

• Square Jaw 'Prominent chin Don't forget about the age old question of cells have a single dendrite at one end

Heavier eyebrows

Thinner lips Li et al. (2002) -P's told to design their ideal mate with

20 "make collocy" - Given to different characteristics or trants to

pick from * Physical attractiveness, yearly licone, intelligences

Kindness, creativity, sense of humor, etc. - Each mate dollar corresponded to 10 percentile If you want to learn more check out which of the following is the best statement of the principle of original horizontality?

increase in that trait

.E.G., 2 mate dollars spent on attractiveness

results 10o mate van 20th percentile for

attractiveness - men spent the most mate dollars on attractiveness If you want to learn more check out andy siemens

and friendliness


-women spent the most on intelligence and yearly

income - men and women spent an equal camount of nate

dollars on sense of humor - men prioritize attractiveness

women prioritize status wealth Menstrual Cycle influences

-Provost et al. (2008)

women came in aut different points in menstrual If you want to learn more check out uri fashion merchandising


• Rated how attracted they sent toward "point

light walkers" women like status before and after ovmation women like status and Masculinity do


men also prefer women near ovulation - Miller Manner (2009)

men asked to smell a t-shirt worn by women

at different points in their menstrual cycle Then asked how pleasant the smell was Measured testosterone

- Higher testosterone levels = more pleasant smell - - testosterone levels are higher in ovulating women

Parental Investment Theory -(Trivers, 1972)

- Consequences of sex





ISPLIT RESOURCES Best for men= short term mate

Best for women= long term mate Error Management Theory - Hassleton & Buff, 2000

• Is this person sexually interested id me?

• would this person stay committed?

men overestimate sexual interest, but not

commitment - Women overestimate commitment, but not

sexual interest - Imagine you are in a long-term, committed

relationship with someone you love, what would be worse?

a) The person you love has a one-time sexual - encounter with another person of your gender b) The person you love has a lasting, emotionally

intimate relationship with another person of

your gender, but no sea.

60% of men say (a) is worse .83% of women say (6) is worse

CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS Sternberg's Triangle

1. Passion

physiological arousal, sexual attraction important for begginning a relationship

2. Intimacy

Seelings of closeness, sharing, support, mutual

important for maintaining a relationship 3. Commitment

conscious decision to remain in a relationship - Passion decreases over time Caster ~ 1 year) - commitment & intimacy increase over time

The Investment Model

-satisfication: how happy are you with your partner?

Available Alternatives: Are there others who would

make better partners? - Investment: How much have I put into this

relationship? -MacDonald " Ross (1999)

Looked at satisfaction component

· Parents, roommates, and p's made indgements about

relationship quality and how long it would last


achially measured how long the relationship listed

- Roommates were the most acurate -P's judgements correlation with outcome, but


Relationship enhancement - Miller (1997)

.Looks at Available Alternative component

p's relationships viewed slides of - Were they shill in relationships 2 months later

PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR Bystander Effect -tendency to be less likely to help as number of other

bystanders increases - Darley i Lastane (1968)

P's sat Alone in cubicles 'Thought they were participating in a cmversashion with

A other person, 2 other people, or s other people . one person mentions during the conversation that

they're prone to seizures

A few minutes later, they have a seizure

• Did P's help? - only witness was most likely to help los 5 witness world lealt likely to help



Darley i Latane's model of Bystander intervention

1. Notice situation 2 Interpret as emergency

3. Assume responsibility . 4. know what to do

S. Judge that costs outweighed by the benefits - helping is most likely to occur when all s are true Parley and Latane (1968)

Pls completed a questionnaire either alone or in a

room with other people Smoke pumped into the room 'Did p's go get help?

• Alone- 75% went to get help besure the room was

completely filled with smuke with 2 others-70 l. never went to get help

- Diffusion of responsibility: the belief that others

will take responsibility for helping a person in need - - Pluralistic ignorance Costs us. Benefits of Helping







Darley Bassin (1973)

Seminary students tula to learn a sermon and go across _campus to deliver the sermen

. Some P's told *Plenty os time to get there"

some P's told "Already late" P's came across a person slumped over in a doorway

Did they help? -~60% tula "Plenty of time" helped

~ 109% of rushed p's helped Egoistic Haping - helping others for benefits of the self Altruistic Helping helping others for no expected benefit to the sey Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis - Empathic concern (empathy): a feeling of concern for

another person

other-oriented emotion

can occur when we perceive other in need and we

value their welfare - Altruism: a motivational state with the ultimate

goal of increasing another's well-being

Altruistic motivation - Batson et al. (1981)

.C "randomly assigned to receive shocks

Manipulated empathy by making (similar or dissimilar to P


- Psasked if they would swith places witho C

High empathy more likely to help Aversive Arousal Hypothesis

Seeing another person i' distress is unpleasant, so we

help to reduce our own unpleasant feelings Griskevicius et al. (2007) -motivational states may influence herping - some P's imagined going on a romantic date - some p's imagined going to a concert with friend -P's arked how likely they would be to help

non heroic" acts (e.g., volunteering at a homeless Shelter

heroi auts (e.gofighting off a bear with a stics - men more likely to help heroically - women more likely to help via non heroci acts Burnstain et al. (1994)

- Kinship - genetic relatedness - How likely womd you be to hepi _ 'Parent, sibling, cours, aunt, acquesitance? - Everyday chore us. Life-or-Death situation - more likely to her parents, children, and siblings in life

or. Death situation - More likely to help gandparents, uneves, aunts, and - Acquavitables with everyday shares

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