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PSY 250 Exam 4 Study Guide

by: Kristen Shelton

PSY 250 Exam 4 Study Guide PSY 250

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Kristen Shelton
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Covers Chapters 10, 11, &12 Page numbers included of where each topic is found in the textbook
Abnormal Psychology
Deskovitz, Mark
Study Guide
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Shelton on Saturday March 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 250 at Central Michigan University taught by Deskovitz, Mark in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 03/26/16
Exam 4 Review  Covering Chapters 10, 11, 12                                                                                                                                                          Chapter 10 – Personality Disorders I. Traits & Causal Factors of the Different Personality Disorders A. Paranoid Personality Disorder (Cluster A) 1. Experiences feelings of: a. mistrust b. doubts of loyalty c. paranoia d. bears grudges e. has suspicions of others f. thinks that people are out to get them g. guardedness h. see themselves as blameless (Abnormal Psychology p. 334) i. quick to act with anger/violent behaviors (Abnormal Psychology p.  334) 2. Usually arises in early adulthood 3. Impacts their personal functioning 4. Limits their interactions with other people 5. Causal Factors: a. genetic through high levels of antagonism (low agreeableness) &  neuroticism (angry­hostility) (Abnormal Psychology p. 335) b. psychosocial factors include parental neglect & abuse and exposure to  violent adults (Abnormal Psychology p. 335) B. Schizoid Personality Disorder (Cluster A) 1. Experiences feelings of: a. detachment from social relationships b. doesn’t enjoy being around people c. doesn’t have sexual desires d. doesn’t participate in activities e. unable to express feelings (Abnormal Psychology p. 335) f. seen as cold and distant (Abnormal Psychology p. 335) g. lack social skills: seen as loners/introverts (Abnormal Psychology p.  335) h. not emotionally reactive (Abnormal Psychology p. 335) 2. Causal Factors a. dysfunctional beliefs ­ view themselves as self­sufficient loners ­ view others as intrusive ­ “I am basically alone” ­ “Relationships are messy and undesirable (Abnormal Psychology p. 336) b. modest heritability (Abnormal Psychology p. 336) C. Schizotypal Personality Disorder (Cluster A) 1. Experiences: a. acute discomfort b. odd beliefs c. delusional thoughts d. imaginable thinking e. illusions f. odd thinking & odd speech g. suspiciousness & paranoia h. lack of close friends i. lack of confidence j. social anxiety k. maintain contact with reality (unlike schizoid) (Abnormal Psychology  p. 336) l. ideas of reference – the belief that conversations or gestures of others  have special meanings or personal significance (Abnormal Psychology p. 336) 2. Many researchers conceptualize schizotypal personality disorder as a form of  schizophrenia (Abnormal Psychology p. 337) 3. Causal Factors a. prevalence is 2­3% in the general population (Abnormal Psychology p. 337) b. moderate heritability (Abnormal Psychology p. 337) c. impairments in cognitive functioning ­ deficits in ability to sustain attention ­ deficits in working memory (Abnormal Psychology p. 337) d. adolescent schizotypal personality disorder is associated with elevated  exposure to stressful life events & low family socioeconomic status  (Abnormal Psychology p. 338) D. Histrionic Personality Disorder (Cluster B) 1. Experiences: a. dramatic & attention seeking behavior b. uncomfortable when not the center of attention c. exaggerates emotions d. causes problems in relationships with others e. sexually provocative and seductive behaviors (Abnormal Psychology  p. 338) f. speech is vague and impressionistic (Abnormal Psychology p. 338) g. considered self­centered, vain, and concerned about being approved by other people (Abnormal Psychology p. 338) h. seen as overly reactive, shallow and insincere (Abnormal Psychology  p. 338) 2. Causal Factors a. prevalence is 2­3% b. occurs more often in women than men ­ more traits such as over dramatization, vanity, seductiveness,  and over concern for physical appearance in women ­ sex bias in the diagnosis of this disorder c. many don’t believe it is a valid diagnosis d. highly comorbid with borderline, antisocial, narcissistic and dependent personality disorders e. some genetic links ­ involves extreme versions of extraversion and neuroticism f. cognitive aspects ­ maladaptive schemas for the need of attention to validate self­ worth ­ “If I can’t entertain people, they will abandon me” (Abnormal Psychology p. 338­339) E. Narcissistic Personality Disorder (Cluster B) 1. Experiences: a. self­centeredness  b. wants admiration c. seen as full of themselves d. grandiose sense of self importance e. believes that they are special f. sense of entitlement g. interpersonally exploited h. arrogant i. hard to deal with j. unable to see things through other people’s eyes (Abnormal  Psychology p. 340)  2. Two subtypes: a. grandiose narcissism  ­ grandiosity ­ aggression ­ dominance ­ overestimate their abilities & underestimate others abilities ­ braggers (Abnormal Psychology p. 339­340) b. vulnerable narcissism ­ fragile & unstable sense of self­esteem ­ arrogance is just a cover up for their intense shame and  hypersensitivity to rejection & criticism ­ avoid relationships for fear of rejection &/or criticism (Abnormal Psychology p. 340) 3. Causal Factors a. frequently observed in men more than women b. rare with only a prevalence of 1%  c. grandiose narcissism ­ parental overvaluation d. vulnerable narcissism ­ emotional/physical/sexual abuse ­ intrusive/controlling/cold parenting styles (Abnormal Psychology p. 340­341) F. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy (Cluster B) 1. Experiences: a. impulsive b. aggressive c. no remorse or guilt for their acts d. no morals or conscious developed e. ability to exploit and manipulate others f. little regard for safety (Abnormal Psychology p. 353) g. causes crimes & a lot end up in jail h. can’t keep close friends i. low fear j. deficient behavioral inhibition system (Abnormal Psychology p. 359) k. normal/overactive behavioral activation system (Abnormal  Psychology p. 359) l. dominant response set for reward (Abnormal Psychology p. 359)  m. low on empathy (Abnormal Psychology p. 360) n. o. psychopathy – moral insanity ­ lack of empathy ­ inflated & arrogant self­appraisal ­ glib & superficial charm ­ two dimensions:  interpersonal core of the disorder  reflects traits like lack of remorse/guilt, lack of  empathy, superficial charm, self­worth, pathological lying  verbal intelligence  deficits in fear potentiated startle responding  (Abnormal Psychology p. 359) (first dimension)  reflects behavior  antisocial/impulsive acts  social deviance  need for stimulation  poor behavior controls  irresponsibility  parasitic lifestyle  negatively related to intelligence  alcohol abuse related  elevated rates of suicide attempts & completed  suicides (second dimension) (Abnormal Psychology p. 353­355) 2. Causal Factors a. seen in more men than women b. 70­80% of prison inmates qualify for ASPD diagnosis (Abnormal  Psychology p. 354) c. 25­30% of prison inmates qualify for psychopathy diagnosis  (Abnormal Psychology p.354) d. people with psychopathy are 3x more likely to reoffend & 4x more  likely to reoffend violently after prison e. patterns of behavior must have been occurring since the age of 15  (Abnormal Psychology p. 341) f. before age of 15 the person must have had symptoms of conduct  disorder (Abnormal Psychology p. 341) g. Conduct Disorder – occurs in children & young adolescents who show persistent patterns of aggression toward people/animals, destruction of  property, deceitfulness/theft & serious violation of rules at  home/school (Abnormal Psychology p. 341) h. high rates of alcohol abuse/dependence & other substance  abuse/dependence disorders (Abnormal Psychology p. 355) i. genetic factors ­ moderate heritability for antisocial/criminal behavior & for  ASPD & psychopathy ­ environmental influences interact with genetic predispositions  marital conflict/divorce  legal problems  parental psychopathology  physical maltreatment ­ monoamine oxidase­A gene (MAO­A)  involved in the breakdown of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine, dopamine, & serotonin   all of these are affected by maltreatment stress that  leads to aggressive behavior  ­ conduct disorder & ADHD are common precursors ­ high comorbid level for ASPD and alcoholism genetic  involvement ­ less activity in the amygdala during fear conditioning,  sad/frightened faces  (Abnormal Psychology p. 357­360) j. parental rejection/abuse/neglect & inconsistent discipline (Abnormal  Psychology p. 360) k. developmental factors ­ children with an early history of oppositional defiant disorder  (Abnormal Psychology p. 360) ­ Oppositional Defiant Disorder – a pattern of hostile & defiant  behavior toward authority figures that usually begins by the  age of 6 years & followed by early­onset conduct disorder ~  age 9 (Abnormal Psychology p. 360) ­ ADHD: “fledgling psychopaths” (Abnormal Psychology p.  360) l. parent psychopathology ­ employment ­ education/occupation ­ stress events ­ divorce/transitions ­ neighborhood/school ­ ineffective parenting (discipline & supervision (Abnormal Psychology p. 361) m. children difficulty in learning to regulate their emotions  n. show high levels of emotional reactivity ­ aggressive ­ antisocial behaviors ­ frustration ­ anger (Abnormal Psychology p. 362) o. negative emotions ­ fearlessness ­ low anxiety ­ callous/unemotional traits ­ reduced amygdala activation (Abnormal Psychology p. 362) p. sociocultural factors ­ different frequencies of aggressive/violent behavior ­ individualistic vs. collectivist societies  individualistic societies tend to be more likely to  promote some of the behavioral characteristics that  result in psychopathy when carried to the extreme (Abnormal Psychology p. 362) q. ASPD prevalence in U.S. is 1.5­4% ­ lower in Taiwan: 0.1­0.2% (Abnormal Psychology p. 362) G. Borderline Personality Disorder (Cluster B) 1. Experiences a. trouble with maintaining relationships b. scared of abandonment c. attachment issues d. emotional instability e. feelings of emptiness f. extreme emotions: rapid shifts in mood g. hard to date someone with BPD h. highly unstable self­image (Abnormal Psychology p. 342) i. impulsivity – rapid responding to environmental triggers w/o thinking  about long­term consequences (Abnormal Psychology p. 342) j. suicide attempts ­ can be manipulative ­ 8­10% completed suicides k. reckless driving l. gambling sprees m. self­mutilation (cutting) (Abnormal Psychology p. 342) 2. Causal Factors a. 75% of those with BPD have cognitive symptoms ­ short/transient episodes ­ out of contact w/ reality ­ experience delusions ­ hallucinations ­ paranoid ideas ­ severe dissociative symptoms (Abnormal Psychology p. 344) b. 1­2% may qualify for diagnosis (Abnormal Psychology p. 344) c. more women than men (Abnormal Psychology p. 344) d. comorbid rate with ­ unipolar mood ­ bipolar mood ­ anxiety disorders  panic  PTSD ­ substance use ­ eating disorders ­ histrionic PD ­ dependent PD ­ antisocial PD ­ schizotypal PD (Abnormal Psychology p. 344)    e. genetic factors ­ lower functioning of serotonin neurotransmitter ­ disturbances in regulation of noradrenergic neurotransmitters  used in chronic stress conditions ­ decrease activation of parts of brain that inhibit aggressive  behaviors ­ abnormalities in hippocampus and amygdala (Abnormal Psychology p. 344) f. psychosocial factors ­ childhood adversity ­ maltreatment ­ separation ­ loss (Abnormal Psychology p. 344) H. Avoidant Personality Disorder (Cluster C) 1. Experiences a. hypersensitivity b. scared to be criticized c. intense social anxiety d. avoids relationships e. introversion f. desire affection g. often lonely/bored h. do not enjoy loneliness i. feel inept/inadequate j. deficits in ability to experience pleasure k. severe manifestation of social phobia (Abnormal Psychology p. 345­347) 2. Causal Factors a. innate temperament ­ along with emotional abuse, rejection or humiliation from  parents b. social phobia c. heritable (Abnormal Psychology p. 347) I. Dependent Personality Disorder (Cluster C) 1. Experiences a. depends on others b. doesn’t want to be left alone c. needs others to make decisions for them d. submissive e. lack self­confidence f. feel helpless (Abnormal Psychology p. 347) 2. Causal Factors a. 1­2% occurrences in population b. more common in women c. comorbid w/ mood & anxiety disorders d. overlap w/ borderline, histrionic, avoidant PD’s  e. modest genetic influence f. neuroticism g. agreeableness h. authoritarian/overprotective parents i. maladaptive thoughts on needing others to survive (Abnormal Psychology p. 347­348) J. Obsessive­Compulsive Personality Disorder (Cluster C) 1. Experiences a. perfectionism b. inflexible on their morals/ethics c. stubborn d. stingy e. have a strict pattern f. pays careful attention to rules, order & schedules g. careful to not make mistakes h. use time poorly i. difficult time seeing the larger picture j. difficulty relaxing/doing anything fun k. difficulty in interpersonal relationships b/c of devotion to work l. difficulty expressing emotions (Abnormal Psychology p. 348­350) 2. Differences Between OCPD & OCD a. OCPD ­ no obsessions ­ no compulsive rituals ­ have lifestyles characterized by:  over­conscientiousness  high neuroticism  inflexibility  perfectionism b. comorbid with OCD ­ 20%  (Abnormal Psychology p. 349) 3. Causal Factors a. high levels of conscientiousness b. high assertiveness c. low on compliance d. low levels of novelty seeking (avoid change) e. low levels of reward dependence (work excessively at the expense of  pleasurable pursuits) f. high levels of harm avoidance (respond strongly to aversive stimuli &  try to avoid them) g. modest genetic influence (Abnormal Psychology p. 350) II. Different Clusters A. Cluster A 1. Includes: a. paranoid b. schizoid c. schizotypal 2. odd/eccentric people 3. unusual behavior 4. distrust – suspiciousness – social detachment B. Cluster B 1. Includes: a. histrionic b. narcissistic c. antisocial d. borderline 2. dramatic, emotional, erratic behaviors C. Cluster C 1. Includes: a. avoidant b. dependent c. obsessive­compulsive 2. anxiety & fearfulness behaviors (Abnormal Psychology p. 328­329) III. Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder A. Biological Treatment 1. Antidepressants a. most safe b. useful for treating rapid mood shifts, anger, anxiety c. impulsivity symptoms – self mutilation 2. Antipsychotic Medication a. low doses b. improvements in:  depression  anxiety  suicidality   impulsive aggression   rejection sensitivity   transient psychotic symptoms   cognitive/perceptual distortions 3. Mood Stabilizing Medications a. carbazemine b. reduces:  irritability  suicidality  affective instability  impulsive aggressive behavior 4. Drugs are only mildly beneficial B. Psychosocial Treatment 1. Weaknesses are: a. long duration b. relative complexity 2. Dialectical Behavior Therapy – Marsha Linehan – teaching patients to accept  negative affects without engaging in self­destructive/maladaptive behaviors a. individual/group components b. phone coaching c. efficacious treatment d. complex e. lasts several years 3. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy a. Kernberg & colleagues b. strengthening the weakened egos c. integrate positive & negative views of themselves & others into more  nuanced views d. expensive e. time­consuming 4. Mentalization a. Bateman & Fonagy  b. help patients develop skills to accurately understand their own feelings & emotions as well as others c. efficacious treatment (Abnormal Psychology p. 351­352)                                                                                                                                                          Chapter 11 – Substance­Related Disorders I. Alcohol Abuse/Dependence A. Abuse – excessive use of a substance resulting in hazardous behavior or continued  use despite persistent social, psychological, occupational or health problem  (Abnormal Psychology p. 369)  B. Dependence – a marked physiological need for increasing amounts of a substance to  achieve a desired effect. Will experience tolerance towards the substance and severe  withdrawal symptoms when the drug is unavailable. (Abnormal Psychology p. 369) C. Prevalence 1. Major problem in the U.S. 2. Most destructive of the psychiatric disorders a. b/c impact on personal lives & lives of other people 3. ~50% of 18+ are current regular drinkers 4. Native Americans have higher rates of alcohol abuse 5. Asian Americans have lower usage of alcohol 6. ~10% of men 65 years + are heavy drinkers 7. High comorbidity of substance abuse disorders with eating disorders 8. Co­occurs with w/ personality disorders 9. 28.6% of those w/ an alcohol­use disorder have at least one personality  disorder (Abnormal Psychology p. 369­371) 10. Causal Factors a. Biological ­ addictive substances activate areas of the brain that produce  intrinsic pleasure & immediate, powerful reward ­ a person’s biological makeup ­ Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Pathway (MCLP) – the center of the psychoactive drug activation in the brain  controls emotions, memory & gratification  alcohol stimulates this area of the brain and creates  pleasurable feelings  continued use of psychoactive drugs results in  tolerance & dependence on the substance develop ­ heredity plays a role in developing sensitivity to the addictive  power of drugs  higher in men than women  runs in families  children who are born from alcoholic parents rather  than raised by alcoholic parents are at higher risk ­ heritability of personality characteristics  predisposition to alcohol abuse  impulsive  prefers taking high risks  emotionally unstable ­ certain ethnic groups have higher risks than others  Asians have lower risk due to “alcohol flush  reaction”  Native Americans ­ learning factors/influences  exposure to the drug  environment that promotes initial/continuous use (Abnormal Psychology p. 375­377) b. Psychosocial Factors ­ become socially dependent on drug to help them enjoy social  situations ­ failures in parental guidance ­ stressful childhood experiences  physical abuse  sexual abuse ­ personality traits of potential alcohol abusers  emotionally immature  expects a lot from the world  require a lot of praise/appreciation  reacts to failure w/ feelings of hurt/inferiority  low frustration tolerance  feel inadequate/unsure of abilities to fulfill gender  role of male or female  impulsive  aggressive ­ association b/t depression & alcohol­abuse  stronger problems among women ­ trauma  inability to tolerate tension & stress  drinking to relax ­ social successes  increase sexual desire/pleasure  increase popularity & acceptance by peers  seen in young adolescents more ­ trouble with marital/intimate relationships  drinking follows sadness & hostility  begins during crisis periods  one of the most frequent causes of divorce in the  U.S.   two common causes: financial & sexual problems  family relationship problems (Abnormal Psychology p. 377­381) c. Sociocultural Factors ­ “social lubricant”: tension reducer ­ cultural attitudes towards drinking  high in Europeans  French have highest rates of alcoholism in the  world (Abnormal Psychology p. 381) II. Treatments for Alcoholism A. Biological Treatments 1. Medications a. blocking the desires to drink ­ drugs that cause vomiting when ingestion of alcohol occurs  (Antabuse) ­ could be problematic b/c alcohol­based substances (like  lotions) can result in vomiting ­ expensive b. blocking the pleasure­producing effects of alcohol ­ naltrexone ­ reduces cravings for alcohol c. reduce side effects of withdrawal ­ reduces:  insomnia  headache  gastrointestinal distress  tremulousness ­ usually handled in a hospital or clinic setting ­ alleviate tension & anxiety that comes with withdrawal ­ Diazepam & Valium (Abnormal Psychology p. 382) B. Psychological Treatments 1. Therapy a. group therapy b. environmental intervention c. behavioral & cognitive­behavioral therapy ­ aversive conditional therapy – involves the presentation of a  wide range of noxious stimuli w/ alcohol consumption in order  to suppress drinking behavior  pairing the ingestion of alcohol w/ electric shock or  drug that produces nausea ­ “skills training procedure” – imparting specific knowledge  about alcohol, developing coping skills, modifying cognitions  & expectancies, acquiring stress­management skills &  providing training in life skills ­ brief motivational intervention – goal of therapy is to get  alcoholics to reduce alcohol intake without abstaining  altogether  promotes self­control (Abnormal Psychology p. 382­383) C. Controlled Drinking 1. Learn to drink moderately a. more likely to be successful in persons with less severe alcohol  problems (Abnormal Psychology p. 383) b. hard for people that have abused alcohol 2. Alcoholics Anonymous a. free b. sponsor that is always available to contact III. Legal Limit in State A. Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) 1. Considered intoxicated at 0.08%  2. At 0.5% the neural balance is upset & individual can pass out 3. Concentrations about 0.55% are usually lethal (Abnormal Psychology p. 372) IV. Drug Abuse/Dependence A. Prevalence 1. 37% for seniors in high school 2. 35% for college students 3. 34% for 19­28 year olds 4. 27% for 10  graders 5. 14% for 8  graders 6. Most common during adolescents 7. ~10% of the population abused drugs (Abnormal Psychology p. 386­387) B. Opium & Its Derivatives 1. Relieves pain a. morphine b. heroin ­ preferred abused drug ­ injected into the bloodstream ­ very water soluble ­ most euphoric effects 2. Derivatives a. codeine ­ used in cough syrups ­ addictive 3. Effects a. poor nutrition b. not sleeping well c. fluctuating withdrawal symptoms ­ impacts immune system 4. Treatments a. drugs that prevent withdrawal symptoms b. quitting cold turkey  ­ not as effective c. drugs that block the pleasurable feelings of opiates C. Cocaine and Amphetamines 1. Cocaine a. stimulant b. can snort or smoke it c. impacts dopamine ­ floods brain with dopamine ­ pleasurable/enjoyable feelings 2. Amphetamines a. “wonder pills” ­ help people stay awake & alert ­ function at a level beyond normal temporarily ­ WWII soldiers used to ward off fatigue ­ used by night workers, truck drivers, students cramming for  tests, athletes ­ suppress appetite ­ widely prescribed by doctors ­ calming rather than stimulating effect b. effects ­ heighten blood pressure ­ enlarge pupils ­ unclear/rapid speech ­ profuse sweating ­ tremors ­ excitability ­ loss of appetite ­ confusion ­ sleeplessness ­ high levels of abuse  suicide  homicide  assault  other acts of violence c. methamphetamine ­ high power stimulant ­ highly addictive ­ quick & long lasting “high” ­ supplies to make methamphetamine are easily accessible ­ most harmful for your body ­ kills body tissue ­ comprises values ­ brain impairment ­ can be snorted, smoked, swallowed, or injected ­ increases level of dopamine in the brain (Abnormal Psychology p. 390­393) D. Sedatives 1. Barbiturates a. not around anymore b. very small lethal dose ­ rarely prescribed c. powerful sedatives d. used to calm patients and induce sleep e. depressant f. common effects: ­ impaired decision making/problem solving ­ sluggishness ­ slow speech ­ sudden mood shifts g. excessive use increases tolerance h. leads to brain damage & personality deterioration 2. Xanax a. dependent b. builds up tolerance (Abnormal Psychology p. 393­394) E. LSD & Related Drugs 1. LSD a. powerful drug b. ~10,000 in just one gram c. hallucinating impact d. volatile emotions e. low lethal dose rate f. shrooms g. referred to as psychedelics h. also known as “acid”, mescaline, psilocybin i. odorless, colorless, tasteless j. feelings of depersonalization & detachment k. can be extremely traumatic ­ distorted objects/sounds, illusory colors & thoughts can be  terrifying l. flashbacks can occur (Abnormal Psychology p. 394) F. Ecstasy 1. Hallucinogen & Stimulant a. popular party drug among adults b. used for medical treatment for conditions such as: ­ PTSD ­ phobias ­ psychosomatic disorders ­ depression ­ suicidality ­ drug addiction ­ relationship difficulties c. chemically similar to methamphetamine d. experiences “rush” sensation ­ feelings of calmness, energy & well­being follow e. effects can last several hours f. also known as MDMA g. accompanied by: ­ nausea ­ sweating ­ clenching of teeth ­ muscle cramps ­ blurred vision ­ hallucinations h. increasing among college students i. more personality characteristics result as effects ­ more likely to use marijuana ­ engage in binge drinking ­ smoke cigarettes ­ have many sexual partners (Abnormal Psychology p. 395) G. Marijuana 1. Uses a. used to help ease suffering b. increase blood flow c. most frequently used illicit drug 2. Effects a. mild euphoria b. increased feelings of well­being c. heightened perceptual acuity d. pleasant relaxation e. sensations such as drift/floating away f. pleasurable experiences ­ sexual intercourse g. relieve pain/nausea 3. Seen as the safer drug 4. Low lethal dose rate 5. Contains THC (always varies) (Abnormal Psychology p. 396)                                                                                                                                                          Chapter 12 – Sexual Variants, Abuse, and Dysfunctions I. Sexual Variants A. Fetishism 1.  Fetishism – the individual has recurrent, intense sexually arousing  fantasies, urges & behaviors involving the use of some inanimate object or a part of the body not typically found erotic a. feet B.  Transvestic Fetishism 1. Transvestic Disorder – if they experience significant distress or  impairment due to the condition of heterosexual men who experience  recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors that  involve cross­dressing as a female a. during adolescence b. involves masturbation while wearing female  clothing/undergarments C. Voyeurism 1. Voyeurism – has recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving the observation of unsuspecting females who are  undressing or of couples engaging in sexual activity a. “peeping toms” b. masturbates while peeping c. most common illegal sexual activity D. Exhibitionism 1. Exhibitionistic Disorder – a person with recurrent, intense urges,  fantasies, or behaviors that involve exposing his genitals to others (usually strangers) in inappropriate circumstances & w/o their consent a. usually begins in adolescence b. most common sexual offense reported c. associated with greater psychological problems: ­ lower life satisfaction ­ greater use of pornography ­ more frequent masturbation E. Sadism 1. Sadism – person has recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies,  urges, or behaviors that involve inflicting psychological or physical pain  on another individual a. fantasies include themes of dominance, control & humiliation b. bondage and discipline c. 50 Shades of Grey – Christian Grey F. Masochism 1. Masochism – a person experiences sexual stimulation and gratification  from the experience of pain & degradation in relating to a lover;  experiences recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or  behaviors involving the act of being humiliated, beaten, bound or  otherwise made to suffer. a. usually goes hand­in­hand with sadism (S&M) b. 50 Shades of Grey – Anastasia Steele G. Pedophilia 1. Pedophilic Disorder – an adult has recurrent, intense sexual urges or  fantasies about sexual activity w/ a prepubertal child a. generally, 13 years or younger b. nearly all pedophiles are male & victims are 2/3 are female (Abnormal Psychology p. 409­423) II. Sexual Dysfunctions A. Male Dysfunctions 1. Erectile Disorder – inability to achieve/maintain an erection sufficient for  successful sexual intercourse 2. Delayed Ejaculation – persistent inability to ejaculate during intercourse a. occurs in only ~ 3­10% of men 3. Early Ejaculation – “premature ejaculation”; the persistent & recurrent onset of  orgasm & ejaculation w/ minimal sexual stimulation 4. Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder – men who have been distressed/impaired due to low levels of sexual thoughts, desires, or fantasies for at least 6 months B. Women Dysfunctions 1. Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder – dysfunctional low desire &  dysfunctional low sexual arousal a. absent/reduced interest in sexual activity b. absent/reduced sexual/erotic thoughts/fantasies c. no/reduced initiation of sexual activity & typically unreceptive to a  partner’s attempts to initiate 2. Orgasmic Disorder – women who are readily sexually excitable & who otherwise  enjoy sexual activity but who show persistent/recurrent delay in/absence of  orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase & who are distressed by this 3. Genito­Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder – genital pain and muscle tension &  fear/anxiety related to genital pain/penetrative sexual activity (Abnormal Psychology p. 432­439) III. Treatments A. Male Dysfunctions 1. Testosterone injections (Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder) 2. Medications that promote erections (Erectile Dysfunction) 3. Penile implants (Erectile Dysfunction) 4. Behavioral Therapy (Early Ejaculation) 5. Antidepressants (Early Ejaculation) 6. Psychological Treatments such as couples’ therapy (Delayed Ejaculation) B. Women Dysfunctions 1. Raising estrogen levels (Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder) 2. Antidepressant (Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder) 3. Cognitive­Behavioral Interventions (Genito­Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder &  Orgasmic Disorder) 4. Medical Treatments (Genito­Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder (Abnormal Psychology p. 434­439)


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